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Review Catalog for Regents
U.S. History & Government
Created by the New-York Historical Society’s
Student Historians
2014-...
How To Use This Guide:
The New-York Historical Society, one of America’s pre-eminent cultural institutions, is dedicated t...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Unit One: Constitutional Foundations of the United States..............................................4...
Unit Five: The United States in anAge of Global Crisis: Responsibility and Cooperation..58-67	
	 I. Total War in World War...
UNIT ONE: CONSTITUTIONAL
FOUNDATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES
	
Essays In This Unit Include:
I. Rebels Vs. Loyalists in the Am...
Fragment of the equestrian statue
of King George III (tail)
	 The fragment of an equestrian statue of King
George (tail) w...
Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States
Rebels Vs. Loyalists in the American Revolution
	 King George III...
The rebels actioned petitions, demonstrations, and protests. The British Parliament, ministers, and the King
were in agree...
This section of a water pipe was excavated at
Liberty Street and was later gifted to the New-York
Historical Society by St...
Water Pipes, Banking, and the Federalist Debate:
The Story of  the Manhattan Water Company and the Hamilton-Burr Conflict
...
Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States
proponent of strengthening the role of central government to prov...
"Aaron Burr | Biography - Vice President of the United States." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Accessed March 25, 2015. h...
Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States
H.W. Mortimer & Company, Pair of flintlock duel-
ing pistols with...
An Introduction to Partisan Politics
	 After the events of the Revolutionary War, the newly formed United States of Americ...
Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States
	 Upon being named the first president of the United States, Geor...
Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States
	 John Rogers was an American sculptor who primarily
created piec...
Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States
to be added to the nation. Although the tension between the North...
Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States
	 This painting depicts the 69th (Irish) Regiment, New York State...
Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States
joy and celebration. This is especially important as it points to...
Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States
	 Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John
Wilkes Booth only six ...
The economy in the South had been dev-
astated by the war and land was rented by the
former slave owners in exchange for a...
UNIT TWO: INDUSTRIALIZATION
OF THE UNITED STATES
Essays In This Unit Include:
I. Industrialization’s Effects on Women & Ch...
Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States
In order to create this sewing machine, Gibbs had decided to partner up w...
Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States
	 mainly a sharp ivory needle then later progressing into stronger iron n...
Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States
Shirt Factory Fire killed 146 workers who were predominantly teenage girl...
Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States
Willcox & Gibbs Sewing Machine Co., Portable
chain stitch sewing machine,...
Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States
efficient. The drive to make their factories more efficient led to owners...
Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States
important to one’s understanding of US History. This era witnessed incred...
Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States
	 “Liberty Enlightening the World” or more commonly known
as the “State o...
Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States
ties as well as those that had been living in the States for multiple gen...
Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States
	 “A Race Around the​World,” an iconic board game of the early 20th centu...
Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States
War was a tool as an imperialist nation and was used continuously to expa...
Bibliography
Keys, David. “Revealed: Industrial Revolution Was Powered by Child Slaves.” The Independent. August 2, 2010. ...
UNIT THREE: THE PROGRESSIVE
MOVEMENT
Essays In This Unit Include:
I. The Beginning of Women’s Liberation
	 Diana Martinez,...
Made for the first women’s suffrage
parade, this felted pennant symbolizes the
fight for women’s rights and gender equalit...
US History Regents Review Catalog 2014-15
US History Regents Review Catalog 2014-15
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US History Regents Review Catalog 2014-15
US History Regents Review Catalog 2014-15
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US History Regents Review Catalog 2014-15
US History Regents Review Catalog 2014-15
US History Regents Review Catalog 2014-15
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US History Regents Review Catalog 2014-15
US History Regents Review Catalog 2014-15
US History Regents Review Catalog 2014-15
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US History Regents Review Catalog 2014-15

  1. 1. Review Catalog for Regents U.S. History & Government Created by the New-York Historical Society’s Student Historians 2014-2015
  2. 2. How To Use This Guide: The New-York Historical Society, one of America’s pre-eminent cultural institutions, is dedicated to fostering research, presenting history and art exhibitions, and public programs that reveal the dynamism of history and its influence on the world of today. Founded in 1804, New-York Historical has a mission to explore the richly layered political, cultural and social history of New York City and State and the nation, and to serve as a national forum for the discussion of issues surrounding the making and mean- ing of history. Student Historians are high school interns at New-York Historical who explore our museum and library collection and conduct research using the resources available to them within a museum setting. Their project this academic year was to create a guide for fellow high school students preparing for U.S. History Exams, particularly the U.S. History & Government Regents Exam. Student Historians chose pieces from our collection that they felt represented a historical event or theme often tested on the exam, collected and organized their research, and wrote about their piece within the context of the event or theme. The intent is that this will provide a valuable supplemental review material for high school stu- dents preparing for U.S. History exams. The following summative essays are all researched and written by the 2014-15 Student Historians, compiled in chronological order, and organized by unit. Each essay is prefaced with a title page depict- ing the object or artwork from the N-YHS collection that serves as the foundation for the US History content reviewed. Review questions and answers, taken from past US History & Government Regents exams, a guide to analyzing primary sources, and a supreme court case review follow the essays. Please use this guide not only as a resource, but as a workbook for your own active study for exams. For more information on the New-York Historical Society and our opportunities for high school stu- dents please visit our website: http://www.nyhistory.org/education/teen-programs Enjoy! Chelsea Frosini Manager of Teen Programs Hannah Batren Student Historian Program Assistant 1
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS Unit One: Constitutional Foundations of the United States..............................................4-20 a. Essays I. Rebels Vs. Loyalists in the American Revolution, Zuhra Tukhtamisheva...........................................5 II. Water Pipes, Banking, and the Federalist Debate: The Story of the Manhattan Water Company and the Hamilton-Burr Conflict, Daniel Hizgilov.................................................................................8 III. An Introduction to Partisan Politics, Balthazar Merrin.................................................................11 IV. The War Against Slavery, Indira Bridges........................................................................................15 V. Reconstruction and the Early Civil Rights Struggle, Miriam-Helene Rudd...................................17 Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States..................................................................21-32 a. Essays I. Industrialization’s Effects on Women & Children, Guljar Nahar.....................................................22 II. Industry and Efficiency During the Gilded Age, Daniel Stambler...................................................25 III. Immigration and The Gilded Age, Whitney Tam...........................................................................28 IV. Imperialism, Industrialization, Progressivism & the Childhood Experience, Samuel Clarke.......30 Unit Three: The Progressive Movement...................................................................................33-41 a. Essays I. The Beginning of Women’s Liberation, Diana Martinez...................................................................34 II. The Progressive Era, Idalis Gomez................................................................................................37 III. The American Desire of Expansion, Emmanuella Saforo..............................................................39 Unit Four: At Home and Abroad: Prosperity and Depression........................................42-57 a. Essays I. The Iron-Jawed Angels, Nadia Mushib............................................................................................43 II. The Roaring Twenties, Ivan Lenoyr.................................................................................................46 III. Finally Joining the Great Party, The Yanks Enter WWI, Benjamin Lang.....................................49 IV. The Evolution of the Gold Standard in the United States, Ethan Gelfer........................................52 V. The New Deal, Ellie Kohn...............................................................................................................55 2
  4. 4. Unit Five: The United States in anAge of Global Crisis: Responsibility and Cooperation..58-67 I. Total War in World War II, Isaiah Milbauer.......................................................................................59 II. Women and African-Americans in World War II, Nicaurys Rodriguez............................................62 III. A Cold War Overview, Asia Matthews............................................................................................65 Unit Six: A World in Uncertain Times......................................................................................68-78 a. Essays I. Civil Rights, Justice Prevailed, Kalani Davis-Grey...........................................................................69 II. The Fight For Civil Liberties and Rights, Abasenia Joie Asuquo....................................................71 III. The Controversial 70’s, Mikai Johnson-Harris...............................................................................74 IV. By Any Means Necessary: ACT UP and Art, Ads, and Media, Thea Moerman..............................77 Practice Questions For Each Unit...............................................................................................79-90 Answer Key...............................................................................................................................................91 Educational Supplements..............................................................................................................92-101 a. Know These Supreme Court Cases..............................................................................................................93 b. How To Analyze A Document (Image)........................................................................................................95 c. How To Analyze A Document (Text Document).......................................................................................101 Index..................................................................................................................................................102-106 3
  5. 5. UNIT ONE: CONSTITUTIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES Essays In This Unit Include: I. Rebels Vs. Loyalists in the American Revolution, Zuhra Tukhtamisheva, Stuyvesant High School...................................................................................5 II. Water Pipes, Banking, and the Federalist Debate: The Story of the Manhattan Water Company and the Hamilton-Burr Conflict Daniel Hizgilov, Tenafly High School..................................................................................................8 III. An Introduction to Partisan Politics Balthazar Merrin, United Nations International School......................................................................11 IV. The War Against Slavery Indira Bridges, Pace University High School.....................................................................................15 V. Reconstruction and the Early Civil Rights Struggle Miriam-Helene Rudd, Eleanor Roosevelt High School......................................................................17 4
  6. 6. Fragment of the equestrian statue of King George III (tail) The fragment of an equestrian statue of King George (tail) was initially a part of Joseph Wilton’s statue of King George III. The statue was a replica of a famous equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius on the Capitoline Hill in Rome. Wilton’s statue was placed in Bowling Green and it was the first equestrian statue raised in the American colonies. Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States Joseph Wilton, Fragment of the equestrian statue of King George III (tail), 1770-1776, Collection of the New-York Historical Society, Inventory Number: 1878.6. The equestrian statue was initially supposed to model William Pitt the Elder, a parliamentarian who helped repeal the hated Stamp Act in 1776. However putting up a statue of Pitt before that of the King in New York City was considered undiplomatic due to the tensions between the colonies and England. The General Assembly of New York settled all the disputes by proposing the project of making an equestrian statue for King George III. The authority over this project was given to Joseph Wilton, who was the chosen artist to sculpt the King in his likeness in 1764 and was well known for his Neoclassical sculptures. The raising of this statue on April 26, 1770, was accompanied by a pompous ceremony. Cadwallader Colden, a Lieutenant Governor who was serving that day recalls that the event: was attended on this occasion by the Gentlemen of the Council, and Members of the Assembly then in Town, the Magistrates of the City, the Clergy of all Denominations and a very large number of the principal inhabitants…Loyalty, firm attachment and affection to his Majesty’s person was expressed by drinking the kings Health. And a long continuance of his reign, under a discharge of 32 pieces of Canon. The statue weighed 4,000 pounds and was made out of gilded lead. It stood only for six years, until the Declaration of Independence was read aloud in New York on July 9, 1776. After the Declaration of Inde- pendence was read aloud in 1776, a crowd of Rebels tore down the statue from its pedestal with ropes. Legend says that Loyalists in Wilton, Connecticut, captured this tail while the statue was on its way to Litchfield, Connecticut to be melted into 42,088 bullets for the Continental Army. The tail was not the only fragment that was saved; the left arm, thigh and saddle mounting is currently located in the Lambert Family collection, the foreleg is owned by the Glanz Family, the Royal cloak is in the Connecticut State Library, the gilded cloak is in the Wilton Historical Society, pieces of tail, flank and saddle are in the New-York Historical Society, and the location of the other fragments is either unknown or in the Museum of the City of New York. 5
  7. 7. Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States Rebels Vs. Loyalists in the American Revolution King George III ruled as a monarch of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760 until his death in 1820. In these sixty years, he gained British victory in the Seven Years’ War, also known as the “French and Indian War.” He fought back Revolutionary France and lost the British colonies in North America due to the Ameri- can Revolution. The violence demonstrated towards King George III’s statue was a reflection of the colonists’ anger towards the oppression from the British monarchy. From 1765 to 1774, colonists believed that the Ministry and the Parliament, not the King, enforced the injustices from the Stamp Act to the Coercive Acts. In reality however, the King has a direct role in the passage of these oppressive acts. The passing of the Quebec Act, New England Restraining Act, and the Coercive Acts, made King George III lose the colonists’ loyalty. The Quebec Act extended the boundaries of Quebec and secured the religious rights of Catholic Ca- nadians. It was a threat to the colonies because the Province of Quebec was extended west to the Mississippi, north to Hudson’s Bay territory, and the islands on the tip of the St. Lawrence river. The religious freedom granted to the Canadian Catholics gave them an advantage of holding public offices, while the colonists were denied from these positions. There were also tensions between the Catholic groups in Quebec and the major Protestant groups in the colonies.Although in Britain Catholicism was viewed down upon, the QuebecAct was put in place so Britain could gain the loyalty of the Canadians. As a result, during the American Revolution, the colonists failed to gain the support of Canadians. The enforcement of the New England Restraining Act by King George III, was aimed to make the British colonies become heavily dependant on Britain. This act pres- sured the colonies to exclusively trade with Great Britain. The Coercive Acts were a series of four acts passed as a punishment for the American Patriots. The British Parliament imposed these acts as a response to the Boston Tea Party, during which a revolution- ary group, the Sons of Liberty, dumped 342 crates of tea into the water as a protest against the Tea Act. The four Coercive Acts were the Boston Port Act, which closed the Boston port, the Massachusetts Government Act, which prohibited Massachusetts from democrat- ic practices, the Administration of Justice Act, which freed British officials from criminal prosecutions, and the Quartering Act, which obliged colonists to house and provide accommodations for British troops in their homes. 6
  8. 8. The rebels actioned petitions, demonstrations, and protests. The British Parliament, ministers, and the King were in agreement that all rebel efforts were pointless. The rebels were also known as the Patriots, while their revolutionary adversaries were the Loyalists. Loyalists were against the colonies gaining independence from Britain for several reasons. They were strongly attached to their cultural heritage from Britain and therefore had a sense of loyalty towards the King. In addition, many of them sought financial opportunities in the Trans- Atlantic trade with England. Patriots on the other hand felt that their rights were violated by all the acts passed by the British monarchy and thus had a desire to become an independent nation. Eventually, the Patriots suc- ceeded in their propaganda and these actions sparked the American Revolution. On the day of the statue’s destruction, George Washington was promoted to Commander-in-Chief and read aloud the Declaration of Independence to his troops and the citizens of New York City. Thomas Jefferson stated 27 grievances against the King and said, “A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.” The destruction of the King’s statue symbolized the broken bond between the colonies and tyrannical rule. The Patriots achieved their goal. Bibliography Marks, Arthur S. “THE STATUE OF KING GEORGE III IN NEW YORK AND THE ICONOLOGY OF REGICIDE.” The American Art Journal 13, no. 3 (1981): 61-82. Staff, History.com. “George III.” History.com. January 1, 2009. Accessed April 1, 2015. http://www.history.com/topics/british-history/ george-iii. Staff, History.com. “British Parliament Adopts the Coercive Acts.” History.com. January 1, 2009. Accessed April 1, 2015. http://www. history.com/this-day-in-history/british-parliament-adopts-the-coercive-acts. Staff, History.com. “King George Endorses New England Restraining Act.” History.com. January 1, 2009. Accessed April 1, 2015. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/king-george-endorses-new-england-restraining-act. “Loyalists, Fence-sitters, and Patriots.” Ushistory.org. Accessed April 1, 2015. http://www.ushistory.org/us/11b.asp. Ruppert, Bob. “The Statue of George III | Journal of the American Revolution.” Journal of the American Revolution. September 8, 2014. Accessed April 1, 2015. http://allthingsliberty.com/2014/09/the-statue-of-george-iii/. Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States7
  9. 9. This section of a water pipe was excavated at Liberty Street and was later gifted to the New-York Historical Society by Stoughton and Stoughton in 1953. Its is made from an amber-brown wood that is circular in shape with a hole bored through the center for water to travel through. The pipes that were laid in 1804 were made from pine that originated in Yonkers, which includes this section of pipe. During that time pine was cheaper and considered to be a wood that was more resilient to moisture than hard woods like oak and maple. In 1798, New York City was plagued by a Yel- low Fever epidemic. As part of an effort to combat the spread of disease, the State Legislature of New York searched for ways to improve the ineffective water supply system which attributed to the spread of dis- ease. In 1799, a group of suitors emerged, headlined by prominent statesman Aaron Burr. Burr appealed to the State Legislature and ultimately received a charter along with $2,000,000 to build the pipes, a large bud- get for public works during that time period. Upon receiving the charter to found the compa- ny, Burr established the Bank of the Manhattan Com- pany which set about installing the new water system. Unfortunately, he was more focused on politics and banking than public works. As a result, the quality of the project was subpar as funds were diverted from the water project to make investments for the Bank of the Manhattan Company. Within the charter was a clause allowing Burr to spend the budget on any activity “not inconsistent with the Constitution and laws of the United States,” (Project Gutenberg, 11). The new water system was installed in 1799 under provision of the Manhattan Company. Immedi- ately, the effects of Burr’s misuse of funds became apparent as citizens began noting the poor quality of the new drinking water. The city of New York officially proclaimed the water to be “wholesome,” but accounts from primary sources claimed that, “its quality did not give entire satisfaction” as evidenced by, “the mud- diness of the water in the glass,” (Project Guten- berg, 14). The reason for this poor quality of drink- ing water was inadequate placement, which allowed the pipes to be contaminated with raw sewage wa- ter. This would become the cause of major Cholera outbreaks over the next half-century. While the water system failed to improve the qual- ity of drinking water in New York City, The Bank of the Manhattan Company continued to grow and develop until its eventual merger with Chase Bank, and later J.P. Morgan and Co. By 1842, the new Croton Aqueduct system was installed, which provided the City with the quality drinking water necessary for its exponentially growing population. Section of water pipe, 1770-1805, Collection of the New-York Historical Society, Inventory Number: 1953.308S. Section of Water Pipe 8Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States
  10. 10. Water Pipes, Banking, and the Federalist Debate: The Story of the Manhattan Water Company and the Hamilton-Burr Conflict The Federalist debate and subsequent formation of political parties in the United States has come to define the period of time immediately following the North American Colonies’ victory over British Empire. It was during these years that two upstart politicians waged a bitter war against each other for ideological and political influence over the fledgling nation. Their conflict would be remembered for its tragic climax, but in the years leading up to their fateful confrontation, a duel would be fought over an unlikely source; a polluted water supply in New York and the implications it would have on ideals of the nation. Aaron Burr was born on February 6, 1756 in Newark, New Jersey. As the son of a prominent rever- end, growing up in a wealthy family, Burr was fast-tracked into an officer position in George Washington’s Continental Army but was quickly transferred after constantly arguing with Washington over troop movement decisions. After the American Revolution, he was admitted to the New York State Bar and became a success- ful lawyer. In 1789, he was appointed Attorney General of the State of New York and used the position to develop strong ties to the State Legislature. He would later serve as a US Senator and as Vice President under Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson. Burr was a masterful politician but along the way he acquired a powerful enemy in Alexander Hamil- ton, the first Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton came from a background starkly different from that of Burr. Born in the British West Indies, Hamilton was raised in a broken household. His father had fled the family and left the young Alexander and his mother to fend for themselves. Hamilton had to claw his way into poli- tics, developing a friendship with George Washington which allowed him to rise to prominence. He would become the single greatest influence on the early treasury system and spearheaded the campaign to establish the National Debt -- a system of borrowing money from other nations, designed to provide the United States with funding necessary to finance development. Burr and Hamilton first met as young officers in George Washington’s Continental Army. The two were friendly and cordial until a dispute over officer promotions and Washington’s favoritism for Hamil- ton created a divide between them. The rift became a feud in 1791 when Burr was elected over Hamilton’s father-in-law, Philip Schuyler, to become a New York Senator in Congress. Hamilton had become the most prominent politician in New York and Burr’s sudden rise to prominence put Hamilton on the offensive. The two would attempt to politically undermine each other on numerous occasions leading up to 1799 and the formation of Burr’s Bank of the Manhattan Company. The creation of the bank highlighted the core differences regarding Burr and Hamilton's political ide- ologies. Burr was a Democratic-Republican; a close ally of Thomas Jefferson, who believed in limiting the role of the Federal government to preserve private interests and the rights of the states. Earlier in Burr’s career he had been opposed to ratification of the U.S. Constitution as he feared it would provide the platform for a tyrannical government to suppress individual rights. Hamilton, on the other hand, was a staunch Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States9
  11. 11. Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States proponent of strengthening the role of central government to provide stability for the young nation. He was a Federalist and had worked with James Madison and John Jay to write The Federalist Papers, a series of pamphlets describing the goals and motivations of the Constitutional Convention. According to Hamilton, “if mankind were to resolve to agree in no institution of government, until every part of it had been adjusted to the most exact standard of perfection, society would soon become a general scene of anarchy, and the world a desert,” (Hamilton et al. 1788, 80). Without a strong governing body, a society would become dis- orderly and cease to provide protection and stability to its citizens. Looking to end the disorganized politi- cal system that was in place under the de-centralized Articles of Confederation, the states all eventually ratified the Constitution, establishing our current federal government. After originally planning to propose their plan for the new water system together, Burr increased the ire of Hamilton by excluding him from the charter that would be signed by the State Legislature and by including a clause that would allow him to focus on banking interests. Burr’s intent was to use the bank to promote the privatization of utilities; a way of preventing government influence on necessities such as water. By privatizing the water supply system, Burr hoped to set the precedent for other private companies to form, which could regulate utilities and keep the maintenance of these services in the hands of private citizens. Hamilton’s main grievance was that Burr would use the water system as a political bargaining chip; that the funds generated by the bank would be used to promote corruption and that this would fund Burr’s political allies (all of which did occur). For the federal government to succeed in creating economic stability, Hamilton argued, banking interests must be controlled by the government alone. Having a centralized bank, along with government assumption of State debts, would stimulate the economy and promote national development. Burr and the Democratic-Republicans rebutted this by claiming that centralized control of the banks and State debts would allow for the government to take funding from the states, pressure them into compliance and, as a result, tyrannically infringe on their rights. The fiery debate between Hamilton and Burr serves as a reflection of the political environment pres- ent in the young United States. The argument over whether or not to strengthen the federal government laid the foundation for a partisan system to form, which would represent a multitude of diverse political view- points. It is the alternating representation of these political perspectives that has directed the growth of the United States and allowed for the varied political expression that has made this nation uniquely successful in it’s rapid development and rise to global prominence. 10
  12. 12. "Aaron Burr | Biography - Vice President of the United States." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Accessed March 25, 2015. http:// www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/85757/Aaron-Burr "Aaron Burr Opens Earliest Predecessor Firm | J.P. Morgan." Aaron Burr Opens Earliest Predecessor Firm | J.P. Morgan. Accessed March 25, 2015. https://www.jpmorgan.com/pages/jpmorgan/about/history/month/sept "Alexander Hamilton | Biography - United States Statesman." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Accessed March 25, 2015. http://www. britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/253372/Alexander-Hamilton Bank of the Manhattan Company Chartered 1799: A Progressive Commercial Bank. New York, New York: Project Gutenberg, 2005. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17374/17374-h/17374-h.htm "Federalism." Cornell University Law School. Accessed March 25, 2015. https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/federalism Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, The Federalist Papers. (Auckland: Floating Press, 2011). 220-226. Gerard Koeppel, "Historic Wooden Water Pipes Unearthed." Friends of the Old Croton Aqueduct. July 14, 2005.Accessed March 7, 2015. http://aqueduct.org/newsletter/pipe-dreams Brian Phillips Murphy, "A Very Convenient Instrument": The Manhattan Company, Aaron Burr, and the Election of 1800." The Wil liam and Mary Quarterly, 2008, 233-66. Accessed March 29, 2015. http://blogs.baruch.cuny.edu//brianmurphy/files/2009/10/ WMQuarterly.Murphy.pdf Andy Newman, "Intact Pipes From 1800s Once Carried Water, Though Not Very Well." New York Times, April 13, 2013. Accessed February 16, 2015.http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/04/18/early-water-delivery-system-in-the-city-cut-corners-and- trees/?_r=0 James Parton, The Life and Times of Aaron Burr, Lieutenant-Colonel in the Army of theRevolution, United States Senator, Vice-Presi Staff, NCC. "Burr vs. Hamilton: Behind the Ultimate Political Feud." Constitution Daily. July 11, 2014. Accessed March 31, 2015. http://blog.constitutioncenter.org/2014/07/burr-vs-hamilton-behind-the-ultimate-political-feud/ Alfred Billings Street, The Council of Revision of the State of New York Its History, a History of the Courts with Which Its Members Were Connected, Biographical Sketches of Its Members, and Its Vetoes (New York: W. Gould, 1859), 423. Elise Stevens Wilson, The Battle over the Bank: Hamilton v. Jefferson, Gilder Lehrman, The Battle over the Bank: Hamilton v. Jef ferson. Accessed March 30, 2015. http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/age-jefferson-and-madison/resources/battle- over-bank-hamilton-v-jefferson dent of the United States, (New York: Mason Bros, 1858), 233-240.https://books.google.com/books?id=ax9EAQAAMA AJ&lpg=PA487&ots=LhKil45T9u&dq=James%20Parton%2C%20The%20Life%20and%20Times%20of%20Aaron%20 Burr%2C%20Lieutenant-Colonel%20in%20the%20Army%20of&pg=PR3#v=onepage&q=James%20Parton,%20The%20 Life%20and%20Times%20of%20Aaron%20Burr,%20Lieutenant-Colonel%20in%20the%20Army%20of&f=false Bibliography Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States Aaron Burr Alexander Hamilton 11
  13. 13. Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States H.W. Mortimer & Company, Pair of flintlock duel- ing pistols with case and accessories, 1780-1800, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Gherardi Davis and Ellen King, Inventory Number: 1910.30a-h. The pistols were originally examined in the Smithsonian, then gifted to the New-York Historical Society by Mr. and Mrs. Gherardi Davis and Ellen King. Created by the renowned Wogdon & Barton Gunsmiths in Lon- don circa 1797, these wood, brass, iron and silver flintlock pistols are considered the pinnacle of dueling weap- onry. Using traditional designs, Wogdon Gunsmiths employed an 10 ¾” octagon barrel. Wogdon also chose to create a bagged-shaped checkered wooden handle with a swirl-lined butt. Eloquent iron and silver apparatuses lend a utilitarian yet stylish approach to the pistols. Silver oval wedge escutcheons, nose cap, and shield-shaped escutcheon plates are but a few of the pistol’s components. They are decorated with inlaid brass floral bands, flags, halberds, and Britannia shields. Engraved war trophies can be found at the breech end of the barrel and at the center of the lock plate. Brass floral designs decorate the lock plate tail and barrel tang. As a special request the pistols were made with sensitive hair triggers, giving the wielder an advantage over his opponent. The sleek design is a complete 15 7/8” and was as ornamental as it was practical. These pistols were former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton’s weapon of choice during the infamous Burr-Hamilton Duel. By 1801, incumbent Vice President Aaron Burr and former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton were bitter rivals. A number of clashes between the two renowned statesmen pre- cipitated their final brawl. Before ever meeting, Hamilton’s and Burr’s contrasting political views would set the scene for their eventual hostility. Hamilton, a prominent Federalist, believed in a strong central government and national bank- ing system. Conversely, Burr was an Anti-Federalist and favored a strong state government, as well as opposed the idea of a national bank. Their woes began in 1781, when Burr took a senate seat from Hamilton’s father-in-law, Philip Schuyler. Ten- sions continued to rise when Burr released Hamilton’s private criticism of Federalist President John Adams in 1800. In 1804, during Burr’s campaign for Governor of New York, Hamilton attempted to persuade prominent members in New York to work against Burr. In a calculated move, Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel after the scathing remarks regarding him were released to the press. On July 11, 1804, Alexander Hamilton andAaron Burr met in Weehawken, New Jersey to duel. Both fired upon each other, but Hamilton’s hair triggers failed, he missed his mark and was subsequently shot by Burr. Hamilton would die the next day due to the gunshot wound in his stomach, but his legacy would continue to live on. Pair of flintlock dueling pistols with case and accessories 12
  14. 14. An Introduction to Partisan Politics After the events of the Revolutionary War, the newly formed United States of America found itself in a precarious position. Between 1776 and 1790 the US was an empty canvas, ready for the Founding Fathers to lay the framework for what would later become the world’s greatest superpower. The young country stood at a crossroad; it could either consolidate power into a central federal government or it could simply become a com- position of highly powerful states. On July 11, 1804, the Federalist,Alexander Hamilton and theAnti-federalist, Aaron Burr would meet on a dueling ground in Weehawken, New Jersey to settle a long standing dispute. This infamous duel represents the violent clash of two opposing political ideologies in what would later be known as the Federalist Debates. The Constitutional Convention of 1787 was a pivotal moment for the Federalists and the Anti-Fed- eralist. At this momentous event, America’s Founding Fathers debated policy to replace the ineffective gov- ernment created by the Articles of Confederation. Intense debate between the opposing political foes shaped the Constitution into it’s current form. Prominent Anti-Federalists, such as Thomas Jefferson, Aaron Burr, Samuel Adams, and George Mason, argued the need for a weaker Federal Government. They believed that each state should have the final say regarding their own domestic matters and the ability to impose taxes as they saw fit. Furthermore, they argued that the President should have extremely limited power and that Senate terms should be greatly reduced. TheAnti-Federalists represented the interests of rural and agriculturalAmerica, they thought a Federal Government would simply forget and dismiss their civil liberties. During 1787-1788, John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton looked to address and refute the concerns of the Anti-Federalist party in the group of 85 articles and essays called the Federalist Pa- pers. They believed that the United States deserved a strong central government in order to unite the na- tion. They were reassured that a central government would not be able to abuse power due to the check and balance system created to balance each of the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches of gov- ernment. One of the most prominent Federalists, Al- exander Hamilton, greatly furthered the cause of his party. Born in 1755 in the French West Indies, Al- exander Hamilton would soon become a household name and a Founding Father of the United States of America. Hamilton greatly romanticized the idea of war. When fighting between the British and Rebels broke out he quickly joined the ranks of the separatist movement. Hamilton quickly rose through the ranks, by 1777 he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the Continental Army. While serving in New York, Hamilton befriended General George Washington. A close bond quickly developed and Washington recognized the ex- treme intelligence and pragmatism of young Hamilton. Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States A romanticized view of the Burr-Hamilton duel, July 11, 1804, from an 1890 American history textbook. https://streetsofsalem. files.wordpress.com/2012/07/duel-hamilton-1890.jpg 13
  15. 15. Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States Upon being named the first president of the United States, George Washington appointed Hamilton as Secretary of Treasury. During this role, Hamilton was able to make his greatest contribution to the Federalist party and solidify the role of the Federal Government. Hamilton decided to nationalize all state debt. Despite vehement opposition, Hamilton was able to enact this policy, believing that putting the government in charge of all debt would firmly secure its importance and power in American politics, and that it was the only way to receive a positive credit on the international level. The likes of Jefferson and Burr bitterly opposed this new system, claiming that it put too much pressure on farmers and was unconstitutional. The Federalist Debates paved the way for our modern pluralistic political culture. The intense rivalry that existed between those such as Hamilton and Jefferson shaped America in its formative years. Ultimately, the policies that Hamilton enacted had widespread success. Hamilton’s foresight allowed him to recognize the importance of emerging businesses and to solidify the position of the Federal Government. His policies set the foundation for America to become the modern financial giant that it is today. Unfortunately, Hamilton’s politics also led to his downfall. In 1804, a series of twistful events led to a bitter hatred between Hamilton and promi- nent politician Aaron Burr. Hamilton did not want to see this Anti-Federalist become Governor of his home state, New York. The press was able to attain a transcript of remarks Hamilton made while trying to dissuade New York elite from supporting Burr. Once the remarks were made public, Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel. On July 11, 1804, Hamilton sustained a gunshot wound to his stomach and subsequently died the next day. The duel stands as an infamous reminder of the bitter rivalry that existed between the Federalist and Anti-Federal. “Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr’s Duel.” PBS. 2000. accessed April 29, 2015. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/duel/peo pleevents/pande17.html “Alexander Hamilton: The Man Who Made America.” New-York Historical Society. accessed April 29, 2015. http://www.alexander hamiltonexhibition.org/ Burns, Andrew. “Alexander Hamilton’s Point.” Hamilton Point Investment. July 12, 2012. accessed April 29, 2015. http://hamilton point.com/alexander-hamiltons-point/ “Hamilton’s Economic Policy.” Boundless. accessed April 29, 2015. https://www.boundless.com/u-s-history/textbooks/boundless-u-s- history-textbook/the-federalist era-1789-1801-10/hamilton-s-economic-policy-87/hamilton-s-economic-policy-484-3380/ “The Pistols that Killed a Founding Father-Behind the Scenes,”. New-York Historical Society, accessed April 29, 2015. http://be hindthescenes.nyhistory.org/the-pistol-that-killed-a-founding-father/ “The Federalist Debates: Balancing Power Between State and Federal Governments,” EDSITEment, accessed April 29, 2015. http:// edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/federalist-debates-balancing-power-between-state-and-federal-governments “The Federalist Papers,” FoundingFathers.info, accessed April 29, 2015,http://www.foundingfathers.info/federalistpapers/ Bibliography 14
  16. 16. Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States John Rogers was an American sculptor who primarily created pieces specific to a time period’s social and political issues, which he called groups. In this bronze sculpture called Return Volunteer: How the Fort Was Taken from his Civil War group, Rogers depicts the less explored perspective of wartime art, the families of soldiers. Generally, Civil War art encompasses the emotional and physical struggle of the sol- dier at war, but Roger brought forth the feelings of those the soldier left behind at home. In this model, Rogers illustrates a soldier returning from battle to a older working man and a young child to tell of the defeat of the Union at the Battle of Fort Sumpter,which initiated the Civil War. It is significant that the soldier tells his story to this man and child because the scene is made up of characters who have a very familial pres- ence. The artist poses the question about where praise is due, is it those who remained in the household and job oriented or John Rogers, Returned Volunteer: How The Fort Was Taken, 1864, Gift of Miss Miriam Egbert Greenwood School in memory of her father, Mr. George Drew Eg- bert, Inventory Number: 1940.845. those who defended the nation during times of war. The model reflects sympathy for both sides.. The young innocent girl holding the older man's hand, possibly her grandfather, shows the importance of a parental figure to be present during a child's development for comfort and economic support, while the soldier telling of the defeat shows how important the men who become involved in war are significant to the outcome and effect on the nation. To Rogers it was important to display both perspectives because both represented his feelings after being drafted. He never viewed himself as a soldier like yet he was aware of how society reacted to those who refused the position. Although he never actively fought, Rogers provided comfort to all who were affected during warfare that they would be appreciated whether they went to the front or stayed at home. Returned Volunteer: How The Fort Was Taken The War Against Slavery The Civil War was a culmination of sectional tensions that arose during the first half of the 1800’s, mainly over the question of the federal government’s stance on slavery. Majority of the states in support of slavery and who also seceded to form the Confederate States of America were in the South. The majority of states in the North supported paid labor, and did not secede from the Union. The institution of slavery became entrenched in southern planting states after the explosion of the cotton industry. The southern gentry class de- pended on slavery because the productivity that was garnered from using a system of forced labor generated a large portion of income to the Southern states. As the Northern states expanded the free market economics ideology, feelings toward slavery changed in the North. In 1803, during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson, a large piece of land, the Louisiana Purchase Territory was purchased from the French ruler, Napoleon Bonaparte for fifteen million dollars. The land ac- quired from this transaction doubled the size of America and made way for the creation of fifteen more states 15
  17. 17. Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States to be added to the nation. Although the tension between the North and South originated before the the addi- tion of the new territory, the new land exacerbated the intensity of the debate. The Northerners wished to keep the new territory free of slavery while the South advocated for the expansion of slavery in the new states. The controversy over slavery in the Louisiana Purchase territory found its way onto the floor of Congress. In an effort to settle disputes within the government, the Missouri Com- promise drew a definite line between free and slave states. Furthermore, the Gag Rule prevented any debate over the abolition of slavery in Congress. For several decades, the issue of slavery was not resolved and debate was suppressed and tensions were muted. Tensions reemerged in full force after the Mexican Cession and Mexican-American War (1846-1848) when the nation grew in size once again with the acquisition of land on the Pacific Coast. The main debates were over the status of the new territories. Some compromises proposed included elongating the Missouri Compromise line, giving power to the states to decide their status, and al- lowing the people of the new lands to decide the status of the state known as popular sovereignty. As disputes furthered, aggression increased amongst Southerners. In 1860, South Carolina passed an Ordinance of Secession and ten other states followed to create the Confederate States of America. President Abraham Lincoln viewed the secession as an attack on the constitution and vowed to “preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution,” to reestablish the Union . In 1861,a call for arms was issued by both regions, which furthered conflict amongst the citizens of both nations. The demand for soldiers was very high however, willingness to join the war effort lacked in the North. Many men valued family life, their jobs, and their own personal safety over the needs of Lincoln, which led to forced enrollment called military drafts. This tactic revealed to Northerners the underlying economic motives of the drafts, as the rich were able to pay their way out of war and the poor were forced to fight, which coined the phrase a “rich man’s war and poor man’s fight.” In response, large, violent demonstrations were held to resist the draft like the New York City Draft Riots in 1863. Although Lincoln’s primary intentions were to uphold the Union, Congress began to shift the focus of the war to the emancipation of slaves. In 1862, Congress eradicated slavery in the capital, District of Columbia and prohibited Union soldiers from returning fugitive slaves back to their masters. In 1863, President Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation, in which he stated all slaves in the rebelling states will be freed. In practice however, the proclamation was ineffective because it failed to free the slaves in the border states apart of the Union and emancipated slaves based on Union victories in the South. However, it was successful in persuading blacks to fight with the Union for their freedom. It wasn't until Spring 1865 when Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his troops to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, that organized fighting subsided in the nation. How- ever, it did not mean a peaceful, happy ending for all. For the next twelve years America would be on a path of reconstruction, in which the nation struggled to reintegrate and a new fight for civil rights for blacks emerged. Bibliography John Rogers, John Rogers: American Stories (New York: New-York Historical Society, 2010): 34 Michael Clapper, Reconstructing a Family: John Roger’s Taking the Oath and Drawing Rations (Winterthur Portfolio Vol 39, Number 4, 2004): 259-78 John McGeehan and Gall Morris, Let's Review: U.S. History and Government (New York: Barron's Educational Series, 2007): 108-11 16
  18. 18. Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States This painting depicts the 69th (Irish) Regiment, New York State Militia, returning home from the first Battle of Bull Run, which took place on July 21, 1861. While in the painting the crowd seems to be celebrating the regiment's return, Bull Run was actually a defeat for the Union troops! Colonel Michael Corcoran of the 69th, whose portrait is shown in the lower right of the painting, was even captured. Al- though early in the battle the opposing armies were equally untrained and well matched, after the Confeder- ate army received reinforcements, the Union soldiers were driven back. Since it was one of the first major battles of the American Civil War, people were not yet aware of the horrors to come, and civilians actually came along to picnic and watch the fight! Once there they became frightened and fled, clogging the roads and causing such confusion that the Northern troops panicked and fled as well. This naiveté was shared by both sides, as each were very confident in their success and believed that they would defeat the other in a matter of months. The Union and Confederacy were sadly mistaken, and the Civil War turned out to be the deadliest conflict in American history. Louis Lang, a German immigrant born in 1814, painted the scene between 1862 and 1863 and do- nated it to the New-York Historical Society in 1886. Lang first studied art in Stuttgart and Paris, afterwards coming to America as a young man. By the 1850's he was a member of the National Academy and had estab- lished himself as an artist in New York. In the painting above, which is thought to have been commissioned by the 69th regiment themselves, Lang masterfully captured the scene of the return as well as the sense of Louis Lang, Return of the 69th (Irish) Regiment, N.Y.S.M. from the Seat of War, 1862-1863, Gift of Louis Lang, Inventory Number: 1886.3. Return of the 69th (Irish) Regiment, N.Y.S.M. from the Seat of War 17
  19. 19. Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States joy and celebration. This is especially important as it points to the same naiveté shown by those who came to watch the battle. Lang includes allusions to death, through the weeping willow and injured men, but he most certainly did not intend the onlooker to dwell upon the sadness of the scene. Rather, he wished to portray a celebration of service and patriotism. It is sad that this dedicated service, which resulted in so many deaths, did not end the pain and suffering. At the end of the Civil War, while the Union won and slavery was abolished, the difficult process of Reconstruction had yet to be endured. Even though the Civil War ended and slavery was abolished in 1865, the fight for civil rights continued. The costly battles of the war were replaced with political disagreements concerning how to approach Recon- struction. Slavery was replaced with oppressive policies towards former enslaved people. President Abraham Lincoln’s policy for Reconstruction was a moderate approach based on the belief that the South never legally left the Union. In 1863, he wrote his “Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruc- tion.” It stated that all Southerners, excluding Confederate and military officials, were to be pardoned for their partaking in secession after taking an oath of allegiance to the Union. After at least 10% of voters in a state had taken the oath, that state would be allowed to form a legitimate government recognized by the federal govern- ment in Washington, D.C.. Radical Republicans disagreed with Lincoln’s plan, and wanted a more punitive approach. Their plan for Reconstruction was based upon the belief that the states that had seceded from the Union reverted to ter- ritorial status, and thus needed congressional legislature to be readmitted. The Wade-Davis bill, passed in 1864, called for at least 50% of voters to pledge their allegiance before a state could be readmitted to the Union. Lin- coln blocked the bill with a veto because it would have delayed the readmittance of the Southern states to the Union, and he wanted a more tolerant approach. Lt. E.K. Butler, 69th N.Y.S.M., http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/ cwp2003003448/pp/ Col. Michael Corcoran, at the Battle of Bull Run, Va.-July 21st 1861: The desperate and bloody charge of the "Gallant Sixty Ninth," on the rebel batteries, http://www. loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.08407/ Reconstruction and the Early Civil Rights Struggle 18
  20. 20. Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth only six days after Robert E. Lee’s un- conditional surrender at the Appomattox Court House. Andrew Johnson, a Democrat that had been Lin- coln’s vice president, became president, and enacted his policy of Reconstruction. His party believed that the South should control the reestablishment of their own governments. They reasoned that if secession was illegal, they never left the Union in the first place. In 1865 Johnson pardoned most white Southerners and authorized the South to rebuild their own governments. Unfortunately, the outcome of this was the elimination of African Americans from the Reconstruction efforts and the restoration of the old Southern elite to power. The Last speech on impeachment--Thaddeus Stevens closing the debate in the House, March 2. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/re- source/cph.3c06848/ The new governments in the South passed Black Codes that suppressed the rights of the former slaves. While the laws did give African Americans some rights such as marriage and limited access to courts, it also restricted them from serving in the state militia, participating on juries, and voting. Radical Republicans in Congress were dismayed with the progress in the South. They succeeded (after many vetoes) with the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which made African Americans United States citizens and banned discrimination against them. They submitted the 14th Amendment, which said that no state shall, “deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.” It was passed in 1868 when President John- son’s veto was overturned. Thaddeus Stevens was a powerful Radical Republican. Under his influence, the Freedmen’s Bureau Act was passed in 1866. It provided food, clothing, shelter, jobs, and schools to the freed slaves. The Radical Republicans also succeeded with the Military Reconstruction Act in 1867. It called for there to be no lawful governments in the South except where the 14th Amendment was ratified and African Americans were guaranteed certain rights. In addition, it divided the South into five military districts. Federal troops were sent to the South to offer protection and enforce the laws. Under Radical Reconstruction, which was enacted by Republicans in Congress, the Southern states went through what was termed, “[an] experiment in bi-racial democracy.” Black and white men had equal opportunities concerning voting and access to public office, and hundreds of black men were elected or appointed to public office. In 1877, however, federal troops were pulled out of the South, and Reconstruction, which had begun in 1865, ended. When it did come to a close, all of the Southern states had been readmitted to the Union. The Southern states, however, experienced a dramatic reversal of the policies that had been put in place by Radi- cal Reconstruction. The new white Southern governments, called Redeemer governments, began the practice of circumventing the Civil War Amendments in order to suppress the African American vote. In addition, white supremacist terrorist groups such as the Klu Klux Klan (founded in 1865) and the Knights of the White Camellia (founded in 1867) tormented African Americans and intimidated voters. 19
  21. 21. The economy in the South had been dev- astated by the war and land was rented by the former slave owners in exchange for a percent- age of the harvest in an institution known as Sharecropping. Many free African Americans stayed to work for the same people who had previously enslaved them and, for the most part, even had the same jobs as they did when they were enslaved. Laws were put into place that favored the landlords and made it difficult for the sharecroppers to get out of debt, leave the land, and become economically independent. Sharecropping, although an improvement from slavery, still oppressed the newly freed African Americans. Unit One: Constitutional Foundation of the United States Ku Klux Klan, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Divi- sion Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/ resource/npcc.30454/ In addition, although the black codes had been repealed with the reforms of 1866, with the end of Re- construction in 1877, new laws that were equally limiting came to fruition. These new laws were nicknamed “Pig Laws” and included things such as making it a criminal offense to be unemployed. In addition, African American men were removed from their political offices, making it easier and easier to pass discriminatory laws. The Pig Laws stayed in place for a long time, eventually evolving into even more oppressive versions during the Jim Crow era. It was not until nearly a century later that the oppression the Civil War had tried to end was truly lessened through Lyndon Johnson’s Civil Rights Act of 1964. Bibliography "Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress." Library of Congress. Accessed March 21, 2015, http://www.loc.gov/teachers/ classroommaterials/connections/abraham-lincoln-papers/history8.html Foner, Eric, and Olivia Mahoney. "America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War." Digital History. Last modified January 1, 2003. Accessed March 11, 2015. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/exhibits/reconstruction/section4/section4_intro. html Freidel, Frank, and Hugh Sidey. "Andrew Johnson." The White House. Last modified January 1, 2006. Accessed March 21, 2015. https://www.whitehouse.gov/1600/presidents/andrewjohnson Moyer, Steve. "Remarkable Radical: Thaddeus Stevens." National Endowment for the Humanities. Last modified November 1, 2012. Accessed March 21, 2015. http://www.neh.gov/humanities/2012/novemberdecember/feature/remarkable-radical-thaddeus-ste vens O'Brien Wagner, Nancy, and Kristin Penderson. "Slavery by Another Name." PBS. January 1,2012. Accessed March 4, 2015. http:/ /www.pbs.org/tpt/slavery-by-another-name/home/ Stanchak, John E. Civil War. New York: Dorling Kindersley Pub., 2000. “The First Reconstruction Act Is Passed." History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes. Last modified January 1, 2006. Accessed March 28, 2015. http://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/1431 20
  22. 22. UNIT TWO: INDUSTRIALIZATION OF THE UNITED STATES Essays In This Unit Include: I. Industrialization’s Effects on Women & Children Guljar Nahar, Stuyvesant High School................................................................................................22 II. Industry and Efficiency During the Gilded Age Daniel Stambler, Tenafly High School................................................................................................25 III. Immigration and The Gilded Age Whitney Tam, Stuyvesant High School...............................................................................................28 IV. Imperialism, Industrialization, Progressivism & the Childhood Experience Samuel Clarke, Brooklyn College Academy........................................................................................30 21
  23. 23. Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States In order to create this sewing machine, Gibbs had decided to partner up with James Willcox and his son, Charles Henry Willcox. In 1858, the Willcox & Gibbs machine was produced in Providence, Rhode Island, by the company of Brown and Sharpe. Brown and Sharpe at that time made clocks, watches and measuring in- struments. Even though Gibbs was the one to come up with the idea of the Willcox & Gibbs machine, Charles Henry Willcox took a big part in improving it. In 1875, he created the Automatic Tension which turned their machine into a bestseller around the world. One of the first mass produced sewing machines with every single part being easily interchangeable hap- pened to be the Willcox & Gibbs sewing machine. This meant production figures would be significantly high and production time would be lowered to half an hour or less. Due to the outbreak of the American Civil War, sewing machines were being produced in the thousands every year. The Willcox & Gibbs sewing machine was an instant success and became very popular. It was lighter, and ran more smoothly than the competing sewing machine at the time. It was also almost half the price and size, using half as much thread as other machines. A normal sewing machine back then would cost about $100 but the the Willcox & Gibbs cost around $50. The machine was made of metal with measurements of ten inches high, 12 ¼ inches long, and six inches wide. Its size and shape made it a lot more versatile and portable. Valued for their precision engineering and remarkable stitching the Willcox & Gibbs sewing machines are still one of the most collected sewing machines of all time. Willcox & Gibbs Sewing Machine Co., Portable chain stitch sewing machine, ca. 1883, Gift of Mr. Christopher Baldwin, Jr., Inventory Number: 1942.245. The Willcox & Gibbs Sewing Machine may have not been the first sewing machine, but it was the first of its kind. James Edward Allen Gibbs, had invented the Willcox & Gibbs sewing machine in 1855. He was a farmer, but spent his free time as an inventor. At this time Gibbs’s in- vention was different from any other sewing machine due to its single thread chain stitch. This was unique since it had a mechanism that used a lower revolving hook that would catch the top thread and then twist it into a loop to lock it into the fabric. This particular method of sewing had not been used before and became known as the chain stitch. Willcox & Gibbs Sewing Machine Co., Portable chain stitch sewing machine Industrialization's effects on Women & Children The invention of the sewing machine had one of the biggest impacts on the United States. In 1860, Scientific American claimed that after the Spinning Jenny which was a spinning wheel used to spin more than one ball of yarn or thread and the plough, the sewing machine was “the most important invention that has ever been made since the world began.” Women and children were directly affected by the advent of the sewing machine, creating ripple effects that resulted in major changes almost every industry during the American Industrial Revolution. People have been sewing for thousands of years, but the work had always been done by hand using 22
  24. 24. Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States mainly a sharp ivory needle then later progressing into stronger iron needles. Around the mid 18th century, people started to think of new improved approaches in the system of sewing. Elias Howe invented the first successful sewing machine in 1845 but Isaac Merrit Singer made it wildly popular by adapting it to both commercial and household use. Singer’s machine directly led to a paradigm shift in every corner of the manu- facturing sector of the US economy. The sewing machine allowed clothing to become a mass produced item which welcomed its social ac- ceptance. Machine production of garments converted the entire meaning of clothing in the 19th century. Cloth- ing became more affordable for the everyday person. This cultivated the organization of a large garment mak- ing industry, and the production of clothing was now moved from homes to factories and sweatshops. As the population began to grow so did its wants and needs. Big manufacturers realized that bulk production cost less and was more efficient. It also provided the quantity of items that were needed by the consumer. This resulted in an immense increase in factories. Women were the main workers in textile mills, so they would use the sewing machines. Many believed this would impose on their craft as skilled seamstresses and the art of sewing would be left behind. On the other hand many thought this was a great opportunity for freedom to pursue things outside of their housework. Before the Industrial Revolution, a woman’s work included housework like cleaning, cooking, and sewing but after the Industrial Revolution the role of women in the workplace had changed as well as the role of children in the workplace. Owners of early factories were interested in hiring workers for cheap pay which meant they employed a large number of women and children. Many factory owners followed Social Darwinism and did not care for their workers properly. Many believed that if a worker wanted a better life they had to do it on their own. Women and children could be hired for lower wages than men but they still had to work for as long as 16 hours a day. Many times the factory owners would pressure the workers in order to make them speed up production. Factories, machines, and the methods of work were not designed for safety, creating highly hazardous situations leading to many fatal accidents. Young working children went through some of the harshest conditions. Child labor had increased during the Industrial Revolution. Factories that employed children were often very dangerous places that led to injuries and deaths. Some of the machinery often ran so quickly that their small body parts could easily get caught. Excluding the equipment, the environment was a threat to children as well since factories produced fumes and toxins which if inhaled by children could result in illness, chronic conditions, or disease. Children who were working lengthy hours had limited access to education. Many families were reliant on the income earned by every family member which meant school and education could not be prioritized for the children of the family. People who were working in the garment industry worked in sweatshops that had very unhealthy condi- tions. Sweatshops were poorly ventilated, dimly lit rooms where workers all sat next to each other doing piece work. Many employees where forced into working late as well as extra hours so that they could finish the job or they would not get paid. One of the largest incidents in labor history was a result of unsafe sweatshop conditions.The Triangle 23
  25. 25. Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States Shirt Factory Fire killed 146 workers who were predominantly teenage girls working 12 hour workdays. The fire was an extremely preventable accident due to neglected safety procedures. There were no fire escapes and the doors that lead out of the building were all locked. The Triangle Shirt Factory Fire led to many devel- opments of laws and regulations that would help to improve and protect workers’ safety and rights. Harsh working conditions and unfair treatment of workers during the Industrial Revolution were di- rectly related to the new labor unions and reforms. In 1866, the National Labor Union helped push for 8 hour workdays for workers who were employed by the federal government. Other organizations like The Knights of Labor also advocated for the 8 hour workdays, higher wages, and the abolition of child labor. The American Federation of labor also pushed for the passage of state and federal legislature to benefit labor. The Interna- tional Ladies Garment Workers Union represented workers in the women’s clothing industry. They aimed for better wages and working conditions, they were also involved with strikes. The sewing machine had a major impact on people during the Industrial Revolution, directly impacting women and children’s roles in the work- force. Bibliography "Eastern Illinois University Homepage." Childhood Lost. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2015. http://www.eiu.edu/eiutps/childhood.php. Goldin, Claudia, and Kenneth Sokoloff. “Women, children, and industrialization in the early republic: Evidence from the manufactur ingcensuses.” The Journal of Economic History 42, no. 04 (1982): 741-774. "Impact on America." Sewing Machine. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 March. 2015. http://sewingmachine.umwblogs.org/the-sewing-machine-its- impact-on-america/. "History of the Sewing Machine." International Sewing Machine Collectors Society. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2015. http://ismacs.net/ sewing_machine_history.html. "Sewing Machines: Liberation or Drudgery for Women?" Sewing Machines: Liberation or Drudgery for Women? N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2015. http://www.historytoday.com/joan-perkin/sewing-machines-liberation-or-drudgery-women. "Working Conditions." Working Conditions. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2015. http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/USRA__Workers_Lives. htm. "WILLCOX & GIBBS, WILLCOX & GIBBS CHAIN STITCH SEWING MACHINE W&G." WILLCOX & GIBBS, WILLCOX & GIBBS CHAIN STITCH SEWING MACHINE W&G. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2015. http://www.sewalot.com/willcox_gibbs .htm. 24
  26. 26. Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States Willcox & Gibbs Sewing Machine Co., Portable chain stitch sewing machine, ca. 1883, Gift of Mr. Christopher Baldwin, Jr., Inventory Number: 1942.245. Willcox & Gibbs Sewing Machine Co., Portable chain stitch sewing machine In the 1850s, inventor James Gibbs, created a line of portable sewing machines aimed at the Southern domestic mar- ket. With the advent of a major Industrial Revolution, Gibbs, an entrepreneur who unlike Andrew Carnegie, could not ac- curately predict changes in technology, made the mistake of targeting a market that was dwindling. He created the chain stitch sewing machine, at first reaping many benefits. However, by the 1870s, the industrial market began to boom while the domestic market shrank and Gibbs began making sewing ma- industrial market as well. The Gibbs Willcox Sewing machine is one of the portable, domestic sewing models that was made in 1883. Although the object is considered portable, it is indeed quite heavy to carry around, as it is comprised of iron metal. The sewing machine has a rotary hand crank designed for women and men to easily use. The machine states, “made in the USA,” which at the time was one of the world’s largest industrial manufacturers. It also contains the seal of Gibbs’ company and a Gilded Age art style pattern of leaves and berries etched into it. It has an effective and patented rotary hook. The rotary crank and rotary hook is an early example of the utilization of Taylorism or making efficient attachments so that the person using the machine could maximize their output. Industry and Efficiency During the Gilded Age The United States of America in the late 19th century could be described as a period of industrial growth in the post civil war era. This time period witnessed the rise of many business tycoons as well as many mo- nopolies. Entrepreneurs such as John Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie, through their use of investments and consolidation, rose from rags to riches, and became some of the wealthiest men in the United States. Rockefeller became the owner of Standard Oil, and Carnegie became the owner of the largest steel company and an in- novator in steel production. Other wealthy families, such as the Vanderbilts, became even more prominent by consolidating railroads and other industries out west. Several other business owners created trusts, alliances with other businesses where they would pool their money together, in order to preserve their status of economic wealth, and keep new companies down. Indeed, business practices in this era were characterized by the concept of survival of the fittest as monopoly men strived to cut down competition and control prices in their industry. These men acquired monopolies through two common methods, vertical and horizontal integration. These methods involved buying out every component of one’s competition. For example, Rockefeller started his ca- reer by buying up all oil refineries and then adjusted prices to hurt his oil drilling competition. This way he was able to buy all the drilling sites as well. As a result, the industrial monopolies could abuse both consumers and employees. Around this time period several new technologies were introduced. The production of steel and cre- ation of elevators made it possible to build skyscraper like structures that had never been built before and the drive to make money precipitated the advent of several techniques to cut costs and make production more 25
  27. 27. Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States efficient. The drive to make their factories more efficient led to owners hiring managers and consultants, helping to expand the middle class. Frederick Winslow Taylor was one of the pioneers of industrial efficiency as he patented many tools, such as a specific shovel for coal and snow, and techniques, such as paying laborers for the amount of work they do instead of wages, that would maximize output. In 1911, he published The Principles of Scientific Management where he boasts about the results of his successful experiments and states that “the principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee,” (Taylor, 4). Thus the term for industrial efficiency came to be known as Taylorism. This era of industrial development was known as the Gilded Age (1870’s-1901.) This was an era when the overwhelming majority of registered voters participated in politics. Both political parties were conservative, and argued over the tariff. And many people believed that through hard work, anyone could be as wealthy as Carnegie. However, social mobility was not as easy as it seemed. In order to maximize profit, company manage- ment often laid off workers and cut wages whenever they needed to save money. Industrial development mainly benefited company owners and not the workers who often worked for twelve hours a day in poor conditions and without job security. Many women and children also worked in factories for even lower wages. These problems led to the creation of various workers unions such as the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor. These unions bargained with management and fought for the eight hour work week, better conditions, job security, and higher wages. Although many of these unions were pro-labor, they were not against capitalism as union leaders such as Samuel Gompers were often conservative and unions often excluded immigrants and African Americans. Regardless, many factory owners viewed unions as a threat and strove to undermine them. This lead to tension between capitalism and labor. In some cases this tension resulted in the workers going on strike, an event when all workers stop working and cease production, in hopes of getting factory owners to bar- gain with them. However, oftentimes during this era, these strikes ended badly for the unions. Factory owners, most of the time, would get either the state militia or even the national guard to break up the strike. Politicians often justified their siding with management as their enforcement of the Sherman Antitrust Act, a law that was initially passed to ban companies from monopolizing, not workers. As a result, many unions would fall apart. A famous example of a workers strike was the Homestead Strike, when after failing to agree upon a renewed contract with Carnegie's manager, Frick, laborers near Pittsburgh went on strike. They beat off the Pinkertons, mercenaries hired by Frick to break up the strike, but ultimately lost to the Pennsylvania state militia. Unions, during this time, were not favored by the public, mainly because the majority of middle class Americans viewed them as radical. Extremists known as Anarchists, immigrants from Eastern Europe who believed that, “freedom, the right to self-expression, everybody's right to beautiful, radiant things,” can’t ex- ist under any form of government, managed to sneak in amongst striking workers and commit terror attacks (Goldman, 41). At the Homestead strike, a Russian anarchist by the name of Alexander Berkman, the lover of lead Anarchist activist Emma Goldman, attempted to kill Frick at the peak of the strike but were restrained by workers. Unions only started getting national recognition after Theodore Roosevelt became president in 1901. The late nineteenth century has been often overlooked in modern US History courses but is very 26
  28. 28. Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States important to one’s understanding of US History. This era witnessed incredible industrialization and techno- logical development as factories and businesses strove to maximize their output while minimizing their input. Around this time, many workers came together on the national level and formed unions in order to bargain with their bosses for better conditions. The debate between capitalism and labor became large around this time period and still exists today. Politics around the time period emphasized an uninvolved federal government and thus left problems to fix themselves. Much needed reform and interference from the federal government would be implemented over the course of the next half century but by the conclusion of the 1800s, the United States became a major global manufacturing power. Bibliography Appleby, Joyce. "Getting Ready to Lead a World Economy: Enterprise in Nineteenth-Century America." The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/economics/essays/getting-ready-lead-world-economy-en terprise-nineteenth-century-ameri (accessed February 12, 2015). Chatfield, Michael. "History of Accounting: An International Encyclopedia." University of Mississippi Libraries. http://clio.lib.olemiss .edu/cdm/ref/collection/aah/id/658 (accessed March 18, 2015). Cherny, Robert. "Entrepreneurs and Bankers: The Evolution of Corporate Empires." The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American His tory. https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/gilded-age/essays/entrepreneurs-and-bankers-evolution-corporate- empires(accessed February 12, 2015). Freeman, Joshua. "Labor Day: From Protest to Picnics." Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. https://www.gilderlehrman. org/history-by-era/populism-and-agrarian-discontentgovernment-and-civics/essays/labor-day-from-protest-p (accessed Febru ary 12, 2015). Goldman, Emma. Living My Life. New York: Alfred A Knopf Inc., 1931. http://theanarchistlibrary.org/library/emma-goldman-living- my-life.pdf. "History Times: The Industrial Revolution." Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by- era/gilded-age/essays/history-times-industrial-revolution (accessed February 12, 2015). McKinley, William. "McKinley, William (1843-1901), to William R. Day." The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. https:// www.gilderlehrman.org/collections/b2814f51-f4f7-4056-aab2-577117277689 (accessed January 31, 2015). Moenster, Kathleen. "1870s Sewing Machine." National Parks Service.http://www.nps.gov/jeff/blogs/1870s-Sewing-Machine.htm (ac cessed February 12, 2015). "Special Collections - F.W. Taylor Collection." S.C. Williams Library Website. http://web.archive.org/web/20071112144955/http:// www.lib.stevens-tech.edu/collections/fwtaylor/guide/part1/patents.html (accessed March 4, 2015). Frederick Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management (New York: W.W Norton and Company, 1911), 1-45. "The 1892 Battle of Homestead Foundation." Battle of Homestead Foundation. http://battleofhomestead.org/battle.php (accessed March 25, 2015). 27
  29. 29. Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States “Liberty Enlightening the World” or more commonly known as the “State of Liberty” is a colossal neoclassical sculpture located on Liberty Island in the New York Harbor in New York City. The statue was designed by French sculptor, FrédéricAuguste Bartholdi. It was dedicated to the United States from the people of France on October 28, 1886. Despite this, the statue was not ready for intended presentation until July 4, 1876 because of financial setbacks. The French presented the statue to the United States as a gift to honor the friendship and commitment to liberty between the two countries. The statue is of a robed female figure representing the Roman god- dess, Libertas who bears a torch and tablet. The tablet is inscribed with the date of the American Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. The statue is an icon of freedom and is a welcoming signal to immigrants arriving from abroad. Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi, Liberty Enlight- ening the World, ca. 1879-1883, Gift of Mr. George A. Zabriskie, Inventory Number: 1942.346. Liberty Enlightening the World “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearn- ing to break free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, the tempest tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door,” (Lazarus). This is the message that manifests in our mind when we think of the Statue of Liberty. This is also how millions of immigrants imagined what it would be like to arrive in the United States during the Gilded Age. During the late 1800s to early 1900s, millions of immigrants poured into the United States. This phenomenon is known as the New Immigration (Digital History). During this time, immigrants from all over the world, particularly Europe and Asia, came in hopes of a better life. Factors of this immigration can be split into two categories known as push and pull factors. The pull factors were the employment and economic opportunities, as well as religious and political freedom. Although these were very attractive factors to immigrants overseas, the push factors were ultimately most decisive. These new immigrants were primarily coming to America to, “escape poverty and oppression in their homelands,” (Brinkley). Some forms of oppression involved political and religious beliefs. Typically an image of a melting pot is conjured in our mind when we picture the people, including immigrants, living in the United States. However, the overall picture is much closer to the idea of a patch- work quilt; different communities of different ethnicities coming together. Different ethnic enclaves arose. Some we can still find today such as “Little Italy” and “Chinatown” in New York City. The immigrants faced great adversity when arriving to this new country: There was tension over jobs between different communi- Immigration and The Gilded Age 28
  30. 30. Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States ties as well as those that had been living in the States for multiple generations. The term the Gilded Age implies an age of great opulence and grandiosity. Industrialization changed the country’s economy and in some cases even caused great wealth and prosperity. The United States’ econ- omy experienced a growth of capitalism which is “an economic and social system in which the means of production-capital-is privately owned by individuals,” (Olson-Raymer). Industries of coal, railroads, electric- ity, steel and oil boomed. There were major advances in science and engineering. These industries also gave way to a captains of industry also known as robber barons. Some of most prominent robber barons include Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie. All of whom benefited greatly from capital- ism during the Gilded Age (Olson Raymer). These few individuals controlled the biggest industries. All of these industries were one huge company also known as a monopoly which resulted in lack of competition. Even though the Gilded Age was the age of great industry and advancement it also masked an age of social problems and intense poverty. There was a great disparity in the social classes; there lacked a middle class with only a few holding wealth and an enormous lower class. Those particularly who suffered the great- est were the immigrants (U.S. History). Immigrants were often taken advantage of by those who had resided in the states for multiple generations. Upton Sinclair, a journalist who lived during this time first handedly experienced what immigrants and low class Americans experienced by working undercover. He exposed all these conditions by writing the fictional novel, “The Jungle,” which follows the life of a Lithuanian immi- grant. Although a work of fiction, “The Jungle,” is synonymous with the poverty and suffering that immigrants and poor Americans experienced. In the novel, the main protagonist struggles to provide for his family who throughout the whole novel lives under a constant burden to pay off their rent and provide for themselves. An- other expose that was done during this time was Jacob Riis’ book, “How the Other Half Lives.” This book was a work of photojournalism, which featured pictures of the conditions of those living in poverty. It featured tenement buildings with fire hazards, no ventilation, overcrowded apartments, lack of natural light and lack of facilities. These images were impossible to ignore and awakened public consciousness (Brinkley). Bibliography Olson-Raymer, Gayle. “Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration in the Gilded Age.” Humboldt.edu. Accessed March 31, 2015. .http://users.humboldt.edu/ogayle/hist111/industrial.html. “The Rush of Immigrants.” Ushistory.org. Accessed March 31, 2015 http://www.ushistory.org/us/38c.asp. “Digital History.” Digital History. Accessed March 31, 2015. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/era.cfm?eraid=9. Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle. Cambridge, Mass.: R. Bentley, 1971. Brinkley, Alan. American History: Connecting With the Past - Ap Edition. Macmillan/McGraw-Hill School, 2011. Lazarus, Emma “The New Colossus” 29
  31. 31. Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States “A Race Around the​World,” an iconic board game of the early 20th century, impacted society's overall perspective of American innovation. Created in 1898 by the McLoughlin Brothers, located on 874 Broadway in New York City, the game was advertised as “instructive as well as amusing character” meant “...for children and young people.” “A Race Around the World” was constructed out of cardboard, wood, and paper, illustrat- ing industrial innovation and the United States’global presence.Agenerational board game targeted to children of the early 20th Century, this game instilled valuable concepts of nationalism and unification, while utilizing cultural identification of the time. An illustrated cover is featured, depicting innovative machinery such as steamboats, locomotives, as well as individuals of association such as an engineer. The board is a broad map of the world, detailed with routes, continents, and areas of seemingly key interest. A Race Around the World covers the entire world, al- lowing players to explore Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. One could select their method of travel in order to win. Every move relies on the spins of the players, allowing an opportunity to advance in the race. Similar to the aggressive pace of the modern day board game “Monopoly.” A Race Around the World​is located within the lower level of the New-York Historical Society, this object was acquired in 2002 as a gift and is displayed amongst similar American board and table games as a part of The Liman Collection. McLoughlin Bros., Game of Race Around the World, 1898, The Liman Collection, Inventory Number: 2000.399. A Race Around the​World Imperialism, Industrialization, Progressivism & the Childhood Experience During the 19th and early 20th centuries the United States began to establish its infrastructure in a far more industrialized manner, utilizing technological gains and immigrant workers for the benefit of its economy. As a result of Imperialism and Capitalism, the nation was in excellent shape. Specifically, through the use of globalization and methods of imperialism such as annexation, the United States prospered .The United States accomplished this through several wars, all of which expanded its size and global presence. Each war brought resources, either land, military strategic advantages or access to regions before their counterparts for trade. 30
  32. 32. Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States War was a tool as an imperialist nation and was used continuously to expand. From the Mexican-American War, Annexation of Hawaii, and eventually its role in World War I, enabled the United States as a Super- power. The advancements of the United States were documented by individuals such as William R. Hearst, Richard F. Outcault, Frederic Remington as well as Joseph Pulitzer. Their actions became popularly known as yellow journalism, a form of media based upon exaggerations and sensationalism .As a result such prog- ress was promoted throughout media, captivating citizens as well as children. The most vulnerable to nation- alistic concepts and aggressive political ideology, children unknowingly became active participants. Due to such cultural incorporation, Imperialism appeared throughout toys, media, and other entities which make up a childhood’s experience. Industrialization was promoted through various forms of media and culture. Toys, movies, plays, radio broadcasts and newspapers serving as key elements of a citizen’s entertainment as well as knowledge during that time period. Industrialization’s impact on childhood were mainly cultural revolutions within busi- nesses from local operations to corporations. These elements were told through board games, cards, stories and other forms of written media. Additionally, toys reflected industrialization, through locomotives, boats, planes, bridges, pretty much any form of vehicle or infrastructure was a toy! A direct comparison of such culture can be seen today through advancements in technology and even politics. Similarly issues of pub- lic interest movies, video games, as well as social media consistently expose children to aspects of modern industry. During the Gilded Age, the quality of the life amongst children of immigrant parents was poor; resulting in inaccessible basic needs such as education. Not only does such a dilemma impact the society and the ability of its citizens, but it promotes an atmosphere of disdain and lack of trust toward government agencies. Thus when Progressivism took swing, politicians utilized such policy for popular vote as well as to improve the state of the nation. Progressivism did work, having dramatic results, it reduced child labor, improved worker conditions, and it reestablished trust within the system, one of multiple contributors to the roaring twenties. Such reform has instilled importance of political involvement among children and emphasis on education in society. The Spanish American War, Mexican- American War, and Annexation of Hawaii were all events which influenced children to politically acknowledge these imperial advancements through entertainment e.g. toys, films, newspapers, and magazines. Children grew up in a society built around national accomplishment, respect of the military and an innate sense of American identity began to emerge. Cultural acceptance developed early and far more easily in children, this can be seen historically. Primarily the concept of the cadet holds Imperialists roots within Childhood. Current generations have expe- rienced similar issues as children did over a century ago. After the Gulf War, as well as the Invasion of Iraq & Afghanistan, these actions influenced media towards children. Censorship became a massive part of the campaign for national security. Eventually the definition of our 1st Amendment rights were at stake and not only were children affected on a level of expression but through culture. Soon video games such as Call of Duty 4, Medal of Honor and Battlefield started to pile store shelves. We played these game, we loved them 31
  33. 33. Bibliography Keys, David. “Revealed: Industrial Revolution Was Powered by Child Slaves.” The Independent. August 2, 2010. Accessed March 31, 2015. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/revealed-industrial-revolution-was-powered-by-child- slaves-2041227.html. “Progressive Movement.” Ohio History Central. Accessed March 28, 2015. http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Progressive_ Movement?rec=543. West, Thomas G., and William A. Schambra. “The Progressive Movement and the Transformation of American Politics.” The Heritage Foundation. July 18, 2007. Accessed March 22, 2015. Abbott, Karen. “Paris or Bust: The Great New York-to-Paris Auto Race of 1908.” Smithsonian. March 7, 2012. Accessed March 23, 2015. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/paris-or-bust-the-great-new-york-to-paris-a uto-race-of-1908-116784616/?no-ist. “Child Labor in America 1908-1912 Photographs of Lewis W. Hine.” History Place. Accessed March 28, 2015. http://www.history place.com/unitedstates/childlabor/. “Imperialism and the Spanish American War.” The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Accessed March 25, 2015. http:// www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/development-west/resources/imperialis m-and-spanish-american-war. Kroplick, Howard. Vanderbilt Cup Races. January 1, 2012. Accessed March 23, 2015.http://www.vanderbiltcupraces.com/. Unit Two: Industrialization of the United States 32 and we became hook on the concept of warfare and the ideology of a soldier. We saw films almost every year about war. We saw Black Hawk Down, Flag of Our Fathers, Green Zone, Generation Kill and most recently American Sniper. American Imperialism is still much alive and has had the same effect in an even more prevalent manner throughout generations of Americans. Child Labor is somewhat of a thing of the past in the United States. Although there are still excep- tions, and those who avoid the law, child labor for most of the USA is not as it was a hundred years ago. Chil- dren during the industrial age were employed usually by manufacturers, and businesses that provided services to the public or private sectors. Children either worked alone or in groups depending upon their occupation. Work culture as it is today, was present amongst children in the past. Children worked in mines, factories, and other labor intensive jobs, working intensive shifts, amounts more than what rest they gained. Children had a culture, it was mainly constructed around the basis of child interaction as we see today. The glory of being a “grown up” is not a new concept, and was present during their lifetimes. Children thought of their occupation in sense of doing chores, but of course with little gratification and poor treatment these beliefs deteriorated. Overtime it became evident, that poor families would be unable to succeed, even if everyone in the fam- ily was working. With little pay, and poor conditions came low life expectancy. Thus the culture was quite depressing, poor souls, smaller and weaker than their superiors working endlessly. Quite similar to a twisted fairy tale, set in an alternate Victorian world. But has this culture evolved, or has it died? The answer, well it has evolved. Today we see employment among the young as a means of learning before adulthood to gain responsibility. Working as an intern in a prestigious institution or learning a trade, in a safe, fair, also paid environments are vast improvements in comparison to the past. Work culture among children has evolved, to much more valued experiences grounded in personal agency.
  34. 34. UNIT THREE: THE PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT Essays In This Unit Include: I. The Beginning of Women’s Liberation Diana Martinez, High School for Environmental Studies....................................................................34 II. The Progressive Era Idalis Gomez, Millennium Brooklyn High School..............................................................................37 III. The American Desire of Expansion Emmanuella Saforo, Collegiate Institute for Math and Science..........................................................39 33
  35. 35. Made for the first women’s suffrage parade, this felted pennant symbolizes the fight for women’s rights and gender equality. The first parade of this kind was organized by the Women’s Political Union and held in New York City in 1910. Prior to the ratifica- tion of the 19th Amendment, parades were a popular way to bring attention to the cause for women’s suffrage. These parades were typically attended by thousands of specta- Henry Schwartz, Pennant,1910-1920, Collection of New-York Historical Society, Inventory Number: 1946.162. tors who used pennants, like the one described above, to show their support of the cause. One of the most fa- mous women’s suffrage parades was hosted in Washington D.C. on the eve of Woodrow Wilson’s presidential inauguration. It ended abruptly and violently after a mob attacked the women in the parade. No arrests were made that day. Furthermore, parades also inspired new ways of calling attention to the suffragists’cause. Many women began to protest and one of the biggest protests also occurred in D.C., outside the White House in 1917. Approximately 500 women were arrested that day and 168 were put in jail. They arrested women were not released until 1918. The pennant is marked in black ink with the words, “VOTES FOR WOMEN.” Henry Schwartz de- signed this pennant specifically for this cause. He was a senator for Wyoming from 1933 to 1935. Schwartz was also elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate in 1936, where he served from 1937 to 1943. Fur- thermore, he was appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to the National Mediation Board from 1943 to 1947. He was a strong democrat who believed in many liberal policies. Pennant The Beginning of Women’s Liberation A combination of the Second Great Awakening, the abolitionist movement, utopian communities, re- form movements, and industrialization led to the first wave of feminism. The goal of this wave was to open up opportunities for women, especially in the political arena, which they were successful in by establishing the 19th amendment. Soon after the ratification of the 19th amendment in 1920, a plethora of opportunities opened up to women. Many focused on giving social welfare concerns attention. In addition, World War I had horrified many women. As a result of these two things, women began to form different organizations to ensure the well- being of others. For instance, the Women’s Joint Congressional Committee helped pass the Sheppard-Towner Federal Maternity and Infancy Act, which sought to reduce infant and maternal mortality through the federal funding of health clinics, nurses, and pregnancy education. The International League for Peace and Freedom aimed to bring world peace. It rejected the use of military pressure and denounced economic imperialism. Aside from pushing these two causes to the political spotlight, women continued to fight for equality. Women under- stood that being granted the right to vote did not fulfill equality between both genders which led to the Equal Rights Amendment. In 1923, Alice Paul, president of the National Woman’s Party, Unit Three: The Progressive Movement 34

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