Introduction Topography, Terrain,This is our PowerPoint about theand Weather of Planets and Moons! We have aguaranteed total runtime of ten minutes, and we feature data about all 8planets! We demonstrate full knowledge of all our planets, so if we leftanything out, we would be happy to give you an answer to best of ourvocabulary, or if we don’t know the answer off the top of our heads, wewould be glad to research the answer for you and either email you youranswer or tell you at school the next day. Please sit back, relax, and enjoythe show!
MercuryFacts• Diameter: 4,878 km.• Temp: really really hot, ?• Orbit: 57,910,000 km, 88 days to an orbit• Rotation time: 58.6 Earth days• Mass: 3.30e23 kg.• Moons: 0Atmosphere• Almost none• Constantly being blown away by solar wind• Gases constantly being added, this is why there is any atmosphere at all• Small amounts of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen• Tiny amounts of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesiumWater• Potential ice
Mercury (continued)Magnetic Fields• Very weakGravity, Orbiting, and Centripetal Forces• Escape velocity: 4.3 km/s• Gravity: 3.7 m/s2• Average orbital velocity: 47.87 km/s• Orbital eccentricity: 0.2056Materials, States of matter, and densities• Density: 5.427 (water = 1)• State of matter: SolidDiscovery and Exploration• Prehistoric
VenusGravity, Orbiting, and Centripetal Forces• Average orbital velocity: 35 km/sDiscovery and investigation• Prehistory• Probe brings back Venusian radiation, starts the apocalypse in Night of the Living Dead.Facts• Diameter: 12,100 km.• Temp: 900+/-50F at surface• Rotation: 243 Earth days• Orbit: 225 Earth days
Venus (continued)Atmosphere• Hot and thick• 96% carbon dioxide• 3.5% nitrogen• Less than 1% carbon monoxide, argon, sulfur dioxide, water vapor• Greenhouse effect made surface & lower atmosphere uber hotWater• Possibly had water in the past• No water now, maybe due to greenhouse effectMagnetic Fields• No magnetic field, or it is so weak it has avoided detection• Probably because spins slowlyMaterials, States of Matter, and Densities• Density: 5.423 (water = 1)• State of matter: Solid
Mars• 1.52 AU from the Sun• Mass – 6.4219 e 23 kg• The first spacecraft to visit Mars is Mainer 4 in 1965. This spaceship was the first one to visit• First to land on Mars was the Mars 2• Its temperature is 218 K, -55 C, -67 F average• The temperature can range from 140 K(-133C, -209F) to 300 K (27C, 80F)• Smaller than the Earth, surface area same as the Earth’s surface land areaAtmosphere• Less than 1% of the earth’s atmosphere• Doesn’t Protect against suns radiation
Mars (continued)Topography• Has polar ice caps that contain frozen water and carbon dioxide• Carbon dioxide ice sublimates in the summer (changes from solid to gas)• Tallest Mountain in the Solar System at 27 km high, 3x taller than mount Everest.• It is 88583 feet tall• Gravity is 38% of the Earths at 3.711 m/s 2• Mainly made of rocvk, metallic core• Density is 3.93 g/cm 3 3.94 g/cm3 (grams per cubic centimeter
SaturnSaturnGas giantSize – 74,898 miles acrossYear – 10,747 earth daysTemperature -292 FGravity- 0.9 times the earthSatellites/moons – at least 60First spacecraft visit – Pioneer 11, 19799.54 Au from the sunMass – 5.68e26 kgSecond largest planetSixth from the sun75% hydrogen and 25% heliumInterior 12,000 K (core)
Saturn (continued)Radiates more energy out than received from the sunGravity 9 m/s 2Average orbital velocity 9.69 km/sLength of day – 10.656 hoursDensity – 68.7% of water’s DensityEscape velocity – 35.5 km/s (speed that is must go to escape the gravitational well)Least dense of all planetsCore composed of Liquid rock, then liquid hydrogen in the next layer. Hydrogen under highpressure changes nature to being able to conduct electricity and that is what generates theSaturn’s magnetic fieldSaturn has the Giant white spot, and scientists don’t have much info on it but they think itis similar to Jupiter’s Great Red SpotWinds and storms unusually generated by Saturn’s internal heat instead of heat from thesunSaturn receives 1% of the heat Earth receives from the sun
UranusFacts• Diameter: 51,500 km• Temp: -197.15 C• Orbit: 84 Earth years• Mass: 8.6849e25 kg.• Moons: 27• Rotation: 17.24 hrs. Spins backwardsAtmosphere• “Surface” covered by striped pattern of winds• Methane completely hides winds• 82.5% hydrogen• 15.2% helium• 2.3% methane• Trace amounts of hydrogen deuterideWater• Huge amounts, all in an ocean of water, hydrogen, and helium
Uranus (continued)Magnetic fields• Fairly strong• Unique conical fieldGravity, Orbiting, and Centripetal Forces• Escape velocity: 21.3 km/s• Gravity: 8.7 m/s2• Average orbital velocity: 6.81 km/s• Orbital eccentricity: 0.0457Materials, States of Matter, and Densities• State of matter: Gas• Density: 1.27 (water = 1)Discovery & exploration• William Herschel, March 13, 1781, probably with a telescope
NeptuneEighth planet from the sunSmaller in Diameter but larger in mass than Uranus30.06 AU from the sun ( 4,504,000,000 km )Mass 1.0247e26 kgIt is a gas planetOnly one spacecraft has visited it and it was the voyager 2 in August, 1989Uranus’s composition (what Uranus is made of) is similar to Uranus in the waythat it is various ices and rocks with about 15% Hydrogen and a little bit ofhelium.13 known moons and has 4 ringsWinds have been measured up to 1,200 miles per hour on the surfaceIt also has some high altitude cloudsStrongest winds on any planet were measured on Neptune
Neptune (continued)Four rings are narrow and faintRings made of dust particles thought to have made by small meteoritescolliding with Neptune’s moons
CreditsResearchers: Jeffrey and TobyPain Bringer (Teacher): Shayé Techie: Toby
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