The Jackson Era

5,732 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,732
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4,304
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
23
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Jackson Era

  1. 1. 1 The Jackson Era 1824-1845
  2. 2. 2 Main Idea The political system of the United States changed under Andrew Jackson. As you read, ask yourself: What changes in the political system of the United States occurred under Andrew Jackson?
  3. 3. 3 Andrew Jackson Background knowledge President •  7th President •  1829 - 1837 Early Life •  Parents emigrated from Ireland •  Father died before his birth •  Mother died when he was 14 •  Two brothers also died
  4. 4. 4 Andrew Jackson Background knowledge Career - Military •  At 13 joined Continental Army •  Major General of Tennessee Militia •  Lead campaign against Creek Indians in Georgia •  In 1815 lead military victory over British at the Battle of New Orleans
  5. 5. 5 Andrew Jackson Background knowledge Career - Politician •  Lawyer •  US Representative •  US Senator •  Circuit Judge •  President
  6. 6. 6 Andrew Jackson Background knowledge Personal Life •  Married Rachel Jackson •  Two adopted children •  Owned large cotton plantation with 150 slaves •  Killed man in pistol duel
  7. 7. 7 Andrew Jackson Background knowledge •  Andrew Jackson’s likeness is found on every 20.00 bill •  The 20.00 bill is often referred to as a Jackson
  8. 8. 8 Andrew Jackson Facts •  The first assassination attempt on a sitting U.S. President occurred on January 30, 1835, when Robert Lawrence failed to slay Andrew Jackson. •  Andrew Jackson was the first U.S. President to represent the Democratic Party.
  9. 9. 9 Andrew Jackson Facts •  Andrew Jackson was the first President to articulate that as President he represented all the people. •  Andrew Jackson was the first person to serve as a U.S. Representative, Senator, and President.
  10. 10. The Jacksonian Era Democrats and Whigs: The Second Party System
  11. 11. The “Era of Good Feelings” •  James Monroe (1817-1825) was the last Founder to serve as President •  Federalist party had been discredited after War of 1812 •  Monroe unopposed for reelection in 1820 •  Foreign policy triumphs: –  Adams-Onís Treaty (1819) settled boundary with Mexico & added Florida –  Monroe Doctrine warned Europeans against further colonization in Americas James Monroe, By Gilbert Stuart
  12. 12. The Election of 1824 & the Split of the Republican Party •  “Era of Good Feelings” collapsed under weight of sectional & economic differences •  New generation of politicians •  Election of 1824 saw Republican party split into factions –  Andrew Jackson received plurality of popular & electoral vote –  House of Representatives chose John Quincy Adams to be president –  Henry Clay became Secretary of State – accused of “corrupt bargain” •  John Quincy Adams’ Inaugural Address called in vain for return to unity
  13. 13. The National Republicans (Whigs) •  The leaders: – Henry Clay – John Quincy Adams – Daniel Webster •  The followers: – Middle class – Educated – Evangelical – Native-born – Market-oriented Henry Clay John Quincy Adams
  14. 14. Whig Issues •  Conscience Whigs – abolition, temperance, women’s rights, etc. •  Cotton Whigs – internal improvements & protective tariffs to foster economic growth (the “American System”)
  15. 15. The Democratic Republicans (Democrats) •  The leaders: –  Martin Van Buren –  Andrew Jackson –  John C. Calhoun •  The followers: –  Northern working class & Southern planter aristocracy –  Not well-educated –  Confessional churches –  Immigrants –  Locally-oriented Martin Van Buren John C. Calhoun
  16. 16. Democratic Issues •  Limited power for federal government & states’ rights •  Opposition to “corrupt” alliance between government & business •  Individual freedom from coercion
  17. 17. “King Andrew” & the “Monster Bank” •  Marshall’s decision in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) upheld 2nd Bank of the U.S. –  Constitutional under “necessary & proper” clause –  States can’t impede or nullify federal laws •  Nicholas Biddle & other directors openly boasted of their power •  Jackson vetoed bank recharter bill in 1832 “King Andrew” Bank of the U.S. note
  18. 18. Jackson Destroys the “Monster Bank”
  19. 19. The Beginning of Modern Politics •  Party nominating conventions •  Open campaigning, directed by party organizations •  Campaign financing scandals •  Whigs learned lesson with “log cabin & hard cider” campaign in 1840 William Henry Harrison Campaign Banner, 1840
  20. 20. Growing Sectional Conflict •  Missouri Compromise (1820) –  Missouri = slave state –  Maine = free state –  No slavery in rest of La. Purchase north of 36’30 •  Effects: –  Maintained balance of power between North (free states) & South (slave states) in Senate –  Continued two-tiered westward expansion –  Left little room for slavery to expand (Arkansas Territory) Missouri Compromise
  21. 21. Nullification Crisis •  “Tariff of Abominations” (1828) set very high protective tariffs –  Southern states opposed because exported cotton & imported manufactured goods –  John Calhoun anonymously wrote South Carolina Exposition & Protest (1829) asserting states’ right to nullify federal laws & secede from union –  South Carolina passed nullification ordinance in Nov. 1832 •  Daniel Webster’s “2nd Reply to Hayne” (1830) refuted state sovereignty & nullification •  Andrew Jackson’s Proclamation (Dec. 1832) vowed to enforce law & warned, “Disunion by armed force is treason” Sen. Daniel Webster (W-Mass.) Pres. Andrew Jackson (D-Tenn.)
  22. 22. Enforcing the Tariff Revenue cutter McLane enforcing tariff in Charleston harbor, 1833
  23. 23. Removal of the Southern Indians •  Removal Act (1830) began relocation of tribes on western reservations •  Supreme Court ruled in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia & Worcester v. Georgia (1832) that states had no authority over tribes •  Remaining Cherokees forced out on “Trail of Tears” in 1838 •  Black Hawk War (1832) resulted in defeat & removal of Sac & Fox
  24. 24. 24 Andrew Jackson Facts •  Andrew Jackson was the first President from a state west of the Appalachian Mountains.
  25. 25. 25 Videos •  www.history.com/topics/andrew-jackson •  Andrew Jackson’s Firsts •  Andrew Jackson, The Widower •  Jackson and the $20 bill •  Andrew Jackson’s Death
  26. 26. 26 Jacksonian Democracy The Election of 1824 Striking a Bargain The Adams Presidency The Election of 1828 Jackson Triumphs Jackson as President “Old Hickory” New Voters The Spoils System Electoral Changes The Tariff Debate The South Protests The Webster-Hayne Debate Jackson Takes a Stand The Nullification Crisis

×