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Neeraj Sharma
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Meaning and Definition
Leadership is the important element of directing
function of management.
Leadership is a process of influencing that
stimulates subordinates to do their best
willingly towards the achievement of desired
goals.
Koontz and O`Donnell defined leadership as “ the
ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work
with confidence and zeal.
Characteristics of Leadership
1) Personal quality
2)Exists with followers
3)Willingness of people to follow makes a leader
4)Process of influence
5)Exists for realisation of common goals
6)Involves readiness to accept complete
responsibility in all situations
7)Function of stimulating followers to strive willingly
to attain organisational objectives.
8)Not bossism.
Leadership Functions
Setting Goals
Organizing
Initiating action
Co-ordination
Direction and Motivation
Link between Management and Workers
Qualities of A Good Leader
1. Good Personality
2. Emotional stability
3. Communication Skills
4. Self Confidence and diligence
5. Ability to guide and teach
6. Honesty and integrity of character
7. Objective and flexile approach
8. Sociable
9. Sense of purpose and responsibility
10. Initiatives and creative thinking
Importance of Leadership in Management
The importance of leadership in any group
activity is too obvious to be over-emphasised.
Wherever, there is an organized group of people
working towards a common goal, some type
leadership becomes essential.
1. Improves motivation and morale.
2. Acts as a motive power to group efforts.
3. Acts as an aid to authority.
4. Needed at all levels of management.
5. Provides the basis for co-operation.
Process or techniques of Effective Leadership
1. The leader should consult the group in framing the policies
and lines of action and in initiating any radical change
therein.
2. He should attempt to develop voluntary co-operation from
his subordinates in realising common objectives.
3. He should exercise authority whenever necessary to
implement the policies. He should give clear, complete and
intelligible instructions to his subordinates.
4. He should build-up confidence and zeal in his followers.
5. He should listen to his subordinates properly and
appreciate their feelings.
6. He should communicate effectively.
7. He should follow the principle of motivation.
Theories of Leadership
• The Trait Theory.
• Charismatic Leadership Theory.
• The Behavioural Theory.
• The Situational Theories.
• The Follower Theory.
The Trait Theory
 According to this theory, there are certain personal
qualities and traits which are essential to be a
successful leader.
 Leadership traits are in-born and cannot be acquired by
learning
 List of traits given is different by different
authors.eg:intelligence,direction,integrity,decisiveness,
affection,mental and moral etc.
 Advocates of this theory are of the opinion that
persons who are leaders are psychologically better
adjusted to display better judgement. They seek and
give more information and take lead in interpreting up
a situation.
Some shortcomings of this theory were:
1.Cannot hold good for all sets of circumstances.
2.List of traits are not uniform and are differently
given by different authors.
3.Fails to take into account the influence of other
factors on leadership.
4.Fails to indicate comparative importance of
different traits.
5.There are many persons who were not good
leaders although they had traits as specified for
leaders.
Charismatic Leadership
• Charisma is a Greek word which means gift. So
charisma is a God given gift to a person which
makes him a leader irrespective of the
situation in which he is placed.
• Leaders is born and not made
• It is a form of interpersonal attraction of a
leader that inspires support and acceptance
from others.
Assumptions:
1. Leaders have some exceptional inborn leadership qualities which are
a gift from God.
2. These qualities cannot be enhanced through education and training.
3. Qualities of a leader are of personal nature, these cannot be shared
by others.
4. These qualities make a leader effective and situational factors don’t
have any influence.
Limitations:
 If we assume that leadership qualities are inborn in a person then it
implies that nothing can be done in an organisation to develop
leaders.
 It is a fact that leaders can be developed, though not great leaders,
through proper education, training, development programmes etc.
 A charismatic leader may fail in changed situation.
The Behavioural Theory
According to this approach, leadership involves an
interpersonal relationship between a leader and
subordinates in which behaviour of leader towards the
subordinates is the most important element.
Its actual behaviour and actions of leader which matters
than personal traits or qualities
The good behaviour of leader raises the morale, builds
up confidence and spirit among the team members and the
lack of good behaviour will discard him as a leader.
Limitation:
A particular behaviour or action of a leader may be
effective at only one point of time.
The Situational Theories
• This theory emphasise upon the situation in which leader
operates.
• According to this theory, leadership is greatly affected by a
situation and maintain that leadership pattern is the product
of situation at a particular time. A good leader is one who
moulds himself according to the situation.
Limitation:
It fails to consider the fact that in leadership, individual
qualities and traits of leader play an important role.
The Follower Theory
• According to this theory, the essence of leadership is
followership and it is the willingness of people to
follow that makes a person a leader.
• The members of a group tend to follow only those
whom they recognise as providing means for
achieving their personal desires, wants and needs.
1. What is a leadership style?
A. For many years leadership
has been thought of as a
combination of personality
traits.
B. A leadership style is a
particular pattern of
behavior exhibited by the
leader.
Leadership
Styles
Autocratic
Leader
Laisseez-fare
Leader
Democratic
Leader
Bureauceatic
Leader
Manipulative
Leader
Paternalistic
Leader
Autocratic Style Leader
– Tells employees what they want done
and how to do it (without getting the
advice from others).
– Leader makes decisions without
reference to anyone else
– High degree of dependency on the
leader
– Can create de-motivation and
alienation of staff
– May be valuable in some types of
business where decisions need to be
made quickly and decisively
Democratic Style Leader
– The leader involves one or
more employeess in the
decision making process (to
determine what to do and how
to do it).
– Leader maintains the final
decision making authority.
– Allows everyone to be part of
a team—everyone feels that
they have participated and
contributed.
– Improves the sharing of ideas
and experiences within the
business
– Can delay decision making
Laissez-Faire Style Leader
– Leader allows employees to
make the decisions.
– Can be very useful in businesses
where creative ideas are
important
– Can be highly motivational,
as people have control over
their working life
– Can be successful when
emplyoees are sincere and self
disciplined
– Relies on good team work and
interpersonal relations
Paternalistic Style Leader
• Leader acts as a
‘father figure’
• Paternalistic leader
makes decision but
may consult
subordinates
• Believes in the need
to support staff and
guide them
Manipulative Leadership Style
– This style of leadership is based on
the belief that employees are
persons who should be manipulated
by the leader so that his goal may
be attained.
– Employee needs and desires are
viewed as tools to extract
performance.
– It exploits the aspirations of the
employees or followers.
– Under this style of leadership the
followers know that they are being
manipulated and thus become
resentful and bitter.
Bureauceatic Leadership
Rules centred leadership. They follow
rules rigorously, and ensure that their
people follow procedures precisely.
• Decisions are taken in a framework of
rules and procedure.
• There is too much of paper work and
always a desire to play safe.
• Subordinates perform jobs in a
mechanical way.
Leadership styles in Indian Organizations
There may be different styles of different leaders since they are
working under different organizations and situations.
1. Family-Managed traditional organizations:- There are the
organizations which are managed by he members of a family.
There is no consideration of competency, experience, skills etc.,
the only factor is the continuation of blood relation and
inheritance. These are highly centralised in structure.
2. Professionally managed organisations:- These are organisations
managed professionally. These have democratic and participative
styles of leadership. The persons are properly qualified and
competent to manage their work are assigned managerial jobs.
3. Public sector organisations:- These organisations are working
under different Govt. Departments. These are managed by civil
servants.
The Managerial Grid
Robert R. Brake and Jone S. Mounton developed the Managerial Grid which has
been used as a means of managerial training and of identifying combinations of
leadership:-
1. Impoverished Management:- The first style (11) is the impoverished
management under which the manager is least concerned with either people or
production.
2. Country Club Management:- leaders have great concern for their people but lack
production orientation.
3. Task Management:- The leaders with high concern for production fall under this
style.
4. Team Management:- The leaders having the high concern for production as well
people fall under this style.
5. Middle of the Road:- The leaders of this style have medium concern for both
people and production and try to maintain a balance in the two.
The Managerial Grid implies that the most desirable leader behavior is Team
management in which the leader has high concern for production as well as people.
Likert’s Systems of Leadership
Organisation of
variable
System 1
Exploitative
Authoritative
System 2
Benevolent
Authoritative
system
System 3
Consultative
System 4
Democratic
1. Extent to which
superiors have
confidence and trust
in subordinates.
Has no trust and
confidence in
subordinates.
Has condescending
confidence and
trust such as
master has on
servant.
Substantial but not
complete
confidence and
trust, still wishes
to keep control of
decisions
Complete
confidence and
trust in all matters.
2. Extent to which
superiors behave so
that subordinates feel
free to discuss
important things
about their jobs with
their immediate
superior.
Subordinates do
not feel at all
free to discuss
things about the
job with their
superior.
Subordinates do
not feel very free
do discuss things
about the job with
their superior.
Subordinates feel
rather free to
discuss things
about the job with
their superior.
Subordinates feel
completely free to
discuss things
about the job with
their superior.
3. Extent to which
immediate superior
generally tries to get
subordinates ideas
and opinions and
make constructive use
of them.
Seldom gets
ideas and
opinions of
subordinates in
solving job
problems.
Sometimes gets
idea and opinions
of subordinates in
solving job
problems.
Usually gets ideas
and opinions and
tries to make
constructive use of
them.
Always gets ideas
and opinions and
tries to make
constructive use of
them.
Leadership

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Leadership

  • 1. MADE BY: Neeraj Sharma Mphil ( Mangement) Roll no 14240157002
  • 2. Meaning and Definition Leadership is the important element of directing function of management. Leadership is a process of influencing that stimulates subordinates to do their best willingly towards the achievement of desired goals. Koontz and O`Donnell defined leadership as “ the ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zeal.
  • 3. Characteristics of Leadership 1) Personal quality 2)Exists with followers 3)Willingness of people to follow makes a leader 4)Process of influence 5)Exists for realisation of common goals 6)Involves readiness to accept complete responsibility in all situations 7)Function of stimulating followers to strive willingly to attain organisational objectives. 8)Not bossism.
  • 4. Leadership Functions Setting Goals Organizing Initiating action Co-ordination Direction and Motivation Link between Management and Workers
  • 5. Qualities of A Good Leader 1. Good Personality 2. Emotional stability 3. Communication Skills 4. Self Confidence and diligence 5. Ability to guide and teach 6. Honesty and integrity of character 7. Objective and flexile approach 8. Sociable 9. Sense of purpose and responsibility 10. Initiatives and creative thinking
  • 6. Importance of Leadership in Management The importance of leadership in any group activity is too obvious to be over-emphasised. Wherever, there is an organized group of people working towards a common goal, some type leadership becomes essential. 1. Improves motivation and morale. 2. Acts as a motive power to group efforts. 3. Acts as an aid to authority. 4. Needed at all levels of management. 5. Provides the basis for co-operation.
  • 7. Process or techniques of Effective Leadership 1. The leader should consult the group in framing the policies and lines of action and in initiating any radical change therein. 2. He should attempt to develop voluntary co-operation from his subordinates in realising common objectives. 3. He should exercise authority whenever necessary to implement the policies. He should give clear, complete and intelligible instructions to his subordinates. 4. He should build-up confidence and zeal in his followers. 5. He should listen to his subordinates properly and appreciate their feelings. 6. He should communicate effectively. 7. He should follow the principle of motivation.
  • 8. Theories of Leadership • The Trait Theory. • Charismatic Leadership Theory. • The Behavioural Theory. • The Situational Theories. • The Follower Theory.
  • 9. The Trait Theory  According to this theory, there are certain personal qualities and traits which are essential to be a successful leader.  Leadership traits are in-born and cannot be acquired by learning  List of traits given is different by different authors.eg:intelligence,direction,integrity,decisiveness, affection,mental and moral etc.  Advocates of this theory are of the opinion that persons who are leaders are psychologically better adjusted to display better judgement. They seek and give more information and take lead in interpreting up a situation.
  • 10. Some shortcomings of this theory were: 1.Cannot hold good for all sets of circumstances. 2.List of traits are not uniform and are differently given by different authors. 3.Fails to take into account the influence of other factors on leadership. 4.Fails to indicate comparative importance of different traits. 5.There are many persons who were not good leaders although they had traits as specified for leaders.
  • 11. Charismatic Leadership • Charisma is a Greek word which means gift. So charisma is a God given gift to a person which makes him a leader irrespective of the situation in which he is placed. • Leaders is born and not made • It is a form of interpersonal attraction of a leader that inspires support and acceptance from others.
  • 12. Assumptions: 1. Leaders have some exceptional inborn leadership qualities which are a gift from God. 2. These qualities cannot be enhanced through education and training. 3. Qualities of a leader are of personal nature, these cannot be shared by others. 4. These qualities make a leader effective and situational factors don’t have any influence. Limitations:  If we assume that leadership qualities are inborn in a person then it implies that nothing can be done in an organisation to develop leaders.  It is a fact that leaders can be developed, though not great leaders, through proper education, training, development programmes etc.  A charismatic leader may fail in changed situation.
  • 13. The Behavioural Theory According to this approach, leadership involves an interpersonal relationship between a leader and subordinates in which behaviour of leader towards the subordinates is the most important element. Its actual behaviour and actions of leader which matters than personal traits or qualities The good behaviour of leader raises the morale, builds up confidence and spirit among the team members and the lack of good behaviour will discard him as a leader. Limitation: A particular behaviour or action of a leader may be effective at only one point of time.
  • 14. The Situational Theories • This theory emphasise upon the situation in which leader operates. • According to this theory, leadership is greatly affected by a situation and maintain that leadership pattern is the product of situation at a particular time. A good leader is one who moulds himself according to the situation. Limitation: It fails to consider the fact that in leadership, individual qualities and traits of leader play an important role.
  • 15. The Follower Theory • According to this theory, the essence of leadership is followership and it is the willingness of people to follow that makes a person a leader. • The members of a group tend to follow only those whom they recognise as providing means for achieving their personal desires, wants and needs.
  • 16. 1. What is a leadership style? A. For many years leadership has been thought of as a combination of personality traits. B. A leadership style is a particular pattern of behavior exhibited by the leader.
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  • 19. Autocratic Style Leader – Tells employees what they want done and how to do it (without getting the advice from others). – Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else – High degree of dependency on the leader – Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff – May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively
  • 20. Democratic Style Leader – The leader involves one or more employeess in the decision making process (to determine what to do and how to do it). – Leader maintains the final decision making authority. – Allows everyone to be part of a team—everyone feels that they have participated and contributed. – Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the business – Can delay decision making
  • 21. Laissez-Faire Style Leader – Leader allows employees to make the decisions. – Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important – Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life – Can be successful when emplyoees are sincere and self disciplined – Relies on good team work and interpersonal relations
  • 22. Paternalistic Style Leader • Leader acts as a ‘father figure’ • Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult subordinates • Believes in the need to support staff and guide them
  • 23. Manipulative Leadership Style – This style of leadership is based on the belief that employees are persons who should be manipulated by the leader so that his goal may be attained. – Employee needs and desires are viewed as tools to extract performance. – It exploits the aspirations of the employees or followers. – Under this style of leadership the followers know that they are being manipulated and thus become resentful and bitter.
  • 24. Bureauceatic Leadership Rules centred leadership. They follow rules rigorously, and ensure that their people follow procedures precisely. • Decisions are taken in a framework of rules and procedure. • There is too much of paper work and always a desire to play safe. • Subordinates perform jobs in a mechanical way.
  • 25. Leadership styles in Indian Organizations There may be different styles of different leaders since they are working under different organizations and situations. 1. Family-Managed traditional organizations:- There are the organizations which are managed by he members of a family. There is no consideration of competency, experience, skills etc., the only factor is the continuation of blood relation and inheritance. These are highly centralised in structure. 2. Professionally managed organisations:- These are organisations managed professionally. These have democratic and participative styles of leadership. The persons are properly qualified and competent to manage their work are assigned managerial jobs. 3. Public sector organisations:- These organisations are working under different Govt. Departments. These are managed by civil servants.
  • 26. The Managerial Grid Robert R. Brake and Jone S. Mounton developed the Managerial Grid which has been used as a means of managerial training and of identifying combinations of leadership:- 1. Impoverished Management:- The first style (11) is the impoverished management under which the manager is least concerned with either people or production. 2. Country Club Management:- leaders have great concern for their people but lack production orientation. 3. Task Management:- The leaders with high concern for production fall under this style. 4. Team Management:- The leaders having the high concern for production as well people fall under this style. 5. Middle of the Road:- The leaders of this style have medium concern for both people and production and try to maintain a balance in the two. The Managerial Grid implies that the most desirable leader behavior is Team management in which the leader has high concern for production as well as people.
  • 27. Likert’s Systems of Leadership Organisation of variable System 1 Exploitative Authoritative System 2 Benevolent Authoritative system System 3 Consultative System 4 Democratic 1. Extent to which superiors have confidence and trust in subordinates. Has no trust and confidence in subordinates. Has condescending confidence and trust such as master has on servant. Substantial but not complete confidence and trust, still wishes to keep control of decisions Complete confidence and trust in all matters. 2. Extent to which superiors behave so that subordinates feel free to discuss important things about their jobs with their immediate superior. Subordinates do not feel at all free to discuss things about the job with their superior. Subordinates do not feel very free do discuss things about the job with their superior. Subordinates feel rather free to discuss things about the job with their superior. Subordinates feel completely free to discuss things about the job with their superior. 3. Extent to which immediate superior generally tries to get subordinates ideas and opinions and make constructive use of them. Seldom gets ideas and opinions of subordinates in solving job problems. Sometimes gets idea and opinions of subordinates in solving job problems. Usually gets ideas and opinions and tries to make constructive use of them. Always gets ideas and opinions and tries to make constructive use of them.