Decentralised Forest Governance,Institutions and Livelihoods in Odisha-AStudy of Evolution of Policy Process and Politics Bishnu Prasad Mohapatra, Visiting FellowResearch Unit For Livelihoods and Natural Resources(RULNR) Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad - 500 016
Outline of the Proposal Introduction Policy Process, Politics and Livelihoods-The Issues Statement of Problem Review of the Literature Theoretical Framework Key Research Questions Objectives Data-base and Methodology Policy Process Framework and Key Indicators Expected Outcome
INTRODUCTION In Forest Sector, Governance Issues have attained prominence because of changing Policies, Political Scenario and emergence of new institutions as an outcome of policy process and over emphasising politics in such policy process. In the case of Odisha, forest policy process(formulation and implementation) is believed to be coincided with the emergence of neo socio-political orders, emerging economic and ecological concerns, institutional arrangements and behavior of actors thereby argued as a part of political process. The Forest Governance and Policies in the State starting from colonial era to current period have witnessed transition in institutional arrangements, sustainable forest management and involvement of community in management regime. Decentralisation has become a major policy in the State Forestry Sector.
Continued….. It is argued that there are four different trajectories of State intervention with regard to managing forest or forest governance in Odisha The Wildlife Act and the consequent expansion of Protected Area Network. The Forest Conservation Act(FCA)-which restricting forest land to non-forest use . The Joint Forest Management(JFM)-which is about making forest department more participatory. The FRA-which has recognized individual and community rights over forest and forest land. Forest Resources have a far larger role in sustaining livelihoods and in the case of Odisha, it is believed that the contribution of forest resources to tribal livelihoods are immense. However policy process in State Forest Governance largely ignored the interest of forest dependent communities, except in the case of FRA, despite the fact that the policy process has gradually moved to redress the livelihood issues of dependent communities.
FOREST POLICY PROCESS, POLITICS AND LIVELIHOODS- THE ISSUES Forest Policy Process in Odisha since Colonial Period considered as a rational process with a firm conviction that Forest Resources are State Property. However, keeping the rapid depletion of forest resources and increasing population pressure, the State forest policy has taken a major shift and gradually switched over towards community conservation and participation mode. In such process(policy shift) the issue of livelihood of forest dwellers are believed to be shaped gradually and such changes happened in the case of FRA apart from NTFP and Kenduleaf management policies. So the current study is designed to understand the nature of such changes with a broad research question that why such Change?
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Forest policy analysis in the case of Odisha has provided limited space to understand the nature of policy process and their implications. Forest Policy process since last few years have been changed considerably in which both the State and Non-State actors have played major role. Livelihood issues gradually emerged as a part of forest policy process with the involvement of Non-State Actors which has turned policy process as a political rather than rational process. Emergence of PFM in 1988 and FRA in 2006 are believed to be part of pro-poor policy reforms. Continuity and Change in the State Forest Policy in different period of time has not been reflected in earlier studies .Important policy specific and period specific developments are to be taken into consideration in the proposed study.
REVIEW OF LITERATUREAvailable Literature Key Arguments AuthorsTheories of Policy Different Models like Elite Ostorm, Anderson(2006)Process Theory, Group Theory, Jahariadis, Jones et Institutionalism, Rational al(1984), Sabatier(1999), Choice Theory, Political Jenkins-Smith, Berry and System Theory and Policy Berry(1999), Adam and Process Model helps to Kris. understand policy making process. Two Broad aspects of policy analysis i.e. improve policy and policy Making and how policy has been made highlighted.Rational Vs Political It is argued that Policy process Clay andNature of Policy is a rational process and the Schaffer(1984)Juma andProcess policy formulation and Clarke(1995), implementation are separated Sutton(1999), Mooij(2003) from each other. However, and Bose(2004) researchers have justified that policy process is a political process as the process
Available Literature Key Arguments AuthorsPolicy Reforms and Continued…… Pro -poor Policy Reforms in Saxena(1993), DeTheir Implications on Forest Governance is argued an Haan(2006),Forest Governance outcome of widespread failure of Hobely(2007)and Livelihood Governments to arrestSystem deforestation, control illegal activities or generate the desired of benefit. Policy reforms in Forest Governance with appropriate livelihood opportunity is argued to be addressed income need of forest dwellers.Forest Governance In the case of India and Odisha, it Dey(1976),and Nature of Forest argued that the Forest Policy Guha(1983),Policies process have been gradually Hiedenheimer(1990), shifted with increasing and Bose(2010) involvement of Non-State Actors which created scope to understand the nature of policy process in a change political scenario. Why the particular policy emerged, how emerged and why , how and to what effect Governments pursue particular
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Key Conceptual Areas Major Focal PointsPolicy Process and Different Policy process as a tool to understand the natureAspects of Policy Process of Policy formulation and ImplementationAnalysis emerged to understand the different stages of policy formulation and implementation in the context of prevailing socio-political orders in a State. The Policy process study is based on empirical questions of Why, How and by Whom.The Policy Cycle-An Approach Policy as a two way process linked with causeto Understand Policy Process and effect. Policy Cycle helps to understand how policy has been made and how distinctions can be made between different stages in policy making process.Policy Process and Politics Both the Linear and Political policy process model are important to understand nature of power game, lobby , negotiation, Conflict and Cooperation. Involvement of State and Non-State Actors and the process of interaction and bargaining are important part of politics. Political
FOREST POLICIES AND POLITICS- THE CASE OF ODISHA Major State Forest Period Policy Implications Policies The Indian Forest Act 1927 •Forest Policy in the State was based on Indian Forest Act of 1927 . •The Primary focus was Commercial Use of Forest Resources. No Focus on Community Rights and Livelihoods. The Wild Life Protection 1974 •Sanctuaries and National Parks Created Rule which further restricted community rights. •No effort was taken on promoting Community Participation in Forest Management. •Community led Forest Management System evolved. The Orissa Forest Act 1972 •Focus was given to Reorganize Forest Bureaucracy in the State for Strengthening State Legitimacy. •Usufruct Rights Restricted especially in the case of Shifting Cultivation and Collection of MFP.
Major State Forest Policies Period Continued….. Policy ImplicationsThe Forest 1980 • Restriction imposed on diversion of forestConservation Act land. •Amendment of Orissa Forest Act of 1972. •No emphasis on rights of Forest Dwellers. •Politics of Conservation and Control further glorified.The Orissa Village 1985 •Emphasis was given to involve Villages inForest Rule protection of degraded Forests. •Community involvement in Management of Forests got legal sanction. •Livelihood Rights gradually evolved.Joint Forest 1990 •The State Government’s Resolution acceptedManagement Resolution JFM as a Strategy of Forest Management. •Accepted Community Access to Forest Resources for Sustenance of Livelihoods.The Orissa Minor Forest 2002 •Rights of MFP (Administration) vested toProduce Administration PRIs.Rule •MSP and Trading Rights provided to local people. •Politics of NTFP became decentralized.
KEY RESEARCH QUESTIONS Why and how policies in forest governance in post independence period emerged and why there was a focus on decentralisation? Is there any link between policy process and institutions that have been developed? What are the changing nature of policy process and why there is a focus on Livelihood? How the policy process was linked with political process and what is the role of different State and Non-State Actors in the policy process?
OBJECTIVES To understand the nature of policy process i.e. process of policy development and process of policy implementation in Odsiha forest governance. To understand the role of formal and informal institutions in policy process in Forest Sector and how such institutions influenced framing and implementing forest policies in the State. To explore the link between forests policy process and political factors that influences such process with regard to nature of political parties, leadership and ideological base. To understand the significance of livelihood approach to the policy process in Odisha forest governance and what political factors motivated in this regard. To understand the case of Forest Rights Act, 2006 as an outcome of pro-people policy measures and suggest strengthening policy process in Forest sector in Odisha.
DATA-BASE AND METHODOLOGY Database and Methodology Exploration of Both the Secondary and Primary Data Secondary Data from Government Records like Acts, Rules, Government Orders and Legislative Proceedings Reports available at District/Division Level Forest Offices Primary Data through Key Informants’ Interview with Government Officials, Forest Bureaucrats, Legislators and Leaders/Members of Civil Society, JMF and CFM. Content Analysis of Policy Related Developments, Legislative Proceedings. Desk Review of Policy Documents, Archive Materials etc. Review of Articles Published in Different Journals, Books and Monographs.
POLICY PROCESS FRAMEWORK AND KEY INDICATORS • When and • Why •Process • Key How Policy ImplemAgenda •Streams Formula •Involveme Legitima Arguments ImplementedSetting nt of tion •Political entation • Role of of Agenda tion Different Actors Factors Actors
EXPECTED OUTCOME Understanding Forest Policy Process: The study will help to understand policy process in Odisha’s Forestry Sector. It will help to identifying policy gaps. Academic Outcome: The findings of the study will be published as Working Paper and Monograph. Findings will also publish in academic Journals and share through conference and seminars.
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Reference Patnaik,SK,2009: Forest and Tribal Livelihood in AB Ota and KK Patnaik(eds), Two Tribal Friendly Acts and their Implications, SCSTRTI, Bhubaneswar. Sutton, Rubeka, 1999: The Policy Process: An overview, Overseas Development Institute, London (working paper 118). Sabatier,Paul A.1999: Theories of the policy process, University of California, Davis. Sarap, Kailash,2007: Forests and Livelihoods in Orissa in Oliver Springate-Baginski and Piers Blaikie(eds) Forests, People and Power, the Political Ecology of Reforms in South Asia with Earthscan, London. Webb.Edward.L. 2007: Forest Policy as a Changing context in Asia in Edward L.Webb and Ganesh P.Shivakoti (eds.) Decentralization, Forests and Rural Communities: Policy Outcomes in South and Southeast Asia in Sage Publication.