Early Human Migrations 1st Migration, 38,000-1800 BCE 2nd Migration, c. 10,000-4,000 BCE 3rd Migration, c. 8,000-3,000 BCE
Eastern Woodland Cultures■ Along the Atlantic Coast of North America, Native Americans lived in smaller, mobile bands: –Farming was supplemented by hunting and gathering –Eastern woodland Indians were likely the first natives to be encountered by English settlers
Locations of Major Indian Groups and Culture Areas in the 1600s
When Worlds Collide What was the impact of Spanish, French, and English settlement inNorth America on Native Americans?
Exploration: Direct Causes = 3 G’s■ Political: Become a world power through gaining wealth and land. (GLORY)■ Economic: Search for new trade routes with direct access to Asian/African luxury goods would enrich individuals and their nations (GOLD)■ Religious: spread Christianity and weaken Middle Eastern Muslims. (GOD)The 3 motives reinforce each other
European explore EFFECTS •Europeans reach and settle Americas•Expanded knowledge of world geography •Growth of trade, mercantilism and capitalism•Indian conflicts over land and impact of disease on Indian populations•Introduction of the institution of slavery •Columbian Exchange
■ Started in Caribbean, then Central and South America—most important was conquest of Aztecs by Cortez (1521) and Incas by Pizzaro (1531)■ First permanent colonies in what will become United States are founded by Spain – St. Augustine (Florida) is founded (1565) to protect Spanish treasure fleets
•Spanish soldiers who came to the NewWorld to help conquer and settle theAmericas for Spain.•Some of their methods were harsh andbrutal especially to the Native Americanpopulation.•With every Spanish explorer wereconquistadors and members of theCatholic Church to convert NativeAmericans.
A World Transformed■ Native Americans were eager for European trade; they were not initially victims of Spanish exploration■ They became dependent on and indebted to Europeans■ Disease decimated perhaps 95% of Native American population
Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Conqu Explorers istador e s s ie n ar oEuropean si is Colonial M Empire Permanent Settlers
From Plunder to Settlement■ By 1650, 1/2 million Spaniards immigrated to the New World –Mostly unmarried males came to New World; intermarriage led to Whites from Spain mixed-bloodWhites born & mulattos mestizos in America –Distinguished between social classes: peninsulares & creoles –The Spanish gov’t operated strict control over the colonies
The Spanish used the encomienda system to Spanish Conquests & Colonies create large cash crop plantations using Native American & African slave labor Spanish missionaries focused heavily on converting Native Americans & establishing missions
The Colonial Class System Peninsulares Spanish Creoles ancestory Spanish and Black mixture. Mestizos Spanish Mulattosand Indian White mixture American and Black mixture Native Indians Black Slaves
What type of relationship existedbetween the Spanish and the Native Americans living in N.Am?■ Native people learned about new tools, grow food, raise sheep■ Many converted to Catholicism■ Spanish learned new farming techniques■ Harsh treatment of Native Americans for slave labor■ Beating of those who did not convert■ Disease, death■ Rebellion
Hernando Desoto – Spanish Explorer■ Explored Southeast region of America in 1540.■ Encountered numerous Creek Indian tribes in Georgia, as well as food such as peaches.■ Crossed Chattahoochee, Flint, Ocmulgee, Oconee, and Savannah Rivers.
Spanish Settlements in Georgia ■ From 1578 to 1583 the Spanish Catholics built two separate chains of missions. One led from San Augustin north along the Atlantic coast, into present day coastal Georgia. The Guale tribes were temporarily subdued near what is St. Catherine’s Island today. ■ In 1597 the Franciscans in Guale interfered with the mission Indians once too often and they rebelled. The missions along coastal Georgia were destroyed and most of the friars murdered before soldiers stopped the uprising by 1601. ■ Although the Yamasees and Lower Creeks sought Spanish protection in the following years, and Spanish Indians continued to harass English settlers along the southern frontier, Spains plans for hegemony in the Southeast disappeared along with the missions. ■ More info on Spanish missions in Georgia HERE!
Spanish empire by the 1600’s consisted of Southern part of North America Central America Caribbean Islands Most of outer South America
■ French settle Quebec (1608) & Montreal (1642) and what would become Canada – Control St. Lawrence River & access to interior of North America – Develop a fur trade
The French Claim Canada■ In 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec; French Empire eventually included St. Lawrence River, Great Lakes, Mississippi R.■ The French gov’t strictly controlled the colonies but made little effort to encourage settlement■ Because the fur trade was the basis of their colonial economy, Indians became valued trading partners (not exploitive like Spain)
What was the relationship between the French and Native Americans living in North America?■ Business partners■ Friendly■ Huron (in Canada) were close allies■ Enemies with Iroquois (on East coast with British colonies)■ Diseases killed many
Like Spain, the French gov’t encouraged converting NativeAmericans & establishing missions
English settlements■ Cabot & New Foundland 1582■ Sir Walter Raleigh attempts to colonize off the coast of North Carolina in 1585.■ Establishes the colony of Roanoke■ Second attempt in 1585 with 150 men and women
Lost Colony of Roanoke■ Spanish Armada delays supply until 1590■ No settlers found but buildings are standing■ CROATOAN – written on fence post.■ Unsolved mystery
What was life like in Jamestown?■ Difficult■ Swamp area with disease carrying mosquitoes■ Laziness from settlers■ John Smith took over during the starving time■ Native Americans refuse to trade during this time
The English Colonies■ In the 1600s, English settlers arrived in North America –English colonization differed from Spanish & French because the English gov’t had no desire to create a centralized empire in the New World –Different motivations by English settlers led to different types of colonies
Migrating to the English Colonies■ 17th century England faced major social changes: –The most significant was a boom in population; Competition for land, food, jobs led to a large mobile population (vagrants?) –People had choices: could move to cities, Ireland, Netherlands, or America (but this was most expensive & dangerous)
Migrating to the English Colonies■ Motives for migration to America: – Religious: purer form of worship – Economic: Escape poverty or the threat of lifelong poverty – Personal: to escape bad marriages or jail terms■ Migration to America was facilitated by the English Civil War & Glorious Revolution
Fort King George■ First British garrison of the Georgia colony, is located in Darien, at the mouth of the Altamaha River.■ Established in 1721 to 1732 as the southernmost outpost of British North America.■ Protected Carolina colony against Spanish and French as well as possible attacks by the hostile Guale Indians.■ Poor living conditions and a fire Click HERE for a more that destroyed the fort in 1726 led to complete story of Ft. King George! its disbandment. From New Georgia Encyclopedia – Fort King George, http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2481
Three types of colonial settlementsTrading Post Plantation Settler colonyColony ColonyUsed to trade items Grow and sell cash Settlers establish new towns andFor example, French fur crops, such as rice, settlements, but linked to theirtraders indigo, tobacco, mother country by trade and government.Did not require a lot of Required more Required more money to build themoney. money to maintain towns and settlements. and build.More difficult to protect. Easier to protect Easy to protectSet up along a water traderoute.Set up along a water trade Set up on large Set up along the water forroute. areas of land. irrigation use and trade.
European colonization in North AmericaSpain France EnglandPlantation colonies in Trading post colonies in Plantation colonies inthe Caribbean, Florida, St. Lawrence, Great Southern Englishand Mexico. Lakes, and Mississippi colonies. regions.Spanish missions Settler coloniesconverted Indians to Port of New Orleans Jamestown based atChristianity by force, controlled trade in the first on trading, thenand governed the Gulf of Mexico, later became known ascolonial settlements. threatening Spanish a religious settlement. shipping in the area.Georgia’s coastal Fort King George atbarrier islands served Fur traders expanded Darien, GA wasas sites of Spanish networks throughout all southern-most outpostmissions. of the Southeastern to protect Charlestown, tribes. South Carolina from Spanish attacks.
By the early 1600s, Spain, England, & France had large territorial claims in North America(but these colonies were not heavily populated, especially in Spanish & French claims) These colonial claims came largely at the expense of the Native Americans already living there
Colonies in North AmericaSpanish Colonies French colonies English coloniesMexico, present day Florida, Inland part of North America They set up a variety ofSouth western part of South and the St. Lawrence river. colonies in Canada and alongAmerica the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.Controlled their colonies with Controlled their colonies Built for profit and others builtviceroys. loosely. Few settlers moved to them for religious freedom. New France, because it was so rocky, and the temperature England sent governors to rule was so cold. over their colonies.Use of Native American labor French got along better with English settlers pushed Nativeto work on the large farms. the Native Americans than any Americans off their land. other European country.Treated the Native American Fur traders England and Spain were theharshly. two main powers in the Americas.Harsh treatment of the Native Live among the Native Did not want to convert theAmericans, Europeans Americans and respected their Native Americans, they justdiseases claimed their lives culture. wanted their land.Use of African slaves. Focused on Christianity. Touted religious freedom
Spanish, French, & English Colonial Patterns?■ Answer the following essential question: – What were the advantages & disadvantages of Spanish, French, & English colonial patterns in terms of long-term colonization in America?■ Create a chart with your ideas.■ Submit your chart in the 2.B Dropbox.
Advantages Disadvantages for long-term for long-term colonization colonization SpainFranceEngland