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Multi-level governance and decision-making on forests and PFES in Vietnam

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This presentation was delivered by Anastasia Yang to the Vietnam Forest Protection and Development Fund in Hanoi, 11th November.

Topics discussed include arguments for researching multilevel governance, site selection, and an overview of the global study itself.

Published in: Environment
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Multi-level governance and decision-making on forests and PFES in Vietnam

  1. 1. Multi-level governance and decision- making on forests and PFES in Vietnam Anastasia Yang, Vu Tan Phuong, Tien Nguyen Dinh, et al.
  2. 2. Why research multilevel governance? Village Village Village commune Village Commune District Province National International e.g. donors Horizontal Vertical Key actors: Vietnamese government State companies Forest protection and development fund (FPDF) Rubber plantation companies Hydro power companies Village actors Non- government Organizations (NGO) Government organizations e.g. JICA
  3. 3. Research questions * Based on key informants interviews 1. How do multilevel actors and their decisions relate to land use change on the ground? 2. How has decentralization influenced land use change and local peoples livelihoods? 3. What can existing benefit sharing mechanisms teach us about procedural and outcome legitimacy in land use decisions? Site selection
  4. 4. Global study : lessons on MLG and land use decisions Power Equity Technical Political rights Study overview: • 54 research cases of land use change in 5 countries. • Exploring the case driven stories at ach of these sites • Assess the legitimacy of decision making and outcomes Findings:
  5. 5. Multi-level governance and decision-making on forests and PFES in Vietnam
  6. 6. A Legal study….. Distribution of powers and responsibilities affecting forest, land use, and REDD+ across levels and sectors in Vietnam - Key regulations on PFES are outlined based on Decree No. 99
  7. 7. Province Dien Bien Nghe An District Muong Cha Dien Bien Con Cuong Tuong Duong Commune Hua Ngai Muong Muon Muong Pon Muong Nha Chi Khe Luc Da Thach Giam Yen Na Sites PFES REDD+ pilot project Rubber plantation Community based forestry management Hydropower plant (HPP) developmen t Afforestation business (smaller enterprise – private company) afforestation government program - 147 program Hydropower plant (HPP) development Research Case study sites Increasing emissions Decreasing emissions
  8. 8. Study sites & methods Table 1. Number of interviewees at each government level Study province Province District Commune/local Total interviewees Dien Bien 7 9 33 52 Nghe An 9 11 30 48 Total 16 20 63 100 IntervieweesVietnamese government State companies Forest protection and development fund (FPDF) Rubber plantation companies Hydro power companies Village actors Non- government Organizations (NGO) Government organizations e.g. JICA  Provincial government  District government  Commune government ….And across ministries (smallholders, villager heads, mass organizations)
  9. 9. Forest ownership in Vietnam 2013 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000 3,500,000 4,000,000 4,500,000 1) Forest management boards 2) State owned forest companies 3) Other economic organizations 4) Arm force units 5) Households 6) Communities 7) Others 8) Communal people's committee TotalHaallocatedforestin2013 Natural Forest Planted forest data source: MARD, 2014
  10. 10. Policy, people and land use change Forest land allocation (FLA) Forest & livelihood outcomes Benefit sharing mechanism (BSM) e.g. PFES
  11. 11. Regional research: Provincial PFES, payments & FLA Dien Bien 403.4 billion VND paid 393,340 ha 116.2 billion VND (29 %) Delayed due to FLA Nghe An 94.84 billion VND 562,743 ha (2013), 273,982 ha in 2014 16.14 billion VND (17 %) Delayed due to FLA, HH not received payments Payment collected from users Number of eligible forest hectares (ha) Benefits received Dien Bien FPDF 2014; Nghe An people committee, 2014 . MLG synthesis report Payment distributed Province
  12. 12. PFES Findings: Dien Bien province Hua Ngai + village decide forest regulations + good awareness of forest protection Muong Muon + “Before 2013, there was no boundary among villages…... Under implementation of PFES, there are clear boundaries and [villagers] cannot come to cultivate in land of other villages” (villager 34b). Muong Pon + the Dien Bien PPC decided to re-implement activities on FLA alongside attempts to implement PFES Muong Nha - PFES has not implemented yet due to small amount paid for watershed of Ma River.
  13. 13. PFES Findings: Nghe An province Chi Khe - the Hydro power plant is not yet in operation so eligible households have not received compensation Yen Na - individual household forest boundaries are not yet identified the Fund has just paid for forest owner organization, and group.  “If let’s say, who protect better will get higher payment, I don’t think it would be good, because when we was allocated forest land, there was different in term of conditions of each land plot. Land allocation is not up to our decision” (#41) Luc Da - coordination among PFES with other projects / governmental program is weak and resulted in a poor understanding at the local level (#44).
  14. 14. Multi-level governance and decision-making on forests and PFES in Vietnam Power Equity Resources Coordination rights lack finances, human resources & capacity to meet greater demands of decentralization Lack of coordination amongst policy and programs FLA highly variable –more complicated second time round Forest classification implicates rights, access and benefits
  15. 15. Recommendations Provisions of adequate resources / training at commune/ district government level Legitimate FLA and forest classification are important steps to a more legitimate PFES Benefits need to meet livelihoods needs
  16. 16. Thank you! http://www.cifor.org/redd-benefit-sharing/ With co-financing from: The CIFOR REDD+ Benefit Sharing project is supported by:
  17. 17. Publications Trung, L.Q et al. (2015) The distribution of powers and responsibilities affecting forest, land use, and REDD+ across levels and sectors in Vietnam, occasional Paper, CIFOR http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/OccPapers/OP-137.pdf Yang et al. (forthcoming) Analyzing multilevel governance in Vietnam: lessons for REDD+ through land use change and benefit sharing in the provinces of Nghe An and Dien Bien, occasional Paper, CIFOR Myers et al (2015) Benefit sharing in context. CIFOR InfoBrief 118. https://www.google.com/search?q=benefit+sharing+in+context&oq=benefit+sharing+in+context&aqs=chrome..69i57j69i60.3778j0j7&sourceid=c hrome&es_sm=122&ie=UTF-8 Ravikumar et al (2015) Multilevel governance challenges in transitioning towards a national approach for REDD+: evidence from 23 subnational REDD+ initiatives. International Journal of the Commons 9(2) http://www.cifor.org/library/5703/multilevel-governance-challenges-in-transitioning-towards-a- national-approach-for-redd-evidence-from-23-subnational-redd-initiatives/ Ravikumar et al (2015) Project Guide and Methods Training Manual. CIFOR (https://www.google.com/search?q=ravikumar+project+guide&oq=ravikumar+project+guide&aqs=chrome..69i57j69i59.3352j0j4&sourceid=chrome& es_sm=122&ie=UTF-8) - Futher details on research methods And more….. Project website: http://www.cifor.org/redd-benefit-sharing/ Contact a.yang@cigar.org

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