Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
The Expropriation of Digital Labor 
and What to Do About It
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

The Expropriation of Digital Labor 
and What to Do About It

3,245
views

Published on

Trebor Scholz

Trebor Scholz

Published in: Education, Technology, Career

0 Comments
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,245
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • In the 1950s television started to establish commonalities between suburbanites in the United States. Communities that were previously created through national newspaper now bonded over sitcoms. Today, participation in social networking services is as easy as switching on the TV and many of the more than one billion Internet users are taking part in this experience. In economically advanced societies, a seizable workforce of billions of people spend much of their spare time online. From chess to scrabble, they moved many of their favorite pastimes to the Web. People blog, comment, procrastinate, refer, tease, remix, and upload. Essentially, they are paying attention and while doing so they are providing detailed information about themselves to companies that can now put a price on their friendships. Today, communication is a mode of production and it becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish between play, consumption and production, life and work, labor and non-labor.
  • The way the speculative value of companies like Facebook is generated is still murky at best. It is sensible to link the current financial speculation back to a long history of speculation, from the 1632 Tulipmania to the dotcom insanity of the late 1990s that invigorated the Web and then temporarily crashed it into the sand. Now, the means of communication are in the hands of users, free of charge, but the profits go to a small number of platform providers. Everyone is free to play but only few strike it rich. However, there are only few examples of exploitation. Mostly, user-company relationships are mutually beneficial and on occasion Internet users act out of altruism.
  • Patching Up Societal Ills, at least in the US-- these are some reasons.
    In the UK, web use now equals that of the US (overcoming “privateness”)

    The means of communication are now in the hands of the people.
  • Inner-nets of production: factory, office. Outer-nets:
    Small acts of shopping require low-level acts of labor previously performed by paid employees.
    Fast food restaurants
    Air travelers are requested to print out their tickets on service kiosks
    Walmart
  • Money is largely --not-- made off the content itself, thus the main struggle is not intellectual property
    583mio/15bn, Commercialization of Social Life: Creation of Value.
    The predictive power of co-relation
    Work is extremely casual and unskilled work
  • 2007 $169 billion
    The value that google uses is already created by others.
  • 2007 $169 billion
    The value that google uses is already created by others.
  • Virtual landlords host tenants for “free” but “free” comes at a price.
    Pasquinelli, Matteo
    “...in the end online “free labour” appears to be more
    dominant than the “wealth of networks.”http://www.rekombinant.org/docs/Ideology-of-Free-Culture.pdf
    Disproportionate control of the public sphere
    11% of all time spent
    on single site is spent on Myspace

    The commons are commercial and art and activist work
    is taking place on that.
  • What are the sites of this interaction labor? The Well became to be known as one of the first "virtual communities." Since 1985, members worked together, played with their identities, learned from each, supported each other emotionally, and even helped each other to get jobs. The activities of the people on The Well enriched those who participated without filling the purse of just one of its members. Later, such perhaps idealistic communal norms and expectations were appropriated by companies such as Lucas Film, which launched the online role-playing game Habitat in 1987. Habitat was among the first projects to attempt to expropriate financial value from a group of users online. In the early 1990s AOL ran “cyber sweatshops” using unpaid volunteers as chat room moderators, leading to a class-action lawsuit against AOL under the Fair Labor Standards Act. In 1994, Netscape released their Navigator browser for free and put the good will of its users to work. A cadre of users became willing beta testers and allowed the company to undergo 39 beta versions between Navigator 1.0 and Communicator 4.0. Recently, the New York Times reported that unwaged volunteers work for Verizon in customer support. This is not at all uncommon. Thousands of people contribute their expertise to Apple's technology forums, where owners of Macintosh products can ask questions about the products, which are then answered by other costumers. We may also think of self-service restaurants, the check out machines at Walmart, or the sometimes infuriating self-check-in terminals in airports.
  • Tradeoff: Conflict between platform owners and users Field of conflict, Complexities of pleasure of pleasure and exploitation
    The question should not be how to appease users by moving the scale of deception left or right but by offering tools for referral.
  • This conference sets out to revisit the urgent question of what constitutes labor in relation to the digital economy and it seeks to imagine proposals for action. In 2001 the Italian media philosopher Tiziana Terranova emphasized that free labor has become structural to late capitalist cultural economy. The revenues of today's social aggregators reach millions and their speculative value exceeds billions of dollars. Capital manages to expropriate value from the commons; labor goes beyond the factory, all of society is put to work. Life itself is put to work. Each aspect of life fuels the digital economy: from sexual desire, to friendships-- everything becomes the fodder of speculative profit.
  • Virtual landlords host tenants for “free” but “free” comes at a price.
    Pasquinelli, Matteo
    “...in the end online “free labour” appears to be more
    dominant than the “wealth of networks.”http://www.rekombinant.org/docs/Ideology-of-Free-Culture.pdf
    Disproportionate control of the public sphere
    11% of all time spent
    on single site is spent on Myspace

    The commons are commercial and art and activist work
    is taking place on that.
  • Virtual landlords host tenants for “free” but “free” comes at a price.
    Pasquinelli, Matteo
    “...in the end online “free labour” appears to be more
    dominant than the “wealth of networks.”http://www.rekombinant.org/docs/Ideology-of-Free-Culture.pdf
    Disproportionate control of the public sphere
    11% of all time spent
    on single site is spent on Myspace

    The commons are commercial and art and activist work
    is taking place on that.
  • Engage media giants on their own turf
    not: withdrawal into binary oppositions: them and us, activism against
    Deep in the forest there is a door to another world
    The Web is about
    creativity, collaboration, courage, and collective intelligence,
    but it also about
    control, centralization, consumption, and crisis.
  • The Bureau of Workplace Interruptions is an "intimate bureaucracy" created to challenge our relationship to time and efficiency. BWI harnesses interruptive technology such as email, snail mail, and the telephone, as well as in-person visits to create invisible theatre that steals time from the realm of work and capital.

    We harness interruptive technology to expose the secret possibilities of the workday. As a time-stealing agency, the Bureau of Workplace Interruptions works directly with employees to invisibly insert intimate exchange into the flow of the workday. Our promise is to create interruptions that challenge the efficiency of our audience and the social and economic conditions of the modern workplace.
  • NOSO is a real-world platform for temporary disengagement from social networking environments. The NOSO experience offers a unique opportunity to create NO Connections by scheduling NO Events with other NO Friends.

    These “NO” events, called NOSOs, take place in designated cafés, parks, libraries, bookstores, and other public spaces. Participants – whose identities remain unknown to one another – agree to arrive at an assigned time and remain alone, quiet and un-connected, while at the same time knowing that another “Friend” is present in the space.
    NOSOs are scheduled by users through the NOSO website. They last for a duration of 1 - 30 minutes, after which participants disperse and return to their regular activities.
  • Transcript

    • 1. http://twurl.nl/hbllui The Expropriation of Digital Labor and What to Do About It Trebor Scholz | New School University
    • 2. 10/22/09
    • 3. www.situatedtechnologies.net
    • 4. http://digitallabor.org
    • 5. Labor/Play Work/Life Consumption/Production Playbor?
    • 6. Who are the workers?
    • 7. 3 billion people in the economic dev. world
    • 8. Social participation is the oil of the digital economy
    • 9. “...they are participating without thinking that they participate. That’s where the power comes.” Tim O’Reilly in Remix p224
    • 10. the work of creating meta data
    • 11. gold farmers
    • 12. working for search engines: each click makes Google’s search better news.cnet.com/i/bto/20080226/facebookabout.jpg
    • 13. media consumption uploading photos, videos commenting attention Labor gold farmers captcha beta testers artistic work data work micro-blogging virtual objects blog posts power users virtual volunteering referral emotional work posting news stories
    • 14. Little research leverages the ample data that are created by people‘s interactions, such as e-mail, call logs, text messaging, document repositories, web 2.0 tools, and so on. As a result, important questions like does the optimal network structure for performance hold for a large network‘ and what is the appropriate timing of communication to actors of interest‘, and the like have been completely neglected. p2 Value of Social Network -- A Large-Scale Analysis on Network Structure Impact to Financial Revenue of Information Technology Consultants1
    • 15. $15,000 Swiss watch and $22-a-pack cigarettes. Official legal channels are often inadequate but Internet vigilantism led to the dismissal of Juigeng Communist official Zhou Juigeng is under investigation for an apparent "lavish lifestyle" that exceeds his government salary.
    • 16. 1994 Released for free. In the four years between the beta stage of Navigator 1.0 and the release of Communicator 4.0, Netscape went through 39 beta versions. From Navigator 1.0 to the release of Free-ish services are not free by any standard Communicator 4.0, 39 beta versions. Free Comes at a Price
    • 17. Pleasure of creation Social status/micro-fame Friendships Data mining Unwanted content (ads, spam) a way to renew inspiration Memories Tradeoffs Inner-communal linkages Social Wage Share life experience Free Service? Job losses in media industry Jobs Centralization: “Berlusconi effect” Dates Participation imperative Inspiration Greater good “Glass customer” Performing identity Social enjoyment Opt-in Default Informal mentorship commercial utilization of our attention and emotions Referral Monetization of cognitive surplus (presence, labor, life) Capture of community addiction Breach of the social contract/context violation Predatory
    • 18. http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?ie=UTF8&docId=1000291661 “If those within the sharing economy begin to think of themselves as tools of a commercial economy, they will be less willing to play.” Lessig, p177, Remix
    • 19. A billion people in advanced economies may have between two billion and six billion spare hours among them, every day. Y. Benkler (Remix. p178 Lessig)
    • 20. People have a lot of free time. You might as well give them some task like translating your web site. Eric Schmidt, CEO Google
    • 21. “I also watched my book reviewing career begin to take shape. I take immense pleasure informing other readers about newcomers or unknown authors who have written superb novels.” http://harrietklausner.wwwi.com/
    • 22. More companies are sure to study the company we keep - and even attempt to calculate how much each friendship is worth. Value of Social Network -- A Large-Scale Analysis on Network Structure Impact to Financial Revenue of Information Technology Consultants
    • 23. We encourage people to do the work by taking advantage of their desire to be entertained. -- ESP GAME about section
    • 24. (40% of all Internet traffic <...> is concentrated on 10 websites) peer production taking place on commercial platforms non-profit platforms, ISPs, “the wealth of networks” (Seti@home, Wikipedia) Value from nonmarket peer production is expropriated on commercial platforms.
    • 25. Tastes Know-how Opinions Habits Modes of Life Memory Repetition Mental and bodily habits Customs Life Itself is Put to Work Norms Behaviors Expectations Performing identity Imitation Passions Predictability Desires
    • 26. participation imperative Conclusion
    • 27. Dominant, centralized, non-transparent
    • 28. Promote Data Portability as Competitive Advantage profile data, friend lists, location, activity stream dataportability.org
    • 29. Value/Expropriation Literacy
    • 30. Free and Open Software as a Model for Cooperation
    • 31. Unionization? Distributed Labor Force, Unite Political Consciousness.
    • 32. http://zunguzungu.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/pict3.jpg
    • 33. Artistic Resistance
    • 34. http://www.chrisbarr.net/art/interruptions
    • 35. Kevin Killian writes autobiographical fiction in Amazon.com’s book review section 1525 reviews (as of January 7th, 2006)
    • 36. http://meta-markets.com/
    • 37. Profit Sharing YouTube, Google Adsense, Amazon.com
    • 38. Hack Social Media Platforms Jail Break Facebook
    • 39. http://nosoproject.com/ The NOSO experience offers a unique opportunity to create NO Connections by scheduling NO Events with other NO Friends.
    • 40. 2008, London Marathon: photo shopped user submitted news reporting
    • 41. 2008, London Marathon: photo shopped user submitted news reporting
    • 42. Law How much power do you want to give to major sites on the Internet? (Pasquale) Internet Governance (standards -- protocols, network rules-- transparency) Injustice of Inequality of Distribution of Wealth: (Users demanding a stake)
    • 43. Public Media Non-profit infra structures CrabGrass HelloWorld!
    • 44. Greed-Free Businesses Craigslist
    • 45. Networked Peer Production
    • 46. Trebor Scholz scholzt@newschool.edu @trebors