Evolution of community forestry regimes and decentralization of forest management in Babati district, Tanzania


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Babili, H.I
Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro,
Tanzania. Email: babhili@yahoo.com

Wiersum, F.K.
Forest and Nature Conservation Policy Group,
Wageningen University, the Netherlands. Email: freerk.wiersum@wur.nl

Presentation for the conference on
Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry
Montpellier France
March 24-26, 2010

Published in: Education
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Evolution of community forestry regimes and decentralization of forest management in Babati district, Tanzania

  1. 1. Mount Kilimanjaro is in Tanzania It is the highest Mountain In Africa (5,895m asl)
  2. 2. Evolution of community forestry regimes and decentralization of forest management in Babati District, Tanzania <ul><li>Paper presented at a conference on taking stock of </li></ul><ul><li>smallholder and community forestry: where do </li></ul><ul><li>we go from here? Held on March 24-26, 2010, </li></ul><ul><li>Montpellier, France </li></ul><ul><li>1 Babili, H.I , 2 Wiersum, F.K. </li></ul><ul><li>1 Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, </li></ul><ul><li>Tanzania. Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>2 Forest and Nature Conservation Policy Group, </li></ul><ul><li>Wageningen University, the Netherlands. Email: </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  3. 3. Presentation outline <ul><li>1. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>2. Concepts: community forestry, forest </li></ul><ul><li>management regime (FMR), FMR change processes, drivers </li></ul><ul><li>and pathways </li></ul><ul><li>3. Study area and Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>4. Results </li></ul><ul><li>4.1 Evolution of community forestry in Babati </li></ul><ul><li>4.2 Drivers of forest management regime (FMR) change </li></ul><ul><li>4.3 Pathways of FMR change and resulting mngt. regimes </li></ul><ul><li>5. Discussions </li></ul><ul><li>6. Conclusions </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1.0 Introduction <ul><li>Need for conservation of forest resources and securing livelihoods for the rural people </li></ul><ul><li>State forest management to different forms of involvement of communities (Adhikari et al., 2004; Agrawal and Gibson, 1999). Alternative mngt. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community forestry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralized forest management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participatory forest management (PFM), </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joint forest management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative forest management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community based forest management </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 1.0 Introduction (Cont…) <ul><li>In Tanzania community forestry is popularly knows as participatory forest management (PFM) </li></ul><ul><li>G:Paper presentationTanzania_Background information.ppt </li></ul><ul><li>Two forms of PFM </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joint forest management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community based forest management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>G:Paper presentationPFM in Tanzania_Types.ppt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>By 2006 about 3million ha under PFM (CBFM:1.6mil ha) </li></ul><ul><li>A number of studies, but mostly focusing on individual management regimes </li></ul><ul><li>Little attention given to simultaneous occurrence of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different forest management regimes change processes, drivers for forest management regime change, pathways of forest management regime change </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 1.0 Introduction (Cont..) <ul><li>Objective of the study/paper </li></ul><ul><li>To improve our understanding on evolution of </li></ul><ul><li>community forestry and decentralization of </li></ul><ul><li>forest management </li></ul><ul><li>Research questions </li></ul><ul><li>how community forestry developed at Babati </li></ul><ul><li>how different regime change processes are related to development of multiple forest management regimes? </li></ul><ul><li>what are drivers and pathways for different kinds of forest management regimes change processes? </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2.0 Concepts <ul><li>Community forestry </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Situation which intimately involves local people in forestry activity (FA0, 1978, cited by Fisher, 1995) . </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Regime of common property management that strives to achieve sustainability by linking local people’s social and economic interest with forest conservation (Taylor, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor’s definition because it is consistent with objectives for establishing community forestry in the study area </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2.0 Concepts (Cont…) <ul><li>Forest management regimes </li></ul><ul><li>Common property management regime (Taylor,2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Private property regime (Demsetz, 1967) </li></ul><ul><li>State forestry regime, Traditional management (McCarthy,2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Forest regimes, (Regenvanu, et al ., 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Regime = a set of implicitly or explicit principles norms, </li></ul><ul><li>rules and decision making procedure in governing a certain </li></ul><ul><li>area (Harvey, 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Forest resource regimes: institutional framework for management </li></ul><ul><li>of forests (Kant and Berry, 2001) </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2.0 Concepts (Cont…) <ul><li>Forest management regime (FMR): is an institutional- </li></ul><ul><li>organizational framework comprising a set of rules, </li></ul><ul><li>norms, and actors responsible for management of forest </li></ul><ul><li>resources </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions can be socially embedded, those based </li></ul><ul><li>on culture, social organization and daily practices </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucratic, those formalized arrangement based </li></ul><ul><li>on explicit organizational structure, contracts and </li></ul><ul><li>legal rights often introduced by government or </li></ul><ul><li>development agencies (Cleaver, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations are group of people organized for interests </li></ul><ul><li>or set of goals (Murphree, 1994). </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2.0 Concepts (Cont…) <ul><li>Processes leading to change of forest management regimes </li></ul><ul><li>Centralization concentration of power to central government (Rudqvist, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization any act in which a central government formally cedes powers to </li></ul><ul><li>actors and institutions at lower levels in a political-administrative and territorial </li></ul><ul><li>hierarchy (Agrawal and Ribot, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Deconcentration transfer of power from central government to appointee of the </li></ul><ul><li>central government. Bureaucratic norms remain unchanged (Ribot et al ., 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Devolution involving transfer of power from central government to actors or </li></ul><ul><li>organizations that are accountable to local population in their jurisdiction usually </li></ul><ul><li>through electoral process (Rudqvist (2006; Ribot et al., 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Privatization when government cedes power to private non state actors such as </li></ul><ul><li>private individuals or corporations ((Ribot et al ., 2006 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation occurs when government entrust forest management responsibility to </li></ul><ul><li>non-state actor (Donoghue et al ., 2003) </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2. Concepts (Cont…) <ul><li>Drivers of forest FMR change </li></ul><ul><li>Things that enable or facilitate FMR change </li></ul><ul><li>Pathways: Indicate source of change </li></ul><ul><li>Endogenous when change is from within the </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Exogenous : When change is externally introduced </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3.0 Study area and Methodology 3.1 Study area
  13. 13. 3. 2 Methodology <ul><li>Qualitative methods </li></ul>
  14. 14. 4. 0Results 4.1 Evolution of community forestry in Babati Period Forest management regimes 1. Period of socially embedded institutions Traditional forest management (TFM) 2. Period of centralized state policy State forestry with reservation initiated, Traditional forest management in areas outside forest reserves adopted, social forestry in reserved forests, Private tree planting among few people started 3. Period of ujamaa villagelization Community forestry through communal farm trees planting and private tree planting. Private farm trees promoted. Community forestry extended in natural forests. 4. Period of political and Bureaucratic decentralization CBFM in village forests reserves (VFR) initiated, TFM in VFR adopted. Joint forest management initiated in Babati. Some traditional forests gradually disappearing.
  15. 15. 4.2 Drivers of forest management regime change <ul><li>Bureaucratic </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Change of laws in forest sector and other sector </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization and 2002 Forest Act, Local Government Act of 1982, Land Act of 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Offences Act of 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Government declarations </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Knowledge transfer from national and international actors </li></ul><ul><li>- Vertical knowledge transfer- experience from Asia </li></ul><ul><li>- Horizontal knowledge transfer- Babati District experience replicated in other areas of Tanzania </li></ul>
  16. 16. 4.2. Drivers of forest management regime change (Cont…) <ul><li>Bureaucratic </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) National and international financial support </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral support in Tanzania: SIDA, NORAD </li></ul><ul><li>SIDA (CBFM), NORAD (JFM, CBFM through REDD) </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank support (through TASAF in Tanzania) </li></ul><ul><li>International NGOs e.g. FarmAfrica </li></ul><ul><li>(iV) National and international environmental and development goals </li></ul><ul><li>- Water catchment protection </li></ul><ul><li>- Climate change adaptation e.g. through REDD </li></ul><ul><li>( V) Impacts of programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of central government in forest protection </li></ul><ul><li>Similar finding (e.g. Alden and Mbaya, 2002; Vihemaki, 2005) </li></ul>
  17. 17. 4.3. Drivers of forest management regime change (Cont…) <ul><li>Socially embedded </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Changing local awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Claims of local people against gazzettment process </li></ul><ul><li>Similar findings: Mtwara Tanzania (Sunseri, 2005); Mexico (Asbjornsen and Ashton (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Acquisition of formal education, new religion, </li></ul><ul><li>existence of multiple institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Formal education, religion, multiple organizations providing </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative beliefs and understanding which some people use </li></ul><ul><li>to challenge traditional believes </li></ul>
  18. 18. 4.4 Pathways of FMR change and forest management regimes
  19. 19. 5. Discussion: Relationship between: processes, drivers and pathways of FMR change with resulting forest management regimes Change processes Driver Pathways Regime Centralization Bureaucratic Exogenous National reserves, (Government plantations) Deconcentration Bureaucratic Exogenous JFM Devolution Bureaucratic, Socially embedded Endogenous, Exogenous CBFM Privatisation Bureaucratic Exogenous, Private forest mngt. (Farm trees) Socially embedded Socially embedded Endogenous Traditional forest management
  20. 20. 6. Conclusions <ul><li>Forest management in Tanzania went through different processes of regimes change including centralization, deconcentration, devolution, privatisation, socially embedded processes </li></ul><ul><li>The processes have created different forest management regimes: State forest management, JFM, CBFM, Traditional forest management. For the case of Babati this resulted in existence of multiple forest regimes in same area in stead of having one dominant regime </li></ul><ul><li>However, the multiple regime changes processes are gradually decreasing the importance of traditional forest management regimes </li></ul>
  21. 21. The end: Thank you for listening!