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  1. 1. The Bureaucracy Michael P. Fix
  2. 2. Bureaucracy Defined <ul><li>An organizations with a hierarchical structure and specific responsibilities, which operate on management principles intended to enhance efficiency and effectiveness </li></ul>
  3. 3. Weber’s Characteristics of Bureaucratic Structures <ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Formalization </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent staff </li></ul>From wikipedia.org
  4. 4. Constitutional Basis for the Bureaucracy <ul><li>Article I, Section 8 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary and Proper Clause </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Article II, Section 2 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Organizational Structure of the Federal Bureaucracy Departments Independent Agencies Independent Regulatory Commissions Government Corporations
  6. 6. Departments <ul><li>State (1789) </li></ul><ul><li>Treasury (1789) </li></ul><ul><li>Defense (1947; formerly the War Department, created in 1789, and the Navy Department, created in 1798) </li></ul><ul><li>Justice (1870; created in 1789 as Office of the Attorney General – a part-time position, made a cabinet level department in 1870) </li></ul><ul><li>Interior (1849) </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture (1889) </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce (1913) </li></ul><ul><li>Labor (1913) </li></ul><ul><li>Health and Human Services (1953 as Health, Education, and Welfare; reorganized with Education as a separate department in 1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Housing and Urban Development (1965) </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation (1966) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy (1977) </li></ul><ul><li>Education (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Veterans Affairs (1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Homeland Security (2002) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Independent Agencies <ul><li>These agencies are independent from larger departments, but still under the control of the president. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Independent Regulatory Commissions <ul><li>While these agencies are run by “political” figures, they are independent of both the president and larger departments. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Government Corporations <ul><li>These agencies are run by an independent board in the same way as a private corporation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Growth and Development of the Bureaucracy
  11. 11. The Development of the Bureaucracy <ul><li>The Expansion of Federal Civil Employment </li></ul>
  12. 12. Shrinking Government <ul><li>“ Government is not the solution to our problems; it is the problem” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Patronage vs. Merit System Patronage System Government employees are hired and fired based on support for a political party or individual candidate. Merit System Government employees are hired based on their qualifications and cannot be fired arbitrarily for political reasons
  14. 14. Assassination of President Garfield
  15. 15. Patronage vs. Merit System <ul><li>Pendleton Act (1883) </li></ul><ul><li>Hatch Act (1939) </li></ul>Legislating Change
  16. 16. Image of the Bureaucracy
  17. 17. The Image of the Bureaucracy <ul><li>Do federal agencies receive blame unfairly for falling short of perfection? </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Image of the Bureaucracy <ul><li>Percentage of Americans rating the performance of the above agencies as “excellent” or “good” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Advantages and Problems with the Bureaucracy
  20. 20. The Advantages of Bureaucracy <ul><li>Bureaucracies are created and evolve as a means to undertake the purposes and responsibilities of organizations. They provide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expertise and Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Problems of Bureaucracy <ul><li>No Child Left Behind (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Government Accountability Office reported in 2004 that the law had been poorly implemented </li></ul><ul><li>States complained that the U.S. Department of Education failed to provide appropriate guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation Security Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Created in November, 2001 after the 9/11 attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Agency was plagued with problems of theft and poorly-conducted background checks of employees </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Problems of Bureaucracy <ul><li>Size – Can institutions this large effectively manage many of the tasks assigned them? </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination – Can agencies with offices throughout the country effective coordinate a single policy? </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Problems of Bureaucracy <ul><li>The Iron Triangle </li></ul>Interest Groups Congressional Committees Bureaucratic Agencies
  24. 24. Bureaucratic Function
  25. 25. The Functions of the Federal Bureaucracy <ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Providing Information </li></ul>
  26. 26. Implementation <ul><li>The executive branch is charged with the enforcement of the law, and agencies are largely the mechanism for this. </li></ul><ul><li>However, most statutes contain vague language, so in implementing the law agencies often have great discretion on its exact meaning. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Regulations <ul><li>General statutory language can become the basis for the bureaucracy’s development of its own precise rules, a form of agency-created law called regulations , which govern the topics under a particular agency’s jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Statutes also specify the procedures that agencies must use in developing regulations </li></ul>
  28. 28. Administration <ul><li>Carrying out the day-to-day business of the government </li></ul>From www.thefreedictionary.com
  29. 29. Providing Information <ul><li>Bureaucrats provide information for Congress to use in crafting and approving statutes </li></ul>Formal method Committee proceedings or requests for reports and documents to be supplied by government agencies Legislative staffers or members of congress contact agency officials with questions Informal method
  30. 30. Quasi-Judicial Functions
  31. 31. Oversight and Accountability
  32. 32. Oversight and Accountability <ul><li>All three branches of government have the power to subject the bureaucracy to oversight and accountability </li></ul>