LeadershipThe everyone’s business1. Lussie, Robert N., Christopher F. Achuan.2010. Leadership: Theory, Application and Skill Development. 4ed. South – Western Cengage Learning.2. Hughes, Richard L., Robert C. Ginnett, Gordon J. Curphy, Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. 6th ed. McGraw- Hill.
Session #1Students should be able to describe the leadership1. Definition of Leadership2. Manager – Leader3. Analysis Level of Leadership4. Leadership Theory Paradigm
GamesSebuah perahu tenggelam. Ada 10 penumpang yang sekarang berusahamenyelematkan diri. Empat orang orang sudah berada di perahu sekoci. 6orang masih mengapung di air.Ada waktu 10 menit untuk orang-orang yang di perahu untuk menyelamatkanyang lainnya. Adapaun hambatan yang dihadapai adalah sbb:1. Waktu 10 menit2. Penolong hanya bisa membawa satu orang sekali jalan3. Perahu sekoci hanya muat 8 orang4. Di perahu ada seorang dokter ahli bedah jantung yang sangat terkenal, seorang ibu hamil, seorang kakek yang sangat kaya, dua orang tua salah satu yang selamat, dan satu orang mahasiswa
Leadership• The process by which an agent induces a subordinate to behave in a desired manner• Directing and coordinating the work of group members• An interpersonal relation in which others comply because they want to, not because the have to• The process of influencing an organized group toward accomplishing its goals• Action that focus resources to create desirable opportunities• The leader’s job is to create conditions for the team to be effective• The ends of leadership involve getting results through others, and the means of leadership involve the ability to build cohesive, goal-oriented teams. Good leaders are those who build teams to get results across a variety of situations• Leadership represents a complex form of social problem solving
Managers Leaders Administer Innovate Maintain Develop Control Inspire Short-term View Long-term View How and When? What and Why? Imitate OriginateAccept the status quo Challenge
Discussion Question #2Are you interested in sharing leadership, or do you prefer to be a follower?
Functions Performed by ManagersAll managers perform four majorfunctions:PlanningOrganizingLeadingThus, leadership is a part of every manager’s jobControlling
Are All Leaders Managers?Manager = formal title and authorityLeader = person (manager or non-manager) with influenceFollower = person influenced by a leader
Influence• Is the process of a leader communicating ideas, gaining acceptance of them, and motivating followers to support and implement the ideas through change• It is the essence of leadership• Managers may influence through coercion• Leaders influence by gaining followers’ commitment and enthusiasm
Levels of Analysis of Leadership Theory Levels Of Leadership Analysis Individual
Individual Level • Focuses on the individual leader and the relationship with individual followers • Called the “dyadic process” • Reciprocal influence
Group Level • Focuses on the relationship between the individual leader and the collective group of followers • Called the “group process” • How the leader contributes to group effectiveness • An important part is meetings
Organizational Level • Focuses on how top management influences organizational performance • Called the “organizational process” • Deals with organizational adaptability and transformation
Interrelationships among the Levels of Analysis • Group and organizational performance are based on individual performance – If individual performance is low, then group and organizational performance will be low as well • Organizational performance is also based on group performance – If groups are not effective, organizational performance will be low • Both group and organizational performance also affect the performance of the individual – If both the group members and the group are highly motivated and productive, chances are the individual will be productive as well
Leadership TheoriesAre explanations of some aspects of leadershipHave practical value because they are used tobetter understand, predict, and controlsuccessful leadership
Leadership ParadigmIs a shared mindset that represents a fundamental way of thinking about, perceiving, studying, researching, and understanding leadershipHas changed over the last 60 years during which it has been studied
Leadership Theory Classifications The four leadership theory classifications include: Trait Contingency Behavioral Integrative
Leadership Trait TheoriesAttempt to explain distinctive High energy levelcharacteristics accounting for Appearanceleadership effectiveness toidentify a set of physical and Aggressivenesspsychological traits that allsuccessful leaders possess Persuasiveness Dominance Self-reliance
Behavioral Leadership Theories• Attempt to explain distinctive styles used by effective leaders, or to define the nature of their work• What the leader actually does on the job (behavior)
Contingency Leadership Theories• Attempt to explain the appropriate leadership style based on the leader, followers, and situation• Are called “universal theories”• Try to predict which traits and/or behaviors will result in leadership success given the situational variables
Integrative Leadership TheoriesAttempt to combine the trait, behavioral, andcontingency theories to explainsuccessful, influencing leader–followerrelationships
Discussion Question Some people say the hard skills (finance, quantitative analysis) are more important for managers than soft skills(developing relationships, leadership), andsome say the opposite is true. What do you think?