2012 solar system


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  • Image from http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/1995/26/image/b/format/web/
    Information from The Nine Planets: http://www.nineplanets.org/kboc.html
  • Impact cratering, volcanism, tectonics
    Each planet expresses these processes with unique signature
    Common thread? HEAT
  • Water ice and dust in cap; winter CO2 layer forms, sublimates in spring
    Dark band = dune fields
    Color Image of Frost at Utopia Planitia on Mars
    This color image shows a thin layer of water ice frost on the martian surface at Utopia Planitia. It was taken by Viking 2 Lander camera 2 on 18 May 1979, almost exactly one martian year (687 days) after frost first appeared at this spot and was imaged by Viking 2. The layer is thought to be only a couple thousandths of a centimeter thick. It is speculated that dust particles in the atmosphere pick up tiny bits of water. When it gets cold enough for carbon dioxide to solidify, some of it attaches to the dust and ice and it falls to the surface. The view is looking towards the south southeast, the long boulder to the right is roughly one meter across. (Viking 2 Lander, P-21873
    South Polar Cap This is the south polar cap of Mars as it appeared to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on April 17, 2000. In winter and early spring, this entire scene would be covered by frost. In summer, the cap shrinks to its minimum size, as shown here. Even though it is summer, observations made by the Viking orbiters in the 1970s showed that the south polar cap remains cold enough that the polar frost (seen here as white) consists of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide freezes at temperatures around -125° C (-193° F). Mid-summer afternoon sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left from about 11.2° above the horizon. Soon the cap will experience sunsets; by June 2000, this pole will be in autumn, and the area covered by frost will begin to grow. Winter will return to the south polar region in December 2000. The polar cap from left to right is about 420 km (260 mi) across.
    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science Systems
    Original Caption Released with Image:
    The north polar cap is visible in this projection at the top of the image, the great equatorial canyon system (Valles Marineris) below center, and four huge Tharsis volcanoes (and several smaller ones) at left. Also note heavy impact cratering of the highlands (bottom and right portions of this mosaic) and the younger, less heavily cratered terrains elsewhere.
    North polar cap is probably water-ice
    South polar cap is primarily frozen carbon dioxide
  • More information at http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~mbrown/planetlila/#size
    And at http://www.iau.org/iau0601.424.0.html
  • More information at http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~mbrown/planetlila/#size
    And at http://www.iau.org/iau0601.424.0.html
  • The confusion regarding is Pluto a planet, is further fueled by state governments in the United States. Illinois and New Mexico in particular seem to be completely fine with denouncing the ruling of a worldwide body of astronomers and wish that Pluto be given back its planet status. They believe that there is a sentimental value attached among the people who grew up learning that Pluto is a planet and it is unduly harsh to strip a planet of its status in such a way. They also claim that not all the members were present at the meeting which ruled that Pluto is no longer a planet so justice has not been done to the now dwarf planet. Not to mention that they do not want Clyde W. Tombaugh, a resident of both these states, to be known by posterity as someone who found what is 'just' a dwarf planet. To this day, these two states insist on celebrating March 13, as 'Pluto Planet Day'.
  • 2012 solar system

    1. 1. Our Solar System consists of: 1 Star • __________ 8 Planets • __________ 5+Dwarf Planets • __________ Many Moons • __________ Asteroids • __________ Comets • __________
    2. 2. The Sun •The _____ is our nearest star and the sun center of our solar system. gases •It is a big ball of _________. ( 92% H / 8% He) •It is the source for all of the light and energy _________________ in the solar system. •It has 99.85% mass of the Solar System
    3. 3. Revolutions gravity •The sun has a lot of _______ which pulls on the planets and keeps them in orbit. •The planets ______________ (travel) orbit or revolve around the sun in an elliptical or oval path. •The amount of time that each planet takes to travel around the sun is revolution known as a ___________ and is the length of a year on that planet.
    4. 4. Rotation rotates Each planet also _______, or spins on its axis, as it revolves around the sun. The amount of time that each planet takes to turn all the way around its axis rotation is known as a __________ and equals the length of one day on that planet.
    5. 5. Planets In order for an object in the solar system to be considered a planet, it must do 3 things. orbit • It must ______ the sun. • It must have a _______ shape. round • It must have cleared its neighborhood. The planets listed in their order based on how far they are from the sun are: Earth Mars _________,_________, ______, ________, Mercury Venus Neptune Jupiter Saturn Uranus ________, ________, ________, and _________.
    6. 6. Inner Planets “Terrestrial Planets” • Rocky • Dense • Small • Few or no moons • Metal cores (iron) Images: Lunar and Planetary Laboratory: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=178
    7. 7. Asteroids Asteroids are small objects that orbit the sun. Many are found in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Others are found in the Kuiper belt past Pluto.
    8. 8. Outer Planets • Large! • Gas Giants • No solid surface (land masses) • May have a small solid core • Tumultuous atmospheres rapid winds, large storms • Rotate relatively quickly • Many moons Image: Lunar and Planetary Laboratory: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=178
    9. 9. Kuiper Belt • Disk of debris at the edge of our Solar System • Pluto is a KB Object (sorry!) • Source of short-period comets
    10. 10. Comets and the Oort Cloud Outside the Kupier Belt is the Oort cloud, a cloud of dust and other objects that orbit our sun. Most comets travel in this cloud in irregular orbits that pass close to the planets.
    11. 11. Inner Planets! Image: Lunar and Planetary Laboratory: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=178
    12. 12. Mercury – The Hidden Planet Planet Fast facts: • Diameter – 3031 miles • Distance from Sun ~36 million miles • Gravity -1/3 of Earth’s • Rotation (day) 59 Earth Days • Revolution (year) 88 Earth Days • Atmosphere – almost none • Moons – none • Rings - none • Named after the Roman messenger God because of how fast it orbits the sun. • Temperature ranges from 800o F to hundreds of degrees below zero. • Surface is covered by craters caused by objects smashing into it.
    13. 13. Venus- The Bright Planet Planet Fast Facts • Diameter – 7521 miles • Distance from Sun – 67 million miles • Gravity -9/10 of Earth’s • Rotation (day) 243 Earth Days • Revolution (year) 225 Earth Days • Atmosphere – – 96% carbon dioxide • Moons – none • Rings - none • Named after the Roman Goddess of Love and beauty. • It is the brightest object in the sky besides the sun and moon. • Called Morning or Evening Star depending on its location. • Atmosphere causes a greenhouse effect so temperatures reach 900oF.
    14. 14. Earth- The Blue Planet Planet Fast Facts • Diameter – 8000 miles • Distance from Sun – – 93 million miles • Gravity – 1g • Rotation (day) 1 Earth Day • Revolution (year) 365 Earth Days • Atmosphere – – 78% nitrogen – 21 % oxygen • Moons – one : Luna • Named after the Roman Goddess Ea, which means earth • It is called the blue planet because of the water that covers 75 % of the surface.
    15. 15. Mars- the Red Planet Planet Fast Facts • Diameter – 4000 miles • Distance from Sun – • Temperature ranges from 75°F to -190°F. 142 million miles • Gravity – 1/3 of Earth’s • Rotation (day)– 25 Earth Hours • Revolution (year) 687 Earth Days • Atmosphere – – 95% Carbon Dioxide • Moons – two: Phobos & Deimos • It has the largest known mountain (volcano) in our solar system called Olympus Mons. It is 3 times taller than Mt. Everest. • It has a canyon 10 times longer and 3 times deeper than the Grand Canyon.
    16. 16. Phobos Deimos
    17. 17. Is there Water on Mars? •Scientists’ currently think yes there is.. •Possibly lots of water… • •~about 3.5 – 4 billion years ago there may have been an acidic, salty ocean Image: LPI http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/timeline/gallery/slide_19.html
    18. 18. Viking image at http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat/html/object_page/vl2_p21873.html MGS image of ice cap: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/polaricecaps/PIA02393.html Martian Water Now • Water ice and dust • CO2 layer – winter • Caps expand and contract during seasonal changes Viking Image at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00407
    19. 19. Jupiter – The Giant Planet Fast Facts • Moons – 62 with 50 them being named • The most famous moons – 484 million miles are the 4 Galilean moons; Gravity – 2 ½ times Earth’s Io, Europa, Ganymede and Rotation (day) – Callisto. 10 Earth Hours • Ganymede is the largest Revolution (year) moon in the solar system 12 Earth Years and is larger than Mercury. Atmosphere – • The big Red Spot is – Hydrogen and Helium believed to be a 340 year old storm. Rings – 3 made of fine dust particles • It is 3 times the size of Earth • Diameter – 89,000 miles • Distance from Sun – • • • • •
    20. 20. Io Callista Ganymede Europa
    21. 21. Saturn – The Ringed Planet Planet Fast Facts • Diameter – 75,000 miles • Distance from Sun – 890 million miles • Gravity – slightly more than Earth’s • Rotation (day)– 10 ½ Earth Hours • Revolution (year) 29 ½ Earth Years • Atmosphere – – Hydrogen, – Helium – Methane • Moons: has 62 53 named • Titan is largest & has atmosphere. • Rings – 7 rings, made of smaller ice ringlets • Saturn’s average density is less than water, so it would float. • Like Jupiter, Saturn gives off more heat than it receives from the sun
    22. 22. Saturn Titan and smaller moon looking across Saturn’s rings. Titan’s Cloudy suface
    23. 23. Uranus – the Tilted Planet Planet Fast Facts • Diameter – 32,000 miles • Distance from Sun – – 1,800 million miles • Gravity – 9/10 of Earth’s • Rotation (day) – 18 Earth Hours • Revolution (year) 84 Earth Years • Atmosphere – – 72 %Hydrogen – 26% helium • Moons – 27 known natural satellites • Rings -11made of ice boulders and fine dust • Its axis is tilted 98o, which means it lays on its side. It rotates like a ball rolling across the floor rather than like a top.
    24. 24. The moons of Uranus are not named after Roman mythological characters. They are named after characters from the writings of Shakespeare and Alexander Pope.
    25. 25. Neptune – The Twin Planet Planet Fast Facts • Diameter – 31,000 miles • Distance from Sun – – 2,800 million miles • Gravity – slightly larger than Earth’s • Rotation (day)– 19 Earth Hours • Revolution (year) 168 Earth Years • Atmosphere – – Hydrogen – Helium – Methane • Moons- 13 known satellites The largest is the moon, Triton. Triton orbits Neptune in the opposite direction from the planet’s rotation. • Rings- 3 obvious rings and one faint ring made of dust • Scientists knew Neptune existed before they saw it because of its effect on Uranus’ orbit
    26. 26. Neptune Triton
    27. 27. Dwarf Planets • These are small bodies that orbit the sun and have nearly round shapes as a result of their own gravity and are not satellites. • There are 6 known dwarf planets, Pluto, Ceres, Makemake, Haumea, Quaoar and Eris. • Scientists are studying about 200 more objects in the solar system that may be classified as dwarf planets.
    28. 28. Pluto • Pluto was once known as the 9th planet. • Its orbit passes into the Kupier belt which means the orbit is not clear of other objects. That is why it is a dwarf planet. Charon Pluto Its three moons are Charon, Nix and Hydra.
    29. 29. Ceres • Ceres is located in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. It was discovered in 1801 and has a diameter of 950 km. • It orbits the sun every 4.6 years. It has water and an atmosphere. • It has 1/3 of all the mass in the asteroid belt.
    30. 30. Eris • • • • Discovered in 2005. Larger than Pluto 3 times as far from the sun as Pluto Has a moon named Dysnomia
    31. 31. Haumea • Just farther from the sun than Pluto • Icy world • Elliptical in shape • Revolution 285 years • Rotation 4 hours • Two moons – – Hi’iaka & Namaka
    32. 32. Makemake • Orbits past Pluto • Revolution – 310years • Red in color • Diameter = 1300 km
    33. 33. Comparing the Planets
    34. 34. The Milky Way Our solar system is in the Orion arm of a spiral galaxy known as the Milky Way.
    35. 35. Galaxy • A galaxy is a collection of stars, interstellar gases, dust and dark matter. • Galaxies are classified based on their shapes. There are three main types. – Elliptical – Spiral – Irregular
    36. 36. Elliptical Galaxy
    37. 37. Spiral Galaxy
    38. 38. Irregular Galaxies
    39. 39. Colliding Galaxies It is believed that the universe is expanding and galaxies are moving. Scientist have taken pictures of colliding galaxies to prove this.
    40. 40. Stars • Inside galaxies are 100’s, 1000’s or 1,000,000’s of stars. • Not all stars are the same. • Stars are classified by their colors. They are red, orange, yellow, white and blue. The color indicates how hot a star is with red being the least hot and blue being the hottest. • Our sun is a medium sized yellow star.
    41. 41. Star comparisons
    42. 42. What Makes a Planet a Planet? Is Pluto a Planet? • is in orbit around the Sun, • has sufficient mass for its self-gravity so that it assumes a spherical shape • has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit.
    43. 43. What is a Dwarf Planet? Is Pluto a Planet? • is in orbit around the Sun, • has sufficient mass for its self-gravity so that it assumes a spherical shape • has NOT cleared the neighborhood around its orbit • is not a satellite (MOON) • a dwarf planet is not a planet!
    44. 44. Is Pluto a Planet? Pluto is not a planet because it is way too small, and it doesn't meet the necessary requirement needed to be a planet. The requirements are: It needs to be in orbit around the sun-- YES! Pluto does orbit the sun. It needs to have enough gravity to pull itself into a spherical shape -Pluto has sufficient gravity to have become a shpere. (This is called hydrostatic equilibrium, by the way.) It needs to have ”cleared the neighborhood_" of its orbit -- Uh oh. Here's the "problem" with Pluto. According to this IAU rule, Pluto is not a planet. Image based on NASA images, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:EightTNOs.png