A GROWING SENSE OF UNITY
• After the War of 1812,
Americans begin to feel more
loyalty toward the Federal
Government and the United
States as a whole. Some
newspapers began to call this
time after another successful
war against Great Britain,
“The Era of Good Feelings”.
• In addition, the Federalist
Party had disintegrated after
the Hartford Convention. So
even political fighting began to
James Monroe is elected
• The Country finally began to President in 1820, unopposed.
gain an unified identity.
The American System
A plan to strengthen the U. S.
Variety of protective tariffs
Create the Second National
Improve and build road and
• In 1815, two former “warhawks”,
John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay,
proposed the American System that
created a variety of protective tariffs
which encouraged Americans to
buy only American made goods.
• The plan proposed that with the
increase in money from the tariffs,
the country would be able to build
up transportation and a strong
national bank. This would allow
the United States to become more
dependent on its own citizens rather
than world trade, which failed them
during the War of 1812 blockade.
John C. Calhoun
“Let us bind the republic
together with a perfect
system of roads and canals”
•When John C. Calhoun spoke these words in 1817,
Congress had already supported the building of a national
road, but many desired a road on much larger scale. By
1841, it extended hundreds of miles across several states.
•In 1825, the Erie Canal was completed. The success of
the Erie Canal and the money it generated was not lost on
the new country. Some cities grew into trading giants as a
result of canals. New York City became the nations largest
city as it nearly doubled in size by 1830. The years from
1825-1850 have been called the “Age of Canals” as many
new canals were constructed in the Northern U.S.
In 1825, the Erie Canal opened the
Great Lakes region to trade and
settlement as it formed a water way to
the Hudson River and Atlantic Ocean.
The success of the Erie Canal led other
canals in the Northern United States.
History of the
Countries such as
& Argentina revolted
against Spain & won
The United States &
Britain were happy
that Latin America
would now be open
CHANGES IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE
• The American Revolution had begun a chain reaction of
revolutions around the world. By 1824, all of Spanish
South America was independent.
• The Seminole Indians were attacking American
Settlements near Georgia. So, in 1817, President
Monroe sent Andrew Jackson to deal with the Indians in
• While he was there, Jackson also captured all of Florida
from Spain and held it. Jackson was ordered to
withdraw, but the U.S. demanded that Spain “police”
Florida or give it up. Spain finally agreed to the AdamsOnis Treaty. The treaty required that Spain give up all
of Florida and its claim on the Oregon Country. The
U.S., in turn, agreed to give up its claim on Texas and a
$5 million debt owed by Spain.
THE MONROE DOCTRINE
• In 1823, President James
Monroe issued the “Monroe
• This Monroe Doctrine banned
all future European
colonization and influence of
• The Monroe Doctrine would
have been impossible for the
small United States navy to
enforce, but Great Britain also
wanted to keep the Americas
free from European control
because of the trade benefits.
• The U.S. was able to take a
“tough stand” because of
Great Britain’s support.
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
a. Proclaimed that European powers
should no longer colonize or interfere
with the affairs of the nations of the
b. Established the U.S. as a strong nation.
c. Many Europeans saw the Monroe
Doctrine as arrogant claiming the U.S
had no right to interfere in the affairs of