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How the Social Web Came to Be (part 2)

A history of computer-facilitated networked sociality (part2) For a History of The Social Web http://tinyurl.com/2c6vc2 ...

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How the Social Web Came to Be
                                       part 2




Trebor Scholz
Department of Media Study
trebor@thing.net

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0



                                                            1
Is the history of the Social Web, the
    history of mainstream culture?
Which role did sub- and countercultures
                 play?




                                          2
Vienna RSS Reader




The first version of RSS was created by Netscape in 1999.
RSS is based on XML. It is a format for syndicating content.

                                                      http://tinyurl.com/2ghwxb

                                                                                  3
http://tinyurl.com/23t8pr
(The site started in 1999 but it was first time archived   http://www.rtmark.com/
on Waybackmachine on May 23, 2003.)


  “RTMark is itself a registered corporation which brings together
  activists who plan projects with donors who fund them. It thus
  operates outside the laws governing human individuals, and
  benefits from the much looser laws governing corporations.”

                                                           http://tinyurl.com/youtse

                                                                                   4
Playahead is a large Internet community mainly aimed at
Swedish teenagers. The site was founded in Helsingborg in
1998 and claims to have 1 million members, making an
average of around 10 million logins per month.


                                                            5
The network was acquired by Hearst Media on December
31, 2006.         The original eCRUSH site was launched in
1999 pre-dating the social networking sites like Friendster,
MySpace and Facebook. eCRUSH is the 10th largest dating
site in the US.
                                                     http://tinyurl.com/22lprh
                                                     http://tinyurl.com/2yt8oe

                                                                                 6
2000




       7
1990s dotcom awe
too much
too fast: “dotbomb”




            http://tinyurl.com/26ppkw
            http://tinyurl.com/yrkjya
            http://tinyurl.com/38zy97

                                        8
The Californian Ideology




                           http://tinyurl.com/232ze7
                                                   9
5,900,000 (07)
British teens and 20-somethings, 16 years and older
Although serving users internationally, Faceparty markets mainly
in the UK and has run many major events since its launch in 2000
(mostly in London).
                                                        http://tinyurl.com/32f8vj


                                                                                    10
Sept 5, 2007
Jun 11, 2000


  2,600,000 users (07), American Latinos
  4000 on the site at any given time


                                                    http://tinyurl.com/3cvjgt
                                                    http://tinyurl.com/7yerg


                                                                            11
2001




       12
September 11, 2001




                     13
http://www.flong.com/telesymphony/

                              14
Bram Cohen (born 1975), SUNY at Buffalo
                    BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer file sharing
                    (P2P) communications protocol, first
                    implementation on 2 July 2001.
BitTorrent has 135 million installs and accounts 55% of all
Internet traffic (07, Bram Cohen)




                                                       http://tinyurl.com/292zfg
                                                       http://tinyurl.com/yp6egx

                                                                               15
2000



15,000,000 users (07)
                               http://tinyurl.com/2mbjtr
                                                       16
2000/2001: Former editor-in-chief of Nupedia and
Citizendium founder Larry Sanger (born 1968) and the
American Internet entrepreneur Jimmy Wales (born 1966)
create Wikipedia.




                                                http://tinyurl.com/3y2uz8
                                                http://tinyurl.com/2jcrmc

                                                                            17
2002




       18
2002




                            2007

  What went wrong with Friendster?



                                     http://tinyurl.com/249uls

                                                            19
Jan 22, 2002


2002. 28,000,000 users (07)
Users, locating friends and family, keeping in touch
“Reunion.com members use real names, not screen names.
Member privacy is protected through a blind relay e-mail system,
so e-mail addresses and contact information are never revealed
unless self-disclosed by members one-on-one.”
                                                       http://tinyurl.com/2uets7
                                                       http://tinyurl.com/2knv5t
                                                       http://tinyurl.com/ybjr86

                                                                                   20
Folksonomy
(also known as collaborative tagging , social classification, social indexing,
social tagging, and other names) is the practice and method of
collaboratively creating and managing tags to annotate and categorize
 folksonomy
Content. In contrast to traditional subject indexing metadata is not only
generated by experts but also by creators and consumers of the content.
Usually freely chosen keywords are used instead of a controlled vocabulary.


                                                                     http://tinyurl.com/d6kby

                                                                                            21
July 2007
October 2002

2002. 15,000,000 users (07), Last.fm
Exploring/Sharing Music Tracks/Files

“We have a pretty simple privacy policy. We are reasonably sure this won't piss
anyone off. We won't pass your email address on to anyone, not even Lars
Ulrich at gunpoint.” “Your pseudonymous listening habit data will be available
to other Last.fm users for non-commercial use under a Creative Commons
license.” ... “We reserve the right to sell or license pseudonymous listening data
for commercial use ...”
                                                                       http://tinyurl.com/32s96u
                                                                       http://tinyurl.com/349mtb

                                                                                              22
2000

2002. Meetup 2,000,000 users (07)
2003: prominence through Howard Dean
2005: requires organizers to pay for local groups
leading to a drastic drop in local groups

                                                    23
quot;The primary inspiration was the book Bowling Alone...”
Heiferman said (co-founder of Meetup). quot;We are
providing a service that revitalizes the Internet for local
communities.quot;


                                                        http://tinyurl.com/275bot
                                                        http://tinyurl.com/yqwdrb

                                                                                    24
Feb 05, 2005                                July 20, 2007


2002, US-based, 10, 000,000 users (07)
Mainly South America (Chile, Argentina, Brazil)

2005: “It is Fotolog's policy to respect the privacy of Members. Therefore, Fotolog
will not disclose to any third party Member's name or contact information. Fotolog
will also not monitor, edit, or disclose the contents of a Member's information ...”
2007: “All content posted by a member is the property of the member that posted
such content.”
                                                                       http://tinyurl.com/2ud2m9
                                                                       http://tinyurl.com/3b5khm
                                                                       http://tinyurl.com/2oj4o5
                                                                                               25
26
Clay Shirky's           Social Software Summit

November 2002 popularized the term “social software”

                                          http://tinyurl.com/yt4k9v
                                          http://tinyurl.com/37hrzm


                                                                      27
The American economist
and urban studies theorist Richard Florida
published the controversial The Rise of the Creative Class.




                                                              28
“I noticed one member of the group sitting slouched over on the grass,
dressed in a tank top. This young man had spiked multi-colored hair,
full-body tattoos, and multiple piercings in his ears. An obvious slacker,
I thought, probably in a band. quot;So what is your story?quot; I asked. quot;Hey
man, I just signed on with these guys.quot; ...

  This young man and his lifestyle proclivities represent a profound
  new force in the economy and life of America. He is a member of
  what I call the creative class: a fast-growing, highly educated, and
  well-paid segment of the workforce on whose efforts corporate
  profits and economic growth increasingly depend. Members of the
  creative class do a wide variety of work in a wide variety of
  industries--from technology to entertainment, journalism to finance,
  high-end manufacturing to the arts. They do not consciously think of
  themselves as a class. Yet they share a common ethos that values
  creativity, individuality, difference, and merit.”
                              -- Richard Florida in The Rise of the Creative Class

                                                                         http://tinyurl.com/27rqbl

                                                                                                29
The Precariat
                  Frassanito Network (2002)

“Precarious work refers to all possible shapes of unsure, not
guaranteed, flexible exploitation: from illegalized, seasonal
and temporary employment to homework, flex- and temp-
work to subcontractors, freelancers or so called self employed
persons.”




                                                    http://thistuesday.org/node/93

                                                                                30
http://tinyurl.com/2smoa8

                            31
32
2003




       33
It was significant that in a well-organized effort, 8-30 million
people in 800 ci t ies worldwide simul t aneously showed t heir
defiance of the war in Iraq on February 15, 2003. The Internet
served as organizational tool. March 19 - The first American
bombs drop on Baghdad, Iraq. March 20- the invasion starts.
                                                     http://tinyurl.com/322lyy

                                                                                 34
Salam Pax

Anonymous Iraqi Blogger
gains international visibility
with posts about the war
March 2003




                                 35
Podcasting




Podcasters' web sites can be syndicated, subscribed
to, and downloaded automatically, using an
aggregator or feed reader capable of reading feed
formats such as RSS or Atom.


                                                      http://tinyurl.com/3dbcqt

                                                                            36
2003. Kazaa founders Swedish Niklas Zennström (b. 1966) and the
Danish Janus Friis (b. 1976) released the peer-to-peer Internet
telephony network Skype.




                                                                  37
photo credit as quot;Scott Beale / Laughing Squidquot;




 Joshua Schachter
  2003 , Social Bookmarking


                                                                      Sept 10, 2007
                         acquired by Yahoo in 2005
                         3 million users, 10 million bookmarks (07)
                                                                                      38
Aug 06, 2003                   Sept. 10 2007
http://tinyurl.com/393brp       http://tinyurl.com/25nvz




Sept. 2003. GreatestJournal operates on LiveJournal's
open source server software (mainly Pearl) 
 
 
 
1,871,618 users (07)


                                                           39
June 2003 Google starts AdSense




                                  40
2000
200,000,000 users (07)
most culturally influential
social networking platform
in the history of the Internet
to date



                                   http://tinyurl.com/2mbjtr

                                                          41
“MySpace was actually created by executives whose
backgrounds are anchored in spam and mass
marketing, and who are tied to investment scandals.
Almost alternateen good looks, Tom Anderson has
served as an exceptionally convincing distraction.”




                                              source: http://tinyurl.com/nvsvm

                                                                                 42
Also essential to the creation of MySpace is current
        CEO Chris DeWolfe, who from October 1999
        through March 2001 acted as the VP of Sales and
        Marketing at Xdrive Technologies. As a source close
        to DeWolfe at Xdrive put it,

                   quot;DeWolfe learned that people will sign
                  up for almost anything that they find
                  useful, and they could care less about
                  the fine print.quot;

Marketing Tom Anderson as founder and alternateen:
quot;I am as anti-social as they come, and I've already got 20
people to sign up.quot;

                                                   http://tinyurl.com/37f79l
                                                   http://tinyurl.com/34ny9m
                                                   http://tinyurl.com/nvsvm

                                                                               43
On June 15th, 2006 Myspace states
                            in their Terms and Conditions
                            that the company has quot;a non-
                            exclusive, fully-paid and royalty-
                            free, worldwide license
.... to use, copy, modify, adapt, translate, publicly perform,
publicly display, store, reproduce, transmit, and distributequot;
all content uploaded to their site.”



                                                                 44
first archived: Jun 04, 2006
13,000,000 users (07)
“As of October 2006, there is no automated way to remove
yourself from LinkedIn. The official method is to file a
customer support ticket.”                      http://tinyurl.com/yey25h
                                                         http://tinyurl.com/2j43c6
                                                         http://tinyurl.com/2uqbct


                                                                                     45
Jul 18, 2006




                  Sept 5, 2007

2003, Germany, re-named in 2006, European Business networking
mainly used in Europe and far East, competitor to LinkedIn
                                                  http://tinyurl.com/2rd6ak
                                                  http://tinyurl.com/2uvqun
                                                  http://tinyurl.com/2l7s8c

                                                                              46
The Strength of Weak Ties
In 1973 Granovetter argued that within a social
network, weak ties are more powerful than strong
ties. He showed that most people got jobs because
of their weak ties instead of their strong ones.
LinkedIn and Xing are build on this idea.




                                                    47
Continuous Partial
   Friendship
(David Weinberger)

 Ambient Intimacy
  (Leisa Reichelt)




                     http://tinyurl.com/28x4s4



                                                 48
PeanutButterWiki (PbWiki), a free ad-supported wiki was founded
by three graduates of Stanford University: David Weekly, Ramit
Sethi, and Nathan Schmidt in 2003. PbWiki's slogan is
quot;Make a free wiki as easily as a peanut butter sandwich!quot;




                                                                  49
2004




       50
2004
Weblog is Word of the Year
        (Webster)

    • Weblog si Word of the Year



                                   51
May 2004
Sept 2007

2004, Ecological concern and social activism, 7,744,297 users
            “Care2 does not claim ownership of Content you submit
            or make available for inclusion on the Service ... “




                                                            http://tinyurl.com/29yhyg


                                                                                        52
• Weblog si Word of the Year
Albert-László Barabási published Linked: How Everything Is
Connected to Everything Else and What It Means for
Business, Science, and Everyday Life.



                                                             53
2004



150,000 users in 2007 (invite-only)
                                      http://tinyurl.com/k2jhx

                                                                 54
“A 2004 glitch in Amazon.ca's review system revealed that
many well-established authors were anonymously giving
themselves glowing reviews, with some revealed to be
anonymously giving ‘rival’ authors terrible reviews. The
glitch in the system was fixed and those reviews have since
been removed or made anonymous.”




                                                              55
quot;[U]sing a wireless internet enabled bicycle outfitted with a
custom-designed printing device, the bikes against bush
bicycle can print text messages sent from web users directly
onto the streets of manhattan in water-soluble chalk.quot;
Joshua Kinberg, 2004




                                                     http://tinyurl.com/33pqs9

                                                                             56
December 09, 2004
http://tinyurl.com/38pbt2

                            September 10, 2007




                                                 57
Some feel that users have too much control over content,
allowing sensationalism and misinformation to thrive,
blowing unsupported claims out of proportion while quickly
exposing very many people to these opinion pieces.
It has been reported that the top 100 Digg users control 56% of
Digg's front page content and that a niche group of just twenty
individuals had submitted 25% of the front page content.

                Digg.com co-founder Kevin Rose




                                                      http://tinyurl.com/ynla34
                                                      http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz
                                                      http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz
                                                      http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz
                                                      http://tinyurl.com/37vx5w
                                                      http://tinyurl.com/39g279
                                                      http://tinyurl.com/2u3zts

                                                                              58
“Digital Boston Tea Party”

On May 1, 2007 an article appeared on Digg’s
homepage that contained the encryption key
for the AACS digital rights management
protection of HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc.


Digg, removed the submissions and banned contributors. The removals were seen
by many users as a capitulation to corporate interests and an assault on free
speech. The Digg community staged a wide-spread revolt. One of the Digg users
referred to it as a quot;Digital Boston Tea Party.quot; Digg’s response:

      “[A]fter seeing hundreds of stories and reading thousands of comments, you’ve made it clear.
      You’d rather see Digg go down fighting than bow down to a bigger company. We hear you,
      and effective immediately we won’t delete stories or comments containing the code and will
      deal with whatever the consequences might be.”
      —Kevin Rose
                                                                      http://tinyurl.com/2cg9hm http://tinyurl.com/37vx5w
                                                                                                  http://tinyurl.com/39g279
                                                                      http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz
                                                                                                  http://tinyurl.com/2u3zts
                                                                      http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz
                                                                      http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz   http://tinyurl.com/2rszvk

                                                                                                                         59
In 2004 the peer-to-peer file sharing
client LimeWire was released.


It is still possible to
download LimeWire and share
copyrighted files peer-to-peer.




                                        http://tinyurl.com/3y5o5o




                                                                    60
2004
 Archived: Apr 29, 2004


    Flickr. Canada. 2004
    It has a repository that is quickly approaching 1 billion images (08/2007).
domain first switched on 2007, Flickr announced that the quot;Old Skoolquot; members, those that
    In January
Aug 06, 2005
    pre-date the Yahoo acquisition in 2005, will be required to associate their
    account with a Yahoo ID. This move was criticized.
                                                                     (http://tinyurl.com/2uh8to)

                                                                                                   61
10,000,000 users (07), invite-only
1 million communities as of July 2007
largest social networking site in Japan




                                          http://tinyurl.com/yayp6t


                                                                      62
2004

The Network's stated mission is to quot;enable individual
self-empowerment on a global scalequot; and employ
quot;business as a tool for social good.quot;                   Pierre Omidyar (b. 1967)



                                                          http://tinyurl.com/qmech
                                                          http://tinyurl.com/qmech

                                                                                   63
Mar 22, 2004

2004. Owned by Google. Popular in Brazil, India, Greenland.
67,962,551 users (07). Open (Google login)
                                                     http://tinyurl.com/29pcm8
                                                     http://tinyurl.com/2l2qbg

                                                                                 64
Mar 31, 2004


2004, Canada. Photo sharing, teens               10,000,000 users (07)
Piczo was the fastest-growing online brand in the UK in 2006 with girls
under 18 accounting for almost half its audience.


                                                                         http://tinyurl.com/3akk8h
                                                                         http://tinyurl.com/2zgpf2
                                                                         http://tinyurl.com/k2jhx

                                                                                                 65
Sept 5, 2007                                   Jan 23, 2004


               MEMBERS CONSENT TO RECEIVE COMMERCIAL E-MAIL MESSAGES FROM TAGGED, AND
               ACKNOWLEDGE AND AGREE THAT THEIR EMAIL ADDRESSES AND OTHER PERSONAL
               INFORMATION MAY BE USED BY TAGGED FOR THE PURPOSE OF INITIATING COMMERCIAL E-
               MAIL MESSAGES.


               very invasive, questionable ethics

                                                                                http://tinyurl.com/3c4fby
                                                                                http://tinyurl.com/3yt5v9
                                                                                http://tinyurl.com/2odjrp

                                                                                                            66
2005




       67
Tim O’Reilly -- quot;What Is Web 2.0?quot;
The power of naming




                                     Photo: James Duncan Davidson
                                     http://tinyurl.com/2vw6cb

                                                              68
http://tinyurl.com/2569dr

                            69
The Social Web and Law Enforcement

In March 2005, the United States Secret Service met
with a University of Oklahoma freshman after he
posted to the Facebook:

“We could all donate a dollar and raise millions of
dollars to hire an assassin to kill the president and
replace him with a monkey.”

On December 14th, 2005 MIT students used data
from an automated script that allowed them to
download over 70,000 Facebook profiles.




                                                        70
Facebook privacy agreement (07) states:


quot;We may share your information with third parties,
including responsible companies with which we
have a relationship.quot;




                                                     71
Jan 22, 2005   http://tinyurl.com/yukk25




      1995, UK. 34,000,000 users (07), media sharing and social networking


      2005:
      “Bebo does not claim any ownership rights in any Materials that you submit, post, or
      display on or through the Bebo Services or on the Bebo.com Web site.”

      2007:
      “By submitting, posting or displaying any Materials on or through the Bebo
      Service, you automatically grant to Bebo a worldwide, non-exclusive, ... right to
      copy, distribute, create derivative works of, publicly perform and display such
      Materials.“
                                                                          http://tinyurl.com/34rax2
                                                                          http://tinyurl.com/2k8583
                                                                          http://tinyurl.com/2mbjtr

                                                                                                      72
Archival screenshot, Mar 16, 2005

 4,700,000 users (07)
  Open to people 18 and older, (Yahoo! login)
            “Yahoo! does not claim ownership of Content you
             submit or make available for inclusion on the Service.”
                                                                    http://tinyurl.com/k2jhx
                                                                    http://tinyurl.com/3c5o5t
                                                                        http://tinyurl.com/38j6fr

                                                                                               73
74
2004

Dreams and Goals; Tagging 

1,007,433 users (07)


                                http://tinyurl.com/2nczov

                                                            75
Launched March 2005. The site has an audience which is 96%
UK derived. The typical demographic profile is 16-22 year olds
with a 60% lean towards females. 250,000 members (06)


                                                       http://tinyurl.com/y9rfg4

                                                                              76
2005. 1,000,000 registered contributors (07)
                   http://mosh.nokia.com/restricted


                                                      http://tinyurl.com/ysorp5

                                                                            77
May 27, 2005                Sept 10, 2007
http://tinyurl.com/yuoebu


2005. Video sharing site. An average of 9000 video uploads a day
(Nov 2006). Video limit 20 mins, 150 MB.

                                                                   78
September 10, 2007
June 03, 2005
 http://tinyurl.com/2wkls7


Meetro is an application that overlays the physical world on top of
the online world. It combines SMS features, social networking and
links it to location.     http://mosh.nokia.com/restricted




                                                                      79
2006




       80
Everybody and their mom has a profile up on MySpace




                                                      81
Deleting Online Predator Act legislation

The Deleting Online Predators Act of 2006 (DOPA) is a bill, which was
brought before the United States House of Representatives on May 9,
2006. The bill, if enacted, will require schools and libraries that receive E-
rate funding to prohibit access to social networking websites.


The bill would thereby limit access to a wide range of educational
material on these websites (especially for minority and rural youth).




                                                                 http://tinyurl.com/yb2vj8

                                                                                             82
Yahoo! Messenger
                              22 million users by December 2006
                               http://tinyurl.com/2rhdh2




                                                           AIM December 2006
                                                           100 million “total users”
                                                            http://tinyurl.com/35xue




                                                                        between 40 and 50 million,
                                                                        Jan 2007
                                                                         http://tinyurl.com/2m5hyv




                                                           http://tinyurl.com/3ey5ym
                            http://tinyurl.com/2wnrec
http://tinyurl.com/2phpy8

                                                                                                     83
Fandom
Cingular Wireless announced today it has shattered its own record
for wireless text messaging during the fifth season of quot;American
Idolquot; (2006) -- 64.5 million text messages throughout the show's
season.

                                                       http://tinyurl.com/2m4luf
                                                       http://tinyurl.com/35omx8
                                                       http://tinyurl.com/2umdo3

                                                                             84
Micro-blogging
is a form of blogging that allows users to write brief text
updates (usually less than 200 characters) and publish them,
either to be viewed by anyone or by a restricted group
which can be chosen by the user. These messages can be
submitted by a variety of means, including text messaging,
and the web.




  France/
                                    Finland
 Germany

                                              status updates on FB
                                                      http://tinyurl.com/2yhpa3

                                                                              85
2004
Twitter is a free social networking and micro-blogging service
that allows users to send quot;updatesquot; (text-based posts, up to 140
characters long) via SMS, instant messaging, email, to the Twitter
website, or an application such as Twitterrific. Twitter was
founded in March 2006 by San Francisco start-up company
Obvious Corp. (Ruby on Rails.)

                                                                     86
as tool for human rights advocacy




               http://ethanzuckerman.com/blog/?p=1430

                                                   87
In 2006 Jay Rosen posted
quot;PressThink: The People Formerly Known as the Audiencequot;




                                              http://tinyurl.com/2t67v3

                                                                          88
89
(media sharing, video)
                                                                                      (The MySpace for Christians)

(Latino social networking site)
                                              (referral and social networking around music)


    (free social networking, cars)
                                                                     (social networking, online education, e-commerce)
                                          (online identity)

(social networking for professional women, feminist)

                                                              (Christian social networking site)

                           (social networking for soccer players)
   (referral site about travel)
                                                                    (social networking, media sharing, family-focused)



   (sharing of all kinds of lists with friends)   (blogging, media sharing)
                                                                                        (mobile social networking)

   2006
                                                                                                                     90
(social networking site of the National Hockey League)
    (social networking for pet aficionados)




                      (social search)
                                                        (social networking and referral grouped around fashion)




(social networking site about mental health and wellness)



                                             (feminist social networking site celebrating friendships among women)


(social networking focused on weddings)

                                                            (social networking and referral for the entire family)


  2006                    (activist, youth social networking)

                                                                                                                     91
Netporn

                                       Bulletin Board Systems
                                       such as Rusty n Edie's
                                       charged users for access,
                                       leading to the first
                                       commercial networked
                                       pornography since
                                       BBSes were not accessed
                                       via the Internet.

While pornography had seen limited distribution over the
Internet in the 1980s, it was not until the Internet became more
accessible to the general public throughout the 90s that netporn
became widely distributed.
                                                      http://tinyurl.com/ywqk3c

                                                                                  92
89% of porn is created in the U.S.

                     $2.84 billion in revenue was generated
                     from U.S. porn sites in 2006

                     25% of all search engine requests are
                     pornographic


$89/second is spent on porn
72% of porn viewers are men (2 8% are women)
260 new porn sites go online daily
“Sex” is the most-frequently searched term on the Internet
70% of all porn traffic occurs during the 9-5 workday
There are about 372 million porn web pages.
                                 http://tinyurl.com/2qr6fz   http://tinyurl.com/2z6fe5
                                 http://www.techcrunch.com/2007/05/12/internet-pornography-stats/

                                                                                                93
2006 (Finland). Jaiku.com is a social networking and
micro-blogging service similar to Twitter.
                                                 http://tinyurl.com/2lw7yf
                                                 http://tinyurl.com/35zay9

                                                                             94
2006. Singapore-based internet radio and music community
website. Over 1 million users (07)

                                                    http://tinyurl.com/2xajxf

                                                                                95
2004
domain first switched on
Aug 06, 2005




  Facebook is a social networking website which was launched on
  February 4, 2004. Started for colleges, then high schools, and now
  everyone. 34,000,000 users (07) 
  quot;We may use information about you that we collect from other
  sources, including but not limited to newspapers and Internet
  sources such as blogs, instant messaging services and other users
  of Facebook, to supplement your profile.quot;
                                                  http://tinyurl.com/22myzy

                                                                              96
“User Revolts” ?




                   97
In September Facebook launched a
quot;news feedquot; feature causing protest and
responses by 741,000 users who joined the
Students Against Facebook News Feed group.




          http://tinyurl.com/22h7cm
                                             98
http://daywithoutfacebook.blogspot.com/




                                          99
http://www.petitiononline.com/faceb00k/petition.html




                                                       100
http://tinyurl.com/etj7m




                      741.000 members of FB group in September 2006

                                                   http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2208288769

                                                                                                      101
flow
                 ion
              mat
         nfor
     of i
   e
eas




          741.000 members of FB group in September 2006

                              http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2208288769

                                                                                 102
“Even though I wish I hadn't made so many of you
                   angry, I am glad we got to hear you,” he wrote. “And
                   I am also glad that News Feed highlighted all these
                   groups so people could find them and share their
                   opinions with each other as well.”




http://tinyurl.com/2n9mhl
http://tinyurl.com/y3fedz

                                                                          103
“Every MySpace user I know is absolutely sick of the
advertising onslaught and would leave if they could. But
they feel trapped because they have so much content
invested there, not to mention all their friends.”


                                               http://tinyurl.com/ywps4k

                                                                       104
Writely and Spreadsheets were merged into a single product
on October 10, 2006
        “… you grant Google a worldwide, non-exclusive, royalty-
        free license to reproduce, adapt, modify, publish and
        distribute such Content on Google services for the purpose
        of displaying, distributing and promoting Google
        services…”


                                                      http://tinyurl.com/2pmbsm
                                                      http://tinyurl.com/3e4rq4

                                                                                  105
(         August 2005

“We assure you that the contents of your Account
will not be disclosed to anyone and will not be
accessible to employees of AdventNet. Neither do
we process the contents of your Account for
serving targeted advertisements.”



                                         http://tinyurl.com/2cv36o

                                                                106
2007




       107
1.114 billion people use the Internet

                                        108
The Daily We
   Social objects and topical foci around which communities
  are shaped on the Social Web cater more and more to niche
interests. The Internet gets incorporated into existing practices.




                                                                     109
(mobile social networking and media sharing)


                                                         (social networking around baking)

                            (social networking about books)


                                                                       (mobile media sharing)

(mobile social networking, IM)


                                                      (social maps)

       (micro-blogging)



  (social news site)                                                         (Game platform)



  2007
                                                                                                110
(North-American) English content
is not dominating the Internet anymore.




                                          111
Social network hopping?
Most people are on no more than 2 networks




                                             112
Consolidation




                113
By 2007 Wikipedia reports more than 2,000,000
articles in its English version and Technorati
indexed more than 80 million blogs.




                                                 http://tinyurl.com/24h9xu
                                                 http://tinyurl.com/347sqq
                                                                      114
Facebook reports about 34 million users, growing by
about 4 million each month (2007). It has stronger
membership outside the United States than MySpace.




                                         http://tinyurl.com/2bxadq
                                         http://tinyurl.com/2rq8zd
                                         http://tinyurl.com/2de3hd

                                                                     115
In 2007 hi5 hi5 hi5 is the leading social networking
site in Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Kuwait,
Mauritius, Mongolia, Nicaragua, Peru, Portugal,
Romania, Thailand, and Tunisia.




                                                       116
The Participatory Culture Foundation (PCF) is a non-profit
organization whose mission is to quot;enable and support
independent, non-corporate creativity and political
engagement.quot; Videobomb is a PCF project.
It was founded in 2005.
                       http://mosh.nokia.com/restricted


                                                          http://tinyurl.com/3ymdu9

                                                                                 117
Bebo, Friendster, Orkut, and hi5 have also strong international presence.

Orkut dominates India and Brazil also because exit costs are high,
making it hard for people to migrate. Fotolog dominates Argentina and
Chile.




                                                                http://tinyurl.com/2xrtpn


                                                                                            118
2007. Hyperlocal social news.
The term quot;hyperlocalquot; is used to refer to news coverage of
community-level events usually overlooked by mainstream
                         http://mosh.nokia.com/restricted
media outlets.
                                                     http://tinyurl.com/2ofykg

                                                                           119
Women aged 25-34 spend more time online than men
             in the same age group.


                   http://tinyurl.com/3dn6b6
                   http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,2154293,00.html?gusrc=rss&feed=technology
                                                                                                   120
conclusion




             121
The web is a platform for
  other things to come.
   What this will be is
     anyone’s guess.
   To find out we need
to get going and start by
protecting net neutrality.




                             122
- end -

             direct comments, additions, etc
                      to Trebor Scholz
                     trebor@thing.net




Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0



                                                            123
124
125

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How the Social Web Came to Be (part 2)

  • 1. How the Social Web Came to Be part 2 Trebor Scholz Department of Media Study trebor@thing.net Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 1
  • 2. Is the history of the Social Web, the history of mainstream culture? Which role did sub- and countercultures play? 2
  • 3. Vienna RSS Reader The first version of RSS was created by Netscape in 1999. RSS is based on XML. It is a format for syndicating content. http://tinyurl.com/2ghwxb 3
  • 4. http://tinyurl.com/23t8pr (The site started in 1999 but it was first time archived http://www.rtmark.com/ on Waybackmachine on May 23, 2003.) “RTMark is itself a registered corporation which brings together activists who plan projects with donors who fund them. It thus operates outside the laws governing human individuals, and benefits from the much looser laws governing corporations.” http://tinyurl.com/youtse 4
  • 5. Playahead is a large Internet community mainly aimed at Swedish teenagers. The site was founded in Helsingborg in 1998 and claims to have 1 million members, making an average of around 10 million logins per month. 5
  • 6. The network was acquired by Hearst Media on December 31, 2006. The original eCRUSH site was launched in 1999 pre-dating the social networking sites like Friendster, MySpace and Facebook. eCRUSH is the 10th largest dating site in the US. http://tinyurl.com/22lprh http://tinyurl.com/2yt8oe 6
  • 7. 2000 7
  • 8. 1990s dotcom awe too much too fast: “dotbomb” http://tinyurl.com/26ppkw http://tinyurl.com/yrkjya http://tinyurl.com/38zy97 8
  • 9. The Californian Ideology http://tinyurl.com/232ze7 9
  • 10. 5,900,000 (07) British teens and 20-somethings, 16 years and older Although serving users internationally, Faceparty markets mainly in the UK and has run many major events since its launch in 2000 (mostly in London). http://tinyurl.com/32f8vj 10
  • 11. Sept 5, 2007 Jun 11, 2000 2,600,000 users (07), American Latinos 4000 on the site at any given time http://tinyurl.com/3cvjgt http://tinyurl.com/7yerg 11
  • 12. 2001 12
  • 15. Bram Cohen (born 1975), SUNY at Buffalo BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P) communications protocol, first implementation on 2 July 2001. BitTorrent has 135 million installs and accounts 55% of all Internet traffic (07, Bram Cohen) http://tinyurl.com/292zfg http://tinyurl.com/yp6egx 15
  • 16. 2000 15,000,000 users (07) http://tinyurl.com/2mbjtr 16
  • 17. 2000/2001: Former editor-in-chief of Nupedia and Citizendium founder Larry Sanger (born 1968) and the American Internet entrepreneur Jimmy Wales (born 1966) create Wikipedia. http://tinyurl.com/3y2uz8 http://tinyurl.com/2jcrmc 17
  • 18. 2002 18
  • 19. 2002 2007 What went wrong with Friendster? http://tinyurl.com/249uls 19
  • 20. Jan 22, 2002 2002. 28,000,000 users (07) Users, locating friends and family, keeping in touch “Reunion.com members use real names, not screen names. Member privacy is protected through a blind relay e-mail system, so e-mail addresses and contact information are never revealed unless self-disclosed by members one-on-one.” http://tinyurl.com/2uets7 http://tinyurl.com/2knv5t http://tinyurl.com/ybjr86 20
  • 21. Folksonomy (also known as collaborative tagging , social classification, social indexing, social tagging, and other names) is the practice and method of collaboratively creating and managing tags to annotate and categorize folksonomy Content. In contrast to traditional subject indexing metadata is not only generated by experts but also by creators and consumers of the content. Usually freely chosen keywords are used instead of a controlled vocabulary. http://tinyurl.com/d6kby 21
  • 22. July 2007 October 2002 2002. 15,000,000 users (07), Last.fm Exploring/Sharing Music Tracks/Files “We have a pretty simple privacy policy. We are reasonably sure this won't piss anyone off. We won't pass your email address on to anyone, not even Lars Ulrich at gunpoint.” “Your pseudonymous listening habit data will be available to other Last.fm users for non-commercial use under a Creative Commons license.” ... “We reserve the right to sell or license pseudonymous listening data for commercial use ...” http://tinyurl.com/32s96u http://tinyurl.com/349mtb 22
  • 23. 2000 2002. Meetup 2,000,000 users (07) 2003: prominence through Howard Dean 2005: requires organizers to pay for local groups leading to a drastic drop in local groups 23
  • 24. quot;The primary inspiration was the book Bowling Alone...” Heiferman said (co-founder of Meetup). quot;We are providing a service that revitalizes the Internet for local communities.quot; http://tinyurl.com/275bot http://tinyurl.com/yqwdrb 24
  • 25. Feb 05, 2005 July 20, 2007 2002, US-based, 10, 000,000 users (07) Mainly South America (Chile, Argentina, Brazil) 2005: “It is Fotolog's policy to respect the privacy of Members. Therefore, Fotolog will not disclose to any third party Member's name or contact information. Fotolog will also not monitor, edit, or disclose the contents of a Member's information ...” 2007: “All content posted by a member is the property of the member that posted such content.” http://tinyurl.com/2ud2m9 http://tinyurl.com/3b5khm http://tinyurl.com/2oj4o5 25
  • 26. 26
  • 27. Clay Shirky's Social Software Summit November 2002 popularized the term “social software” http://tinyurl.com/yt4k9v http://tinyurl.com/37hrzm 27
  • 28. The American economist and urban studies theorist Richard Florida published the controversial The Rise of the Creative Class. 28
  • 29. “I noticed one member of the group sitting slouched over on the grass, dressed in a tank top. This young man had spiked multi-colored hair, full-body tattoos, and multiple piercings in his ears. An obvious slacker, I thought, probably in a band. quot;So what is your story?quot; I asked. quot;Hey man, I just signed on with these guys.quot; ... This young man and his lifestyle proclivities represent a profound new force in the economy and life of America. He is a member of what I call the creative class: a fast-growing, highly educated, and well-paid segment of the workforce on whose efforts corporate profits and economic growth increasingly depend. Members of the creative class do a wide variety of work in a wide variety of industries--from technology to entertainment, journalism to finance, high-end manufacturing to the arts. They do not consciously think of themselves as a class. Yet they share a common ethos that values creativity, individuality, difference, and merit.” -- Richard Florida in The Rise of the Creative Class http://tinyurl.com/27rqbl 29
  • 30. The Precariat Frassanito Network (2002) “Precarious work refers to all possible shapes of unsure, not guaranteed, flexible exploitation: from illegalized, seasonal and temporary employment to homework, flex- and temp- work to subcontractors, freelancers or so called self employed persons.” http://thistuesday.org/node/93 30
  • 32. 32
  • 33. 2003 33
  • 34. It was significant that in a well-organized effort, 8-30 million people in 800 ci t ies worldwide simul t aneously showed t heir defiance of the war in Iraq on February 15, 2003. The Internet served as organizational tool. March 19 - The first American bombs drop on Baghdad, Iraq. March 20- the invasion starts. http://tinyurl.com/322lyy 34
  • 35. Salam Pax Anonymous Iraqi Blogger gains international visibility with posts about the war March 2003 35
  • 36. Podcasting Podcasters' web sites can be syndicated, subscribed to, and downloaded automatically, using an aggregator or feed reader capable of reading feed formats such as RSS or Atom. http://tinyurl.com/3dbcqt 36
  • 37. 2003. Kazaa founders Swedish Niklas Zennström (b. 1966) and the Danish Janus Friis (b. 1976) released the peer-to-peer Internet telephony network Skype. 37
  • 38. photo credit as quot;Scott Beale / Laughing Squidquot; Joshua Schachter 2003 , Social Bookmarking Sept 10, 2007 acquired by Yahoo in 2005 3 million users, 10 million bookmarks (07) 38
  • 39. Aug 06, 2003 Sept. 10 2007 http://tinyurl.com/393brp http://tinyurl.com/25nvz Sept. 2003. GreatestJournal operates on LiveJournal's open source server software (mainly Pearl) 1,871,618 users (07) 39
  • 40. June 2003 Google starts AdSense 40
  • 41. 2000 200,000,000 users (07) most culturally influential social networking platform in the history of the Internet to date http://tinyurl.com/2mbjtr 41
  • 42. “MySpace was actually created by executives whose backgrounds are anchored in spam and mass marketing, and who are tied to investment scandals. Almost alternateen good looks, Tom Anderson has served as an exceptionally convincing distraction.” source: http://tinyurl.com/nvsvm 42
  • 43. Also essential to the creation of MySpace is current CEO Chris DeWolfe, who from October 1999 through March 2001 acted as the VP of Sales and Marketing at Xdrive Technologies. As a source close to DeWolfe at Xdrive put it, quot;DeWolfe learned that people will sign up for almost anything that they find useful, and they could care less about the fine print.quot; Marketing Tom Anderson as founder and alternateen: quot;I am as anti-social as they come, and I've already got 20 people to sign up.quot; http://tinyurl.com/37f79l http://tinyurl.com/34ny9m http://tinyurl.com/nvsvm 43
  • 44. On June 15th, 2006 Myspace states in their Terms and Conditions that the company has quot;a non- exclusive, fully-paid and royalty- free, worldwide license .... to use, copy, modify, adapt, translate, publicly perform, publicly display, store, reproduce, transmit, and distributequot; all content uploaded to their site.” 44
  • 45. first archived: Jun 04, 2006 13,000,000 users (07) “As of October 2006, there is no automated way to remove yourself from LinkedIn. The official method is to file a customer support ticket.” http://tinyurl.com/yey25h http://tinyurl.com/2j43c6 http://tinyurl.com/2uqbct 45
  • 46. Jul 18, 2006 Sept 5, 2007 2003, Germany, re-named in 2006, European Business networking mainly used in Europe and far East, competitor to LinkedIn http://tinyurl.com/2rd6ak http://tinyurl.com/2uvqun http://tinyurl.com/2l7s8c 46
  • 47. The Strength of Weak Ties In 1973 Granovetter argued that within a social network, weak ties are more powerful than strong ties. He showed that most people got jobs because of their weak ties instead of their strong ones. LinkedIn and Xing are build on this idea. 47
  • 48. Continuous Partial Friendship (David Weinberger) Ambient Intimacy (Leisa Reichelt) http://tinyurl.com/28x4s4 48
  • 49. PeanutButterWiki (PbWiki), a free ad-supported wiki was founded by three graduates of Stanford University: David Weekly, Ramit Sethi, and Nathan Schmidt in 2003. PbWiki's slogan is quot;Make a free wiki as easily as a peanut butter sandwich!quot; 49
  • 50. 2004 50
  • 51. 2004 Weblog is Word of the Year (Webster) • Weblog si Word of the Year 51
  • 52. May 2004 Sept 2007 2004, Ecological concern and social activism, 7,744,297 users “Care2 does not claim ownership of Content you submit or make available for inclusion on the Service ... “ http://tinyurl.com/29yhyg 52
  • 53. • Weblog si Word of the Year Albert-László Barabási published Linked: How Everything Is Connected to Everything Else and What It Means for Business, Science, and Everyday Life. 53
  • 54. 2004 150,000 users in 2007 (invite-only) http://tinyurl.com/k2jhx 54
  • 55. “A 2004 glitch in Amazon.ca's review system revealed that many well-established authors were anonymously giving themselves glowing reviews, with some revealed to be anonymously giving ‘rival’ authors terrible reviews. The glitch in the system was fixed and those reviews have since been removed or made anonymous.” 55
  • 56. quot;[U]sing a wireless internet enabled bicycle outfitted with a custom-designed printing device, the bikes against bush bicycle can print text messages sent from web users directly onto the streets of manhattan in water-soluble chalk.quot; Joshua Kinberg, 2004 http://tinyurl.com/33pqs9 56
  • 58. Some feel that users have too much control over content, allowing sensationalism and misinformation to thrive, blowing unsupported claims out of proportion while quickly exposing very many people to these opinion pieces. It has been reported that the top 100 Digg users control 56% of Digg's front page content and that a niche group of just twenty individuals had submitted 25% of the front page content. Digg.com co-founder Kevin Rose http://tinyurl.com/ynla34 http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz http://tinyurl.com/37vx5w http://tinyurl.com/39g279 http://tinyurl.com/2u3zts 58
  • 59. “Digital Boston Tea Party” On May 1, 2007 an article appeared on Digg’s homepage that contained the encryption key for the AACS digital rights management protection of HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc. Digg, removed the submissions and banned contributors. The removals were seen by many users as a capitulation to corporate interests and an assault on free speech. The Digg community staged a wide-spread revolt. One of the Digg users referred to it as a quot;Digital Boston Tea Party.quot; Digg’s response: “[A]fter seeing hundreds of stories and reading thousands of comments, you’ve made it clear. You’d rather see Digg go down fighting than bow down to a bigger company. We hear you, and effective immediately we won’t delete stories or comments containing the code and will deal with whatever the consequences might be.” —Kevin Rose http://tinyurl.com/2cg9hm http://tinyurl.com/37vx5w http://tinyurl.com/39g279 http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz http://tinyurl.com/2u3zts http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz http://tinyurl.com/2v9ppz http://tinyurl.com/2rszvk 59
  • 60. In 2004 the peer-to-peer file sharing client LimeWire was released. It is still possible to download LimeWire and share copyrighted files peer-to-peer. http://tinyurl.com/3y5o5o 60
  • 61. 2004 Archived: Apr 29, 2004 Flickr. Canada. 2004 It has a repository that is quickly approaching 1 billion images (08/2007). domain first switched on 2007, Flickr announced that the quot;Old Skoolquot; members, those that In January Aug 06, 2005 pre-date the Yahoo acquisition in 2005, will be required to associate their account with a Yahoo ID. This move was criticized. (http://tinyurl.com/2uh8to) 61
  • 62. 10,000,000 users (07), invite-only 1 million communities as of July 2007 largest social networking site in Japan http://tinyurl.com/yayp6t 62
  • 63. 2004 The Network's stated mission is to quot;enable individual self-empowerment on a global scalequot; and employ quot;business as a tool for social good.quot; Pierre Omidyar (b. 1967) http://tinyurl.com/qmech http://tinyurl.com/qmech 63
  • 64. Mar 22, 2004 2004. Owned by Google. Popular in Brazil, India, Greenland. 67,962,551 users (07). Open (Google login) http://tinyurl.com/29pcm8 http://tinyurl.com/2l2qbg 64
  • 65. Mar 31, 2004 2004, Canada. Photo sharing, teens 10,000,000 users (07) Piczo was the fastest-growing online brand in the UK in 2006 with girls under 18 accounting for almost half its audience. http://tinyurl.com/3akk8h http://tinyurl.com/2zgpf2 http://tinyurl.com/k2jhx 65
  • 66. Sept 5, 2007 Jan 23, 2004 MEMBERS CONSENT TO RECEIVE COMMERCIAL E-MAIL MESSAGES FROM TAGGED, AND ACKNOWLEDGE AND AGREE THAT THEIR EMAIL ADDRESSES AND OTHER PERSONAL INFORMATION MAY BE USED BY TAGGED FOR THE PURPOSE OF INITIATING COMMERCIAL E- MAIL MESSAGES. very invasive, questionable ethics http://tinyurl.com/3c4fby http://tinyurl.com/3yt5v9 http://tinyurl.com/2odjrp 66
  • 67. 2005 67
  • 68. Tim O’Reilly -- quot;What Is Web 2.0?quot; The power of naming Photo: James Duncan Davidson http://tinyurl.com/2vw6cb 68
  • 70. The Social Web and Law Enforcement In March 2005, the United States Secret Service met with a University of Oklahoma freshman after he posted to the Facebook: “We could all donate a dollar and raise millions of dollars to hire an assassin to kill the president and replace him with a monkey.” On December 14th, 2005 MIT students used data from an automated script that allowed them to download over 70,000 Facebook profiles. 70
  • 71. Facebook privacy agreement (07) states: quot;We may share your information with third parties, including responsible companies with which we have a relationship.quot; 71
  • 72. Jan 22, 2005 http://tinyurl.com/yukk25 1995, UK. 34,000,000 users (07), media sharing and social networking 2005: “Bebo does not claim any ownership rights in any Materials that you submit, post, or display on or through the Bebo Services or on the Bebo.com Web site.” 2007: “By submitting, posting or displaying any Materials on or through the Bebo Service, you automatically grant to Bebo a worldwide, non-exclusive, ... right to copy, distribute, create derivative works of, publicly perform and display such Materials.“ http://tinyurl.com/34rax2 http://tinyurl.com/2k8583 http://tinyurl.com/2mbjtr 72
  • 73. Archival screenshot, Mar 16, 2005 4,700,000 users (07) Open to people 18 and older, (Yahoo! login) “Yahoo! does not claim ownership of Content you submit or make available for inclusion on the Service.” http://tinyurl.com/k2jhx http://tinyurl.com/3c5o5t http://tinyurl.com/38j6fr 73
  • 74. 74
  • 75. 2004 Dreams and Goals; Tagging 1,007,433 users (07) http://tinyurl.com/2nczov 75
  • 76. Launched March 2005. The site has an audience which is 96% UK derived. The typical demographic profile is 16-22 year olds with a 60% lean towards females. 250,000 members (06) http://tinyurl.com/y9rfg4 76
  • 77. 2005. 1,000,000 registered contributors (07) http://mosh.nokia.com/restricted http://tinyurl.com/ysorp5 77
  • 78. May 27, 2005 Sept 10, 2007 http://tinyurl.com/yuoebu 2005. Video sharing site. An average of 9000 video uploads a day (Nov 2006). Video limit 20 mins, 150 MB. 78
  • 79. September 10, 2007 June 03, 2005 http://tinyurl.com/2wkls7 Meetro is an application that overlays the physical world on top of the online world. It combines SMS features, social networking and links it to location. http://mosh.nokia.com/restricted 79
  • 80. 2006 80
  • 81. Everybody and their mom has a profile up on MySpace 81
  • 82. Deleting Online Predator Act legislation The Deleting Online Predators Act of 2006 (DOPA) is a bill, which was brought before the United States House of Representatives on May 9, 2006. The bill, if enacted, will require schools and libraries that receive E- rate funding to prohibit access to social networking websites. The bill would thereby limit access to a wide range of educational material on these websites (especially for minority and rural youth). http://tinyurl.com/yb2vj8 82
  • 83. Yahoo! Messenger 22 million users by December 2006 http://tinyurl.com/2rhdh2 AIM December 2006 100 million “total users” http://tinyurl.com/35xue between 40 and 50 million, Jan 2007 http://tinyurl.com/2m5hyv http://tinyurl.com/3ey5ym http://tinyurl.com/2wnrec http://tinyurl.com/2phpy8 83
  • 84. Fandom Cingular Wireless announced today it has shattered its own record for wireless text messaging during the fifth season of quot;American Idolquot; (2006) -- 64.5 million text messages throughout the show's season. http://tinyurl.com/2m4luf http://tinyurl.com/35omx8 http://tinyurl.com/2umdo3 84
  • 85. Micro-blogging is a form of blogging that allows users to write brief text updates (usually less than 200 characters) and publish them, either to be viewed by anyone or by a restricted group which can be chosen by the user. These messages can be submitted by a variety of means, including text messaging, and the web. France/ Finland Germany status updates on FB http://tinyurl.com/2yhpa3 85
  • 86. 2004 Twitter is a free social networking and micro-blogging service that allows users to send quot;updatesquot; (text-based posts, up to 140 characters long) via SMS, instant messaging, email, to the Twitter website, or an application such as Twitterrific. Twitter was founded in March 2006 by San Francisco start-up company Obvious Corp. (Ruby on Rails.) 86
  • 87. as tool for human rights advocacy http://ethanzuckerman.com/blog/?p=1430 87
  • 88. In 2006 Jay Rosen posted quot;PressThink: The People Formerly Known as the Audiencequot; http://tinyurl.com/2t67v3 88
  • 89. 89
  • 90. (media sharing, video) (The MySpace for Christians) (Latino social networking site) (referral and social networking around music) (free social networking, cars) (social networking, online education, e-commerce) (online identity) (social networking for professional women, feminist) (Christian social networking site) (social networking for soccer players) (referral site about travel) (social networking, media sharing, family-focused) (sharing of all kinds of lists with friends) (blogging, media sharing) (mobile social networking) 2006 90
  • 91. (social networking site of the National Hockey League) (social networking for pet aficionados) (social search) (social networking and referral grouped around fashion) (social networking site about mental health and wellness) (feminist social networking site celebrating friendships among women) (social networking focused on weddings) (social networking and referral for the entire family) 2006 (activist, youth social networking) 91
  • 92. Netporn Bulletin Board Systems such as Rusty n Edie's charged users for access, leading to the first commercial networked pornography since BBSes were not accessed via the Internet. While pornography had seen limited distribution over the Internet in the 1980s, it was not until the Internet became more accessible to the general public throughout the 90s that netporn became widely distributed. http://tinyurl.com/ywqk3c 92
  • 93. 89% of porn is created in the U.S. $2.84 billion in revenue was generated from U.S. porn sites in 2006 25% of all search engine requests are pornographic $89/second is spent on porn 72% of porn viewers are men (2 8% are women) 260 new porn sites go online daily “Sex” is the most-frequently searched term on the Internet 70% of all porn traffic occurs during the 9-5 workday There are about 372 million porn web pages. http://tinyurl.com/2qr6fz http://tinyurl.com/2z6fe5 http://www.techcrunch.com/2007/05/12/internet-pornography-stats/ 93
  • 94. 2006 (Finland). Jaiku.com is a social networking and micro-blogging service similar to Twitter. http://tinyurl.com/2lw7yf http://tinyurl.com/35zay9 94
  • 95. 2006. Singapore-based internet radio and music community website. Over 1 million users (07) http://tinyurl.com/2xajxf 95
  • 96. 2004 domain first switched on Aug 06, 2005 Facebook is a social networking website which was launched on February 4, 2004. Started for colleges, then high schools, and now everyone. 34,000,000 users (07) quot;We may use information about you that we collect from other sources, including but not limited to newspapers and Internet sources such as blogs, instant messaging services and other users of Facebook, to supplement your profile.quot; http://tinyurl.com/22myzy 96
  • 98. In September Facebook launched a quot;news feedquot; feature causing protest and responses by 741,000 users who joined the Students Against Facebook News Feed group. http://tinyurl.com/22h7cm 98
  • 101. http://tinyurl.com/etj7m 741.000 members of FB group in September 2006 http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2208288769 101
  • 102. flow ion mat nfor of i e eas 741.000 members of FB group in September 2006 http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2208288769 102
  • 103. “Even though I wish I hadn't made so many of you angry, I am glad we got to hear you,” he wrote. “And I am also glad that News Feed highlighted all these groups so people could find them and share their opinions with each other as well.” http://tinyurl.com/2n9mhl http://tinyurl.com/y3fedz 103
  • 104. “Every MySpace user I know is absolutely sick of the advertising onslaught and would leave if they could. But they feel trapped because they have so much content invested there, not to mention all their friends.” http://tinyurl.com/ywps4k 104
  • 105. Writely and Spreadsheets were merged into a single product on October 10, 2006 “… you grant Google a worldwide, non-exclusive, royalty- free license to reproduce, adapt, modify, publish and distribute such Content on Google services for the purpose of displaying, distributing and promoting Google services…” http://tinyurl.com/2pmbsm http://tinyurl.com/3e4rq4 105
  • 106. ( August 2005 “We assure you that the contents of your Account will not be disclosed to anyone and will not be accessible to employees of AdventNet. Neither do we process the contents of your Account for serving targeted advertisements.” http://tinyurl.com/2cv36o 106
  • 107. 2007 107
  • 108. 1.114 billion people use the Internet 108
  • 109. The Daily We Social objects and topical foci around which communities are shaped on the Social Web cater more and more to niche interests. The Internet gets incorporated into existing practices. 109
  • 110. (mobile social networking and media sharing) (social networking around baking) (social networking about books) (mobile media sharing) (mobile social networking, IM) (social maps) (micro-blogging) (social news site) (Game platform) 2007 110
  • 111. (North-American) English content is not dominating the Internet anymore. 111
  • 112. Social network hopping? Most people are on no more than 2 networks 112
  • 114. By 2007 Wikipedia reports more than 2,000,000 articles in its English version and Technorati indexed more than 80 million blogs. http://tinyurl.com/24h9xu http://tinyurl.com/347sqq 114
  • 115. Facebook reports about 34 million users, growing by about 4 million each month (2007). It has stronger membership outside the United States than MySpace. http://tinyurl.com/2bxadq http://tinyurl.com/2rq8zd http://tinyurl.com/2de3hd 115
  • 116. In 2007 hi5 hi5 hi5 is the leading social networking site in Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Kuwait, Mauritius, Mongolia, Nicaragua, Peru, Portugal, Romania, Thailand, and Tunisia. 116
  • 117. The Participatory Culture Foundation (PCF) is a non-profit organization whose mission is to quot;enable and support independent, non-corporate creativity and political engagement.quot; Videobomb is a PCF project. It was founded in 2005. http://mosh.nokia.com/restricted http://tinyurl.com/3ymdu9 117
  • 118. Bebo, Friendster, Orkut, and hi5 have also strong international presence. Orkut dominates India and Brazil also because exit costs are high, making it hard for people to migrate. Fotolog dominates Argentina and Chile. http://tinyurl.com/2xrtpn 118
  • 119. 2007. Hyperlocal social news. The term quot;hyperlocalquot; is used to refer to news coverage of community-level events usually overlooked by mainstream http://mosh.nokia.com/restricted media outlets. http://tinyurl.com/2ofykg 119
  • 120. Women aged 25-34 spend more time online than men in the same age group. http://tinyurl.com/3dn6b6 http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,2154293,00.html?gusrc=rss&feed=technology 120
  • 121. conclusion 121
  • 122. The web is a platform for other things to come. What this will be is anyone’s guess. To find out we need to get going and start by protecting net neutrality. 122
  • 123. - end - direct comments, additions, etc to Trebor Scholz trebor@thing.net Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 123
  • 124. 124
  • 125. 125