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  1. 1. The Federal Bureaucracy The Fourth Branch of Government Wilson- Chapter 13
  2. 2. Our American Bureaucracy <ul><li>The agencies, departments, commissions, etc. in the Executive Branch </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Office of the President </li></ul><ul><li>Cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Agencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized like Cabinet depts., but lack cabinet status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NASA, SBA, FEMA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Govt Corporations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Office, FDIC, TVA </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Our American Bureaucracy <ul><li>Independent Regulatory Commissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created by Congress to regulate important aspects of the nation’s economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions are usually beyond presidential control (though Commissioners are appointed by the president) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commissioners. Serve long terms (5-14 years) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only a bare majority of commissioners can be of same party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staggered terms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commish can only be fired by Prez for causes Congress has specified </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Our American Bureaucracy <ul><li>Independent Regulatory Commissions Continued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commish has quasi-legislative power. Rules and regulations which have the force of law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quasi-judicial power: settle disputes in their fields (FCC fines of Howard Stern) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some commissions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Reserve Board </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FCC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NLRB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FEC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FTC </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Growth of the Bureaucracy <ul><li>Spoils system prior to late 19th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Assassination of Prez. Garfield by disappointed office seeker in 1881 led to passage of Pendleton Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil service created with exam-based merit system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, 90% of fed employees are civil service </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Growth of the Bureaucracy <ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 million plus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairly consistent # since the 50s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does this mean bureaucrats are just more efficient since there are more programs and responsibilities? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why or why not? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Growth of the Bureaucracy <ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discretionary Authority: Agencies have the power to choose various courses of action when Congress writes broadly-worded laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passing rules and regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help Congress draft legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advice to the WH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settle disputes </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Growth of the Bureaucracy <ul><li>Reasons for Growth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Crises (Defense Dept) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Welfare Nation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies perpetuate their own survival </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Bureaucratic behavior <ul><li>Recruitment and retention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed by merit system exam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ways around this (job qualification only one person can fill, temp appointment, lower job w/ responsibilities) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonus pts for vets, race, gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to fire </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Bureaucratic behavior <ul><li>Recruitment and retention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty to agency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuity of agency behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expertise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managers must have support of subordinates </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Bureaucratic behavior <ul><li>Personal Attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative of American people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper level: middle aged white males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to be more liberal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activist agency workers are more liberal (EPA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% in Defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 15% in welfare </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Bureaucratic behavior <ul><li>Legal Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of Information Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hatch Act: limits political activity of Bureaucrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Impact reports on projects </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Controlling the Bureaucracy <ul><li>Presidential Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appoint/ Fire top-level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propose reorganization of exec. Branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propose Agency budgets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7000 senior appointments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Checks on Prez influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate confirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress approves reorganization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress approves budgets </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Controlling the Bureaucracy <ul><li>Congressional Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriations of agency budgets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standing Committee oversight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointment confirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunset laws give agencies limited life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Checks on Congressional influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members benefit from agencies in state/district </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to have bur. work out details of laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No legislative veto </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Controlling the Bureaucracy <ul><li>Interest Group Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolving door </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron Triangles (Congressional Comm, Relevant Agency, Interest Group) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Privatization of some aspects (Concessions in national parks) </li></ul><ul><li>Gore’s 1993 National Performance Review </li></ul>
  16. 16. Weberian Model <ul><li>Weber’s essential features of a bureaucracy: </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical Authority Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>power flows from top down and responsibility from the bottom up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Merit Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonality </li></ul>
  17. 17. How would you evaluate the Bureaucracy?