Federal bureaucracy

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Federal bureaucracy

  1. 1. Chapter 9 The Executive Branch and the Federal Bureaucracy To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas Editions American Government: Roots and Reform , 10th edition Karen O ’Connor and Larry J. Sabato  Pearson Education, 2009 
  2. 2. The Roots of Bureaucracy <ul><li>Foreign Affairs, War, Treasury first departments. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in early 1800s with Post Office. </li></ul><ul><li>Patronage and the spoils system become common. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War spawns another expansion. </li></ul><ul><li>Pendleton Act is beginning of civil service system . </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as merit system . </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of independent regulatory commissions . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Twentieth-Century Bureaucracy <ul><li>Growing number of cabinet departments. </li></ul><ul><li>Need for a larger government to support wars . </li></ul><ul><li>New Deal and Great Society. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Modern Bureaucracy <ul><li>More than 2.7 million employees . </li></ul><ul><li>Most are selected based on merit. </li></ul><ul><li>Also have high-level appointees. </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety of skills represented. </li></ul><ul><li>Less diverse than America . </li></ul><ul><li>Scattered throughout D.C. and regional offices . </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of outside contractors. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Formal Organization <ul><li>Cabinet departments handle broad, lasting issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Headed by secretaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Government corporations act like businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent executive agencies handle services. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrower than Cabinet department, independent. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent regulatory commissions watch industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to be free from partisan pressure. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Government Workers and Politics <ul><li>Hatch Act sets first boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Employees Political Act is current standard. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Characteristics of Bureaucracy <ul><li>Chain of command from top to bottom. </li></ul><ul><li>Division of labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear lines of authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Merit system. </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity. </li></ul>
  8. 8. How the Bureaucracy Works <ul><li>Congress creates agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Main job is implementation of laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Policy made in iron triangles or issue networks . </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing use of interagency councils . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Making Policy <ul><li>Administrative discretion allows a lot of latitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Rule-making is a quasi-legislative process. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal procedure for making regulations . </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative adjudication is quasi-judicial process. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to settle disputes between two parties. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Agency Accountability <ul><li>Unclear who agencies should be accountable to. </li></ul><ul><li>Presidents try to make the right appointments. </li></ul><ul><li>Can also shape policy through executive orders . </li></ul><ul><li>Congress can use oversight powers and funding. </li></ul><ul><li>Police patrol v. fire alarm oversight. </li></ul><ul><li>Judiciary can review regulations. </li></ul>
  11. 11. AV- Growth of Government  Back
  12. 12. Figure 9.1- Civilian Employment  Back
  13. 13. Figure 9.2- Employee Characteristics  Back
  14. 14. Figure 9.3- Agency Regions  Back
  15. 15. Figure 9.4- The Executive Branch  Back
  16. 16. Figure 9.5- An Iron Triangle  Back
  17. 17. Figure 9.6- Rulemaking  Back
  18. 18. Table 9.1- FEPA  Back
  19. 19. Table 9.2- Agency Accountability  Back

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