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LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE


     Reported by:Khalil Darvishali

SUBMITET TO : Dr. Melodina C. Esteban



                         khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   1
Definition :
Leader :
is person who influence the people or the group
towards achievement of goal.
 Management :
Accomplishment of work trough efforts of other
people.  Work done from people.   Process of
planning, organizing, controlling, to determine
and accomplish the objective.  Minimum input
and max output

                             khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   2
   Management
   This is the process of setting objectives and
    making the most efficient use of financial,
    human and physical resources to achieve these
    objectives. Key tasks include planning, control
    and co-ordination.
   Leadership
   Influencing others to achieve certain aims or
    objectives. Effective leadership skills can help a
    manager to carry out their duties


                                  khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   3
    Managing a process of change in an
    organization can be a highly complex task
    and is often essential for effective
    organizational development




                               khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   4
   change may focus on 1 of 4 subsystems in an
    organization:
   Structure - levels of hierarchy, spans of
    authority, centralisation.
   Technology - complexity, degree of employee
    usage, operator control & responsibility.
   People - values, beliefs, attitudes, motives,
    drives, competencies.
   Task - job design, repetitiveness, physical &
    cognitive demands, autonomy & discretion.

                               khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   5
C=DxMxP>R
C  -Change
 D -Dissatisfaction
 M -Change Model (Vision)
 P -Process
 R -Resistance




                     khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   6
   Dissatisfaction –Followers who are relatively
    content are not apt to change; malcontents are
    much more likely to do something to change the
    situation – this can be positive or negative.‡
   Follower’s emotions are fuel for change and
    change often requires a considerable amount of
    fuel.
   The key for leadership practitioners is to
    increase dissatisfaction to the point where
    followers are inclined to take action, but not so
    much that they decide to leave the organization

                                  khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   7
   Model -four components
   Environmental scanning
   Vision
   Identification of needed changes
   New goals




                                khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   8
   Process -Development and execution of the
    change plan.

   Outline of sequence of events,deliverables,
    responsibilities,timelines, metrics, and
    feedback mechanisms.

   Inability to execute major reason for
    executive failure


                                 khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   9
   Frustrations caused by expectingtoo much

   Fear of loss -power, relationships,rewards,
    competence, identity.




                                khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   10
khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   11
   Enthusiasm and passion
   Greek word meaning “divinely inspired gift”.
   Charisma is a positive and compelling quality
    of a person that makes many others want to
    be led by that person.
   Charisma is based on perceptions




                                khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   12
     it is leadership based on the leader's ability
    to communicate and behave in ways that
    reach followers on a basic, emotional way, to
    inspire and motivate.

   It's difficult to identify the characteristics that
    make a leader "charismatic", but they
    certainly include the ability to communicate
    on a very powerful emotional level, and
    probably include some personality traits.


                                    khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   13
   Charismatic leaders are able to use their
    personal charm to get things done. This can
    be an extremely powerful way to lead others.
    In fact, such strong charismatic influence can
    be achieved over followers that these leaders
    can make certain individuals accomplish
    some pretty fantastically tasks.




                                 khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   14
khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   15
1-Vision – future oriented, perceive
fundamental discrepancies, vision to overcome
present shortcomings.
 Vision is often collaborative. Values serve as
  moral compass.
 Leader’s vision helps followers interpret
  events and actions in terms of a common
  perceptual framework.




                              khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   16
2-Rhetorical skills – gifted ability to share
vision.
 heighten follower’s emotions
 Inspire followers
 Metaphors, analogies, stories Not logical
  argument.




                                khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   17
3-Image and Trust –
 unshakable self-confidence
 moral conviction,
 personal example,
 self-sacrifice,
 unconventional tactics or behavior.




                              khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   18
4-Personalized Leadership –
 Strong personal bonds with followers
 Sensitive to emotional states of followers
 Emotionally expressive (non-verbal behavior)
 Empower followers by building self-efficacy




                             khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   19
1-Identification with Leader & Vision –
 Strong affection for leader
 Sharing of beliefs
 See implementation of vision as a solution to
  their problems.
 Need for approval way beyond contract
  relationship
 Charismatic leaders capitalize on
  dissatisfaction


                              khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   20
2-Heightened Emotions -
 Increased levels of effort and performance
 Polarizing effect


3-Willing Subordination -
 Deference to leader’s authority
 Leader can do no wrong
 Unquestioned authority


4-Feelings of Empowerment –


                                khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   21
1-Crises –
 Followers who are content see little need for
  charismatic leader.
 Allows leaders to break the rules




2-Task Interdependence –




                              khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   22
   Transactional leadership occurred when
    leaders and followers were in some type of
    exchange relationship in order to get needs
    met.(rewards and punishments)

   The second form of leadership is
    transformational leadership, which serves to
    change the status quo by appealing to
    followers’ values and their sense of higher
    purpose.


                                khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   23
   See themselves as change agents
   Visionaries who trust intuition
   Risk takers, but not reckless
   Have established core values
   Exceptional cognitive skills
   Believe in people and sensitive to their needs
   Flexible, open, life-long learners



                                 khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   24
   Accepts Organizational Goals
   Uses External Motivators
   Works Within Existing System
   Takes Action
   Directive
   Dominating
   Action-Oriented




                              khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   25
All transformational leaders are charismatic,



                    But



      not all charismatic leaders are
             transformational.



                            khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   26
   Much of what we know about the leader,
    follower, and situational characteristics
    associated with charismatic or transformational
    leaders comes from research on Bass's Theory of
    Transformational and Transactional Leadership.




                                khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   27
   Bernard M. Bass (1985), extended the work of
    Burns (1978) by explaining the psychological
    mechanisms that underlie transforming and
    transactional leadership. Bass introduced the
    term "transformational" in place of
    "transforming." Bass added to the initial
    concepts of Burns (1978) to help explain how
    transformational leadership could be
    measured, as well as how it impacts follower
    motivation and performance


                                khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   28
   Transformational leadership can be observed in all
    countries, institutions, and organizational levels,
    but was more prevalent in public institutions and at
    lower organizational levels.
   Transformational leadership is a significantly better
    predictor of organizational effectiveness than
    transactional or laissez-faire leadership.
   Laissez-faire leadership was negatively correlated
    with effectiveness.
   Possible for leaders to systematically develop their
    transformational and transactional leadership skills.
   The fact remains that charisma ultimately exists in
    the eyes of the beholder.


                                    khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   29
   http://www.scribd.com
   http://www.unfortu.net
   http://leadershipchamps.wordpress.com
   http://www.money-zine.com/Career-Development
   http://leadertoday.org/faq/charisma.htm
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transactional_leadership
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformational_leadership
   http://www.strategosinc.com/leadership_transactional.htm
   http://www.scribd.com
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformational_leadership
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transactional_leadership




                                                 khalil darvishali   10/19/2012   30

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Leadership and change

  • 1. LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE Reported by:Khalil Darvishali SUBMITET TO : Dr. Melodina C. Esteban khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 1
  • 2. Definition : Leader : is person who influence the people or the group towards achievement of goal.  Management : Accomplishment of work trough efforts of other people.  Work done from people. Process of planning, organizing, controlling, to determine and accomplish the objective. Minimum input and max output khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 2
  • 3. Management  This is the process of setting objectives and making the most efficient use of financial, human and physical resources to achieve these objectives. Key tasks include planning, control and co-ordination.  Leadership  Influencing others to achieve certain aims or objectives. Effective leadership skills can help a manager to carry out their duties khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 3
  • 4. Managing a process of change in an organization can be a highly complex task and is often essential for effective organizational development khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 4
  • 5. change may focus on 1 of 4 subsystems in an organization:  Structure - levels of hierarchy, spans of authority, centralisation.  Technology - complexity, degree of employee usage, operator control & responsibility.  People - values, beliefs, attitudes, motives, drives, competencies.  Task - job design, repetitiveness, physical & cognitive demands, autonomy & discretion. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 5
  • 6. C=DxMxP>R C -Change  D -Dissatisfaction  M -Change Model (Vision)  P -Process  R -Resistance khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 6
  • 7. Dissatisfaction –Followers who are relatively content are not apt to change; malcontents are much more likely to do something to change the situation – this can be positive or negative.‡  Follower’s emotions are fuel for change and change often requires a considerable amount of fuel.  The key for leadership practitioners is to increase dissatisfaction to the point where followers are inclined to take action, but not so much that they decide to leave the organization khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 7
  • 8. Model -four components  Environmental scanning  Vision  Identification of needed changes  New goals khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 8
  • 9. Process -Development and execution of the change plan.  Outline of sequence of events,deliverables, responsibilities,timelines, metrics, and feedback mechanisms.  Inability to execute major reason for executive failure khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 9
  • 10. Frustrations caused by expectingtoo much  Fear of loss -power, relationships,rewards, competence, identity. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 10
  • 11. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 11
  • 12. Enthusiasm and passion  Greek word meaning “divinely inspired gift”.  Charisma is a positive and compelling quality of a person that makes many others want to be led by that person.  Charisma is based on perceptions khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 12
  • 13. it is leadership based on the leader's ability to communicate and behave in ways that reach followers on a basic, emotional way, to inspire and motivate.  It's difficult to identify the characteristics that make a leader "charismatic", but they certainly include the ability to communicate on a very powerful emotional level, and probably include some personality traits. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 13
  • 14. Charismatic leaders are able to use their personal charm to get things done. This can be an extremely powerful way to lead others. In fact, such strong charismatic influence can be achieved over followers that these leaders can make certain individuals accomplish some pretty fantastically tasks. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 14
  • 15. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 15
  • 16. 1-Vision – future oriented, perceive fundamental discrepancies, vision to overcome present shortcomings.  Vision is often collaborative. Values serve as moral compass.  Leader’s vision helps followers interpret events and actions in terms of a common perceptual framework. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 16
  • 17. 2-Rhetorical skills – gifted ability to share vision.  heighten follower’s emotions  Inspire followers  Metaphors, analogies, stories Not logical argument. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 17
  • 18. 3-Image and Trust –  unshakable self-confidence  moral conviction,  personal example,  self-sacrifice,  unconventional tactics or behavior. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 18
  • 19. 4-Personalized Leadership –  Strong personal bonds with followers  Sensitive to emotional states of followers  Emotionally expressive (non-verbal behavior)  Empower followers by building self-efficacy khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 19
  • 20. 1-Identification with Leader & Vision –  Strong affection for leader  Sharing of beliefs  See implementation of vision as a solution to their problems.  Need for approval way beyond contract relationship  Charismatic leaders capitalize on dissatisfaction khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 20
  • 21. 2-Heightened Emotions -  Increased levels of effort and performance  Polarizing effect 3-Willing Subordination -  Deference to leader’s authority  Leader can do no wrong  Unquestioned authority 4-Feelings of Empowerment – khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 21
  • 22. 1-Crises –  Followers who are content see little need for charismatic leader.  Allows leaders to break the rules 2-Task Interdependence – khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 22
  • 23. Transactional leadership occurred when leaders and followers were in some type of exchange relationship in order to get needs met.(rewards and punishments)  The second form of leadership is transformational leadership, which serves to change the status quo by appealing to followers’ values and their sense of higher purpose. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 23
  • 24. See themselves as change agents  Visionaries who trust intuition  Risk takers, but not reckless  Have established core values  Exceptional cognitive skills  Believe in people and sensitive to their needs  Flexible, open, life-long learners khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 24
  • 25. Accepts Organizational Goals  Uses External Motivators  Works Within Existing System  Takes Action  Directive  Dominating  Action-Oriented khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 25
  • 26. All transformational leaders are charismatic, But not all charismatic leaders are transformational. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 26
  • 27. Much of what we know about the leader, follower, and situational characteristics associated with charismatic or transformational leaders comes from research on Bass's Theory of Transformational and Transactional Leadership. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 27
  • 28. Bernard M. Bass (1985), extended the work of Burns (1978) by explaining the psychological mechanisms that underlie transforming and transactional leadership. Bass introduced the term "transformational" in place of "transforming." Bass added to the initial concepts of Burns (1978) to help explain how transformational leadership could be measured, as well as how it impacts follower motivation and performance khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 28
  • 29. Transformational leadership can be observed in all countries, institutions, and organizational levels, but was more prevalent in public institutions and at lower organizational levels.  Transformational leadership is a significantly better predictor of organizational effectiveness than transactional or laissez-faire leadership.  Laissez-faire leadership was negatively correlated with effectiveness.  Possible for leaders to systematically develop their transformational and transactional leadership skills.  The fact remains that charisma ultimately exists in the eyes of the beholder. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 29
  • 30. http://www.scribd.com  http://www.unfortu.net  http://leadershipchamps.wordpress.com  http://www.money-zine.com/Career-Development  http://leadertoday.org/faq/charisma.htm  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transactional_leadership  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformational_leadership  http://www.strategosinc.com/leadership_transactional.htm  http://www.scribd.com  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformational_leadership  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transactional_leadership khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 30