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LEADERSHIP, Group Report fot PA7-Human Behavior in Organizations, College of Public Administration - Tarlac State University

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  1. 1. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 1 L E A D E R S H I P Learning Objectives  Define Leadership and explain its effectiveness and importance for organizations.  Familiarize with the 8 Dimensions of Leadership  Identify the different Leadership Styles and their advantages & disadvantages to organizations.  Understand the various Leadership Theories/Approaches and their implications to organizations.  Explain the Principled-Centered Leadership Power and the five sources of Power and how each causes different subordinate behavior.  Describe the Situational Theories of the Contingency Approach of Leadership, specifically the Hersey and Blanchard’s Theory, House’s Path- Goal Theory, & Fiedler’s Contingency Model and its application to leader’s participation.  Discuss the Leadership Grid.  Identify the Functions and Traits of an Effective Leader. LEADERSHIP The Meaning of Leadership… Process: what leaders actually do?  Using non coercive influence to shape the group’s or organization’s goals.  Motivating others’ behavior toward goals.  Helping to define organizational culture. Property: who leaders are.  The set of characteristics attributed to individuals perceived to be leaders. L E A D E R S H I P  The process of influencing the behavior of others to work willingly and enthusiastically for achieving predetermined goals. Leader - a person who can influence others to be more effective in working to achieve their mutual goals and maintain effective working relationships among members. Leadership Skills - sum total of your ability to help the group achieve its goals and maintain an effective working relationship among members. Nature of Leadership  Leadership is the continuous process of behavior.  Leadership may be seen in terms of relationship between a leader and his followers.  Leaders try to influence the behavior of individuals or group of individuals around him to achieve common goals.  Leadership gives an experience of help to followers to attain common goals.  Leadership is exercised in a particular situation, at a given point of time, and under specific set of circumstances.  Leadership Versus Management Leadership Activity Management Establishing direction and vision for the organization Creating an agenda Planning and budgeting, allocating resources Aligning people through communications and actions that provide direction Developing a human network for achieving the agenda Organizing and staffing, structuring and monitoring implementation Motivating and inspiring by satisfying needs Executing plans Controlling and problem solving Produces useful change and new approaches to challenges Outcomes Produces predictability and order and attains results
  2. 2. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 2  Importance of Leadership  Initiates action - Leader is a person who starts the work by communicating the policies and plans to the subordinates from where the work actually starts.  Motivation - A leader proves to be playing an incentive role in the concern’s working. He motivates the employees with economic and non-economic rewards and thereby gets the work from the subordinates.  Providing guidance - A leader has to not only supervise but also play a guiding role for the subordinates. Guidance here means instructing the subordinates the way they have to perform their work effectively and efficiently.  Building morale - A leader can be a morale booster by achieving full co- operation so that they perform with best of their abilities as they work to achieve goals.  Builds work environment - An efficient work environment helps in sound and stable growth. Therefore, human relations should be kept into mind by a leader.  Co-ordination - Co-ordination can be achieved through reconciling personal interests with organizational goals. This synchronization can be achieved through proper and effective co-ordination which should be primary motive of a leader. Leadership Effectiveness DETERMINANTS OF LEADERSHIP The effectiveness of an individual as a leader can be determined by two variables: 1) Quality of Subordinates - The quality of subordinates is a primary indicator of effective leadership. An effective leader always builds a strong term consisting of people who are independent and self-motivated. 2) The Nature of the Situation - Different individuals are effective in different situations. An individual who has the background and knowledge relevant to a given situation will come forward by himself to lead the group when that situation arises. Leadership effectiveness is fundamentally the practice of the following principles: 1) Build a collective vision, mission, and set of values that help people focus on their contributions and bring out their best. 2) Establish a fearless communication environment that encourages accurate and honest feedback and self-disclosure. 3) Make information readily available. 4) Establish trust, respect, and peer-based behavior as the norm. 5) Be inclusive and patient, show concern for each person. 6) Demonstrate resourcefulness and the willingness to learn. 7) Create an environment that stimulates extraordinary performance. Dimensions of Leadership Behavior (See Behavioral Theory - Ohio State Studies) CONSIDERATION - The degree to which the leader creates an environment of emotional support, warmth, friendliness, and trust Involves being friendly and approachable, looking out for the personal welfare of the group, keeping the group abreast of new developments, and doing small favors for the group. INITIATING STRUCTURE - Organizing and defining relationships in the group by engaging in such activities as assigning specific tasks, specifying procedures to be followed, scheduling work, and clarifying expectations for team members. Also referred to as production emphasis, task orientation, and task motivation.
  3. 3. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 3  Four Combinations of Initiating Structure and Consideration 8 Dimensions of Leadership  No matter how good one-dimensional leaders are, they can’t provide the kind of leadership that leads to innovation, social change, and business transformation.  Multidimensional leaders understand that great leadership requires a range of competencies and skills and know that their own personality traits can work both for and against them. 1.) The Pioneering Leader At their best: Bold and passionate, they inspire others to take chances on new directions. At their worst: Impulsive and overconfident, they use their charm to gain support for poorly thought-out ideas. 2.) The Energizing Leader At their best: Upbeat and eager, they take chances on colorful new ideas. At their worst: Scattered and erratic, they see little need for consistency. 3.) The Affirming Leader At their best: Kind and supportive, they create a respectful and positive environment. At their worst: Indirect and conflict-averse, they fail to hold others accountable. 4.) The Inclusive Leader At their best: Sincere and accommodating, they collaborate with others to make win-win decisions. At their worst: Passive and overly trusting, they let others take advantage of their supportive, patient nature. 5.) The Humble Leader At their best: Modest and fair-minded, they provide reliable outcomes through steadiness and consistency. At their worst: Rigid and overly cautious, they are afraid to move beyond the status quo. 6.) The Deliberate Leader At their best: Conscientious and disciplined, they provide high-quality outcomes through careful analysis and planning. At their worst: Risk-averse and perfectionistic, they pay little attention to the human element. 7.) The Resolute Leader At their best: Questioning and independent, they aren’t afraid to challenge the status quo to get better results. At their worst: Cynical and insensitive, they seem intent on putting a negative spin on everything. 8.) The Commanding Leader At their best: Powerful and decisive, they enlist others to work quickly toward ambitious goals. At their worst: Forceful and egotistical, they push others at the expense of morale.
  4. 4. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 4 Theories of Leadership These are the main theories that attempt to explain Leadership: I. Trait Theory II. Behavioral Theory III. Situational Theory IV. Power-Influence Approach  Trait Theory  Trait theory is a major approach to the study of human personality.  Assumed that a basic set of personal traits that differentiated leaders from non-leaders could be used to identify leaders and as a tool for predicting who would become leaders.  The trait approach was unsuccessful in establishing empirical relationships between traits and persons regarded as leaders.  Behavioral Theory  Behavioral theories of leadership do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. Rather, they look at what leaders actually do.  The behavioral theorists concentrated on the unique behavioral aspects found in leaders that enabled them to attain effective leadership. Basic Assumptions of Behavioral Theories  Leaders can be made, rather than are born.  Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior. Various Behavioral Theories of Leadership 1) The Ohio State Studies 2) University of Michigan Studies 3) University of Iowa Studies 4) The Managerial / Leadership Grid® 5) Scandinavian Studies 1.) The Ohio State Studies  In 1945, the research was based on a questionnaire called ‘Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire’.  They narrowed down to two independent dimensions along which an individual’s leadership behavior could be studied. 1.) Initiating Structure - the leader clearly defines the leader-subordinate role expectations, formalizes communications, and sets the working agenda. 2.) Consideration - the leader shows concern for subordinates and attempts to establish a friendly and supportive climate. 2.) University of Michigan Studies  As a result of these studies, the following dimensions of leadership were observed: a) Employee-oriented Dimension - managers who focus on the development of cohesive work groups and employee satisfaction. b) Job/Production-oriented Dimension - leaders who pay close attention to subordinates’ work, explain work procedures, and are keenly interested in performance.  Researchers concluded that leaders with an inclination towards employee oriented dimension resulted in higher job satisfaction and greater productivity. 3.) University of Iowa Studies  Identified three leadership styles: a) Autocratic style: centralized authority, low participation b) Democratic style: involvement, high participation, feedback c) Laissez-faire style: hands-off management  Research findings: “mixed results”  No specific style was consistently better for producing better performance.  Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader.
  5. 5. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 5 4.) The Managerial / Leadership Grid  The Leadership Grid® is a method of evaluating leadership styles.  The Grid® is used to train managers so that they are simultaneously more concerned for people and for production.  The Grid® is a very simple framework that elegantly defines FIVE basic styles that characterize workplace behavior and the resulting relationships. The FIVE managerial Grid styles are based on how two fundamental concerns (concern for people and concern for results) are manifested at varying levels whenever people interact. 5.) Scandinavian Studies  The behavior theories did not take into account the dynamics, or even chaotic environments that influence the modern organizations.  Some Finnish and Swedish theorists began reviewing earlier theories to find new dimensions that could incorporate the dynamics of the environment.  The new dimension found was called as “Development–oriented Behavior”.  According to this dimension leaders were ready to experiment with new ideas and practices and embrace change.  Leaders who were inclined towards this dimension were found to be more efficient by the subordinates.  Situational Theory  According to this theory of leadership, a single leadership style is not applicable to all situations.  Emphasizes the importance of contextual factors:  work performed by the leader’s unit,  external environment, and  Characteristics of followers.  Attempts to identify the aspects of the situation that “moderate” the relationship of leader behaviors and leadership effectiveness. Situational Theories of Leadership 1) Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Leadership Continuum 2) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory 3) Path Goal Theory 4) Fiedler’s Contingency Model  Power-Influence Approach  Attempts to understand leadership by examining influence processes between leaders and followers.  Power is viewed as important not only for influencing subordinates, but also for influencing peers, superiors and people outside the organization.  How is power acquired and lost by various individuals. Leadership Styles Based on the Use of Authority Kurt Zadek Lewin, together with Ronald Lipitt, and Ralph White developed in 1939 the seminal work on the influence of leadership styles and performance. The researchers evaluated the performance of groups of eleven-year-old boys under different types of work climate. In each, the leader exercised his influence regarding the type of group decision making, praise and criticism (feedback), and the management of the group tasks (project management) according to three styles:  Autocratic,  Democratic/Participative  Laissez-faire
  6. 6. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 6  Autocratic Leadership  … also known as Authoritarian, Directive, Monothetic, Centric, or “boss- centered” style.  The Leader exerts high levels of power over his or her employees or team members.  The Leader structures the complete situation for his/her employees, centralizes decision making power in himself/herself and issue orders/instructions.  The Leader functions with high concern for task accomplishment but low concern for the people who perform these tasks.  The Leader has no confidence and trust in his or her subordinates. No suggestions – No considerations  The threat of punishment and penalties make the workers obey their orders.  May also offer rewards (positive motivation) to their followers for their good performance. In such cases the leaders are termed as BENEVOLENT AUTOCRATIC LEADERS. 3 Categories of Autocratic Leadership 1) STRICT AUTOCRAT - The Leader follows in a very strict sense. His method of influencing subordinates behavior is through negative motivation, that is, by criticizing subordinates, imposing penalty etc. 2) BENEVOLENT AUTOCRAT - The Leader centralizes decision-making power in him, but his motivation style is positive. He can be getting efficiency in many situations. Some people like to work under strong authority structure and they derive satisfaction by this leadership. 3) INCOMPETENT AUTOCRAT - Sometimes superiors may adopt autocratic leadership style just to hide their incompetence because in other styles, they may be exposed before their subordinates. However, this cannot be used for a long time. ADVANTAGES:  Quick decision-making due to centralized authority.  Less competent and less skilled employees can also be hired.  Can prove to be successful in short-run.  Reduced stress due to increased control.  A more productive group while the leader is watching.  Improved logistics of operations DISADVANTAGES:  Leadership may be negative because followers are uninformed, insecure, and afraid of the leader’s authority.  Negative impact on organizational productivity and efficiency due to strict leadership and lack of motivation as frustration, low morale, dissatisfaction amongst the members, and conflict develop in the organization.  There is more dependence and less individuality in the organization. As such, future leaders in the organization do not develop. When it is Effective?  Short term projects with a highly technical, complex or risky element.  Work environments where spans of control are wide and hence the manager has little time to devote to each employee.  Industries where employees need to perform low-skilled, monotonous and repetitive tasks and generally have low levels of motivation.  Projects where the work performed needs to be completed to exact specifications and/or with a tight deadline.  Companies that suffer from a high employee turnover, i.e. where time and resources devoted to leadership development would be largely wasted.
  7. 7. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 7  Participative Leadership  Participation is defined as mental and emotional involvement of a person in a group situation which encourages him to contribute to group goals and share responsibility in them.  This style is also known as consultative, or ideographic.  These leaders (one or more) do not centralize the decision making authority with them; rather they decentralize it to their followers.  Though the ultimate responsibility continues to vest with the leaders, they take all decisions in consultation with their followers and based on their followers’ suggestions & ideas.  The followers thus develop a sense of involvement and contribute positively towards the group goals.  The participation may be real. ADVANTAGES:  Highly motivating technique to employees.  Employee’s productivity is high.  It provides organizational stability by raising morale and attitudes of employees high and favorable.  Increase in followers’ job satisfaction and cooperation with management  Reduction in employees’ turnover and absenteeism.  Improved communication DISADVANTAGES:  Mismatch between the desired and actual participation  Lengthy and ‘boring’ decision making.  Like the other styles, the participative style is not always appropriate. It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems.  Democratic Leadership  It is a step further than the participative leadership.  Democratic leadership is people oriented. It focuses on human aspects and builds effective teamwork.  Democratic Leadership is the leadership style that promotes the sharing of responsibility, the exercise of delegation and continual consultation.  Interaction between the leader and subordinates is open, friendly and trusting.  The decisions are made in groups through group discussions, by the formation of various committees. It is also called as ‘group dynamics’ approach to participation.  It can be most suitable where team working is essential, and quality is more important than speed to market or productivity. ADVANTAGES:  Positive work environment  Successful initiatives  Creative thinking  Reduction of office politics  Reduced employee turnover  Overall development of the subordinates DISADVANTAGES:  Lengthy and ‘boring’ Decision making  Suggestions given by subordinates may sometimes be better than what leaders could have thought of. Leaders, in such cases, may not feel happy inviting suggestions.  Danger of pseudo participation: Employees may not always be willing to participate  Suggestions which are not acceptable to the entire group may invite resistance from some of the group members.
  8. 8. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 8 When is Participative Leadership & Democratic Leadership Effective?  It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems.  It is applied to an extent in the manufacturing industry, to allow employees to give their ideas on how processes can become leaner and more efficient.  It is effective in professionals’ organizations where the emphasis is clearly on training professional & leadership development.  Non-profit organizations also tremendously benefit from drawing upon the creative energies of all their staff to bring about cost cutting techniques or fund raising ideas.  As previously mentioned, creative industries such as advertising and television enjoy a lot of benefits from the free flow of ideas that democratic / participative leadership brings.  Laissez-Faire Leadership  This French phrase means "leave it be," and it describes leaders who allow their people to work on their own.  This style of leadership is also called “Hands-Off”, Free-Rein, Delegative or Permissive.  The leader is ultra-liberal: It means giving complete freedom to subordinates. In this style, the leader once determines policy, programmes and limitations for action then the entire process is left to subordinates.  Group members perform everything and the leader usually an on-looker who plays a minor role in affecting the group-goals and maintains contacts with outside persons to bring the information and materials which the group needs. ADVANTAGES:  Increases morale of employees and they strive for higher job satisfaction as they hold the responsibility for framing and achieving their group-goals.  The employees’ satisfaction is exploited to the fullest possible extent.  The subordinates train their own group members and motivate them to work. The results are likely to be more productive. DISADVANTAGES:  It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a leader.  The leader cannot provide regular feedback to let employees know how well they are doing.  Leaders are unable to thank employees for their good work.  The leader doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and is hoping the employees can cover for him or her. When it is Effective?  This style of leadership is effective in highly motivated professionals (outside experts, such as staffs or consultants) where independent thinking is rewarded. It is not useful in organizations that are highly structured.  This type of style is suitable to certain where the leader can leave a choice to his group. This helps subordinates to develop independent personality.  Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated.  Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own.  Employees are trustworthy. Other Leadership Styles 1) Visionary Leadership 2) Coaching Leadership 3) Paternalistic Leadership 4) Transactional Leadership 5) Transformational Leadership 6) Charismatic / “Pace-Setting” Leadership 7) Servant Leadership 8) Bureaucratic Leadership
  9. 9. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 9  Visionary Leadership  To build a rich picture of what is needed  Talk about future & not about the past  Share their ideas for the future  Think long term & beyond the current problem set  Communicate at all levels to get buy in  Tell stories & model for how they would like others to behave  Coaching Leadership  Raises performance & develops people for the future  Listen to the needs of their people  Work at the pace of the individuals being coached rather than impose their own pace  Demonstrate active listening & empathy  Ask tough questions to make the individual think for themselves  Challenge people to do things differently  Help people to set clear development goals  Give frequent feedback  Give regular praise & recognition  Paternalistic Leadership  Leader assumes that his function is paternal or fatherly.  Leader provides good working conditions & fringe benefits to his sub- ordinates.  Employees under such leadership will work harder out of gratitude.  It generates resentment in subordinates.  Transactional Leadership  This leadership style starts with the idea that team members agree to obey their leader when they accept a job.  The "transaction" usually involves the organization paying team members in return for their effort and compliance.  Transformational Leadership  Leaders are inspiring because they expect the best from everyone on their team as well as themselves. This leads to high productivity and engagement from everyone in their team.  Leaders transform the organization by developing vision, building commitment, and empowering followers.  It has developed frameworks and measures that have led to a body of research on transformational leadership.  Charismatic / Pace-Setting Leadership  This can resemble transformational leadership because these leaders inspire enthusiasm in their teams and are energetic in motivating others to move forward. This excitement and commitment from teams is an enormous benefit.  In that the leader injects huge doses of enthusiasm into his or her team, and is very energetic in driving others forward.  The Leader can tend to believe more in him or herself than in their team.  Charismatic leadership carries great responsibility, and needs long-term commitment from the leader. Charisma - “Charisma is a God gifted attribute in a person which makes him a leader irrespective of the situations in which he works.”  People enjoy leaders who enjoy life  Put a 10 on every person’s head  Give people hope “How can you have charisma? Be more concerned about making others feel good about themselves than you are making them feel good about you.”
  10. 10. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 10  Servant Leadership  In many ways, servant leadership is a form of democratic leadership, as the whole team tends to be involved in decision-making.  Supporters of this leadership style suggest it is an important way ahead in a world where values are increasingly important, servant leaders achieve power on the basis of their values and ideals.  People practicing servant leadership will often find themselves left behind by leaders using other leadership styles.  Servant leadership, first described by Robert Greenleaf in the 1970’s,  It is leadership upside down because leaders transcend self-interest to serve others and the organization. Servant Leader - A leader who works to fulfill subordinates’ needs and goals as well as to achieve the organization’s larger mission.  Bureaucratic Leadership  This is a very appropriate style for work involving serious safety risks (such as working with machinery, with toxic substances or at heights) or where large sums of money are involved (such as cash-handling).  In other situations, the inflexibility and high levels of control exerted can demoralize staff, and can diminish the organizations ability to react to changing external circumstances.  Bureaucratic leaders work "by the book." They follow rules rigorously, and ensure that their people follow procedures precisely. Principled Centered Leadership Power Definition:  It is based on the power that some people have with others because others tend to believe in them and in what they are trying to accomplish.  It is rare and based on honor & trust.  It is created when values of the followers and the values of the leaders overlap.  “Leaders are leaders only as long as they have the respect and loyalty of their followers.”  Characteristics of Principle-Centered Leaders They are:  Continually learning.  Service oriented.  Radiate positive energy.  Believe in other people.  Lead balanced lives.  See life as an adventure.  Synergistic.  They exercise for self-renewal.  Seven Habits of Principled Centered Leaders 1) Be Proactive - Self Knowledge or Self Awareness 2) Begin With the End in Mind - Imagination and Conscience 3) First Things First - Willpower 4) Think Win/Win - Abundance Mentality 5) Seek First to Understand, Then to be Understood - Courage Balanced with Consideration 6) Synergize - Creativity 7) Sharpen the Saw - Continuous Improvement
  11. 11. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 11  Seven Deadly Sins of Principled Centered Leaders 1) Wealth without work (Forgetting the law of the farm: Reap what you Sow) 2) Pleasure without conscience 3) Knowledge without character (Sound mind sound body) 4) Commerce without morality 5) Science without humanity (Technocracy) 6) Religion without sacrifice (No Synergy) 7) Politics without principle  Power Process P o w e r Definition:  Ability to get someone else to do something you want done or make things happen the way you want.  The potential ability to affect or influence others’ behavior.  Should be used to influence and control others for the common good rather seeking to exercise control for personal satisfaction.  Why does having power matter? With power you can…  Intercede favorably on behalf of someone in trouble.  Get a desirable placement for a talented subordinate.  Get approval for expenditures beyond the budget.  Get items on and off agendas.  Get fast access to decision makers.  Maintain regular, frequent contact with decision makers.  Acquire early information about decisions and policy shifts. Types of Power I. Position Power  Based on a manager’s official status in the organization’s hierarchy of authority.  Power derived from the opportunities inherent in a person’s position in an organization.  Sources of Position Power Legitimate Power  Organizational position or status confers the lawful right to control those in subordinate positions and expect compliance.  Power that stems from a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to it. Reward Power  Control over tangible benefits and capability to offer something of value for compliance.  Power that result from the authority to bestow rewards on other people. Coercive Power  Power that stems from the authority to discipline, punish or recommend punishment and withhold rewards/positive outcome for non-compliance.
  12. 12. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 12 II. Personal Power  Based on the unique personal qualities that a person brings to the leadership situation.  Power derived from the interpersonal relationships between leaders and followers.  Sources of Personal Power Expert Power  Capacity to influence others because of one’s specialized knowledge, skills or abilities, and competence. Referent Power  The ability to influence others based on personal liking, charisma and reputation.  Power that result from characteristics that command subordinates’ identification with, respect and admiration for, and desire to emulate the leader. Consequences of Power Turning power into influence …  Successful leadership relies on acquiring and using all sources of power.  Use of reward power or legitimate power produces temporary compliance.  Use of coercive power produces, at best, temporary compliance, often accompanied by resentment.  Use of expert power or referent power has the most enduring results and generates commitment. E M P O W E R M E N T  The giving or delegation of power; authority.  Empowerments is the process of enabling or authorizing an individual to think, behave, take action, and control work and decision making in autonomous ways.  Empowering employees works because total power in the organization seems to increase.  Everyone has to say and hence contributes more to organizational goals. 10 Power Tools of Leadership There are ten (10) suggestions for processes and principles that will increase a leader’s power and respect with his subordinates. 1) PERSUASTION - which includes sharing reasons and rationale, making a strong case for one’s position or desire while maintaining genuine respect for followers idea’s and perspective: tell why as well as what; commit to stay in the communication process until mutually beneficial and satisfying outcomes are reached. 2) PATIENCE - with the process and the person. In spite of the failings, shortcomings and the inconveniences created by the followers, and one’s own patience and anticipation for achieving goals; maintain a long term perspective and stay committed to goals in the face of short-term obstacle and resistance.
  13. 13. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 13 3) GENTLENESS - not harshness, hardness, or forcefulness, when dealing with vulnerabilities, disclosures, and feelings followers might express. 4) TEACHABLE - which means operating with the assumption that one thus not have all answers, all the insights, and valuing the different viewpoints, judgments, and experiences followers may have. 5) ACCEPTANCE - It is the quality of faithfulness to superiors, subordinates and to the ideals organization where the leaders belong. 6) KINDNESS - Sensitive, caring, thoughtful, remembering the small things (which are the big things) in relationships. 7) OPENNESS - Acquiring accurate information and perspective about followers as they can become while being worthy of respect for what they are now, regardless of what they own, control, or do, giving full consideration to their intentions, desires, values and goals rather than focusing exclusively on their behavior. 8) COMPASSIONATE CONFRONTATION - acknowledging error, mistakes, and the need for followers to make “course corrections” in a context of genuine care, concern and warmth, making it safe for followers to risk. 9) CONSISTENCY - So that one’s leadership style is not a manipulative technique that one can bring into play when he doesn’t get his way, faced with crisis or challenge, or is feeling trapped; rather, this become a set of values, a personal code, a manifestation of character, a reflection of who one is and who he is becoming . 10) INTEGRITY - Honesty, matching words and feelings and feelings with thoughts and actions, with no desire other than the goods of others, without malice or desire to deceive or take advantage , manipulate or control; Trait Approach to Leadership  TRAIT is defined as relatively enduring quality of an individual.  This theory accepted the fact that leadership traits are not completely inborn but can also be acquired through learning and experience.  This approach seeks to determine “what makes a successful leader” from the leaders own personal characteristics.  It gives hypothesis on the qualities such as intelligence, attitudes, personality and biological factors for effective leaders.  Various traits are classified into innate and acquirable traits. Basic Assumptions of Trait Theory  People are born with inherited traits.  Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.  People who make good leaders have the right combination of traits. Limitations:  No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.  Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations.  Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.  Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders. Classification of Traits 1.) Innate Traits - Innate qualities are those which are possessed by various individuals since their birth. These qualities are natural and often known as god- gifted. On the basis of such qualities, it is said that ‘Leaders are born and not made’. These qualities cannot be acquired by the individuals.
  14. 14. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 14 The following are the major innate qualities: Physical features - Physical features of a man are determined by heredity factors. Physical characteristics and rate of maturation determine the personality formation. To some extent, height, weight, physique, health and appearance are important for leadership. Intelligence - Intelligence is generally expressed in terms of mental ability. It, to a very great extent is a natural quality in the individuals because it is directly related with brain. Though, many psychologists claim that the level of intelligence in an individual can be increased through various training methods. 2.) Acquirable Traits - Acquirable qualities of leadership are those which can be acquired and increased through various processes. Such as, when a child is born, he learns many of the behavioral patterns through socialization and identification processes The following are the major acquirable qualities: Emotional Stability - A leader should have high level of emotional stability. He should be free from bias, is consistent in action, and refrains from anger. He must be self-confident and believes that he can meet most situations successfully. Human Relations - A leader should know how to deal with human beings. He should have intimate knowledge of people, their relationship to each other and their reaction to various situations. Empathy - Empathy refers to observing the things or situations from others point of view. It is considered as very important aspect for successful leader. Empathy requires respect for the other persons, their rights, beliefs, values and feelings. Objectivity - Objectivity implies that what a leader does should be based on relevant facts and information. The leader must be objective and doesn’t permit himself to get emotionally involved to the extent that he finds it difficult to make an objective diagnosis and implement the action required. Contingency/Situational Approaches of Leadership  This approach was applied first time in 1920 in the armed forces of Germany with the objective to get good generals under different situations.  These theories of leadership postulate that leaders should carefully analyze the nature of the situation before deciding on the appropriate leadership style to be adopted.  Effectiveness of leadership is affected by the factors associated with the leader (Leader’s Behavior) and the factor associated with the situation (Situational Factors).  Leadership as being more flexible – different leadership styles used at different times depending on the circumstance.  No leadership style is best in all situations. Factors affecting Leadership Effectiveness
  15. 15. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 15 LEADER’S BEHAVIOR Leader’s behavior is further affected by two variables: 1) Leader’s Characteristics - The behavior of the individual is influenced by intelligence and ability, his characteristics like his personality characteristics, attitudes, interest, motivation, and physical characteristics such as age, sex, and physical features. 2) Leader’s Hierarchical Position - Leader’s hierarchical position in the organization is very important because persons at different levels face different kinds of problem which affect the degree of participation between the superior and his subordinates in arriving at decisions to solve the problems. SITUATIONAL FACTORS The various situational factors are grouped into four categories: 1) Subordinate Characteristics - It includes personality characteristics, attitude, interest, motivation, physical characteristics such as age, sex, physical features. 2) Leader’s Situation - The variables which determine the leaders situation are: a. Leader’s position power - It helps in influencing others. High position power simplifies the leader’s task of influencing others, while low position power makes the leader’s task more difficult. b. Leader’s Subordinate relation - It is based on the classic exchange theory which suggests that there is two way influence in a social relationship. If the leader has good subordinates, and good relation with them, he is likely to be more effective. 3) Group Factors - Various group factors like task design, group composition, group norms, and peer group relationship affect leadership effectiveness and performance. If these factors are favorable, the leader will be effective. 4) Organizational Factors - Organizational factors like organizational climate and organizational culture affect leadership effectiveness. If these are conductive, the leader will be effective. SITUATIONAL THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP 1) Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Leadership Continuum 2) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory 3) Path-Goal Theory 4) Fiedler’s Contingency Model Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Leadership Continuum  There are a variety of styles of leadership behavior between two extremes of Autocratic and Free rein. TANNENBAUM and SCHMIDT have depicted a broad range of styles on a continuum moving from authoritarian leadership behavior at one end to free-rein behavior at the other end.  According to them, there is no best leadership style that a leader can adopt; rather, she/he chooses one amongst the seven leader behaviors, depending upon three important factors. 1) Forces in Leader 2) Forces in Subordinates (Followers) 3) Forces in the Situation LEADER BEHAVIOR 1) Leader as an Announcer 2) Leader as a Seller 3) Leader as a Clarifier 4) Leader as a Senior Partner 5) Leader as a Seeker 6) Leader as an Equal Partner 7) Leader as a Follower
  16. 16. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 16 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory  A contingency approach to leadership that links the leader’s behavioral style with the task readiness of subordinates.  Leaders adjust their styles depending on the readiness of their followers to perform in a given situation.  Readiness — how able, willing and confident followers are in performing tasks.  Leadership styles can be categorized into four types – Telling, Selling, Participating, and Delegating. The two-by-two matrix shown in the figure indicates that four leadership styles are possible.
  17. 17. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 17  Leadership Styles (S1) TELLING / DIRECTING o High-task, low-relationship style. o Work best in low-readiness situations. o Leader Defines Tasks of Followers and closely supervising work o Problem Solving and Decision Making Initiated by the Leader o One-way Communication (S2) SELLING / COACHING / MENTORING o High-task, high-relationship style. o Work best in low-to-moderate readiness situations. o Leader emphasizes shared ideas and participative decisions on task directions. o Leader Now Attempts to Hear Followers o Suggestions, Ideas, and Opinions o Two-way Communication o Control Over Decision Making Remains With the Leader (S3) PARTICIPATING / SUPPORTING o Low-task, high-relationship style. o Works best in moderate-to-high readiness situations. o Leader explains task directions in a supportive and persuasive way. o Focus of Control Shifts to Follower. o Leader Actively Listens. o Follower Has Ability and Knowledge to Do the Task. (S4) DELEGATING o Low-task, low-relationship style. o Works best in high readiness situations. o Allowing the group to take responsibility for task decisions. o Leader Discusses Problems With Followers. o Seeks Joint Agreement on Problem Definitions. o Decision Making Is Handled by the Subordinate. o They “Run Their Own Show” Path - Goal Theory  The path-goals theory is a contingency model of leadership developed develop by Robert House.  This model is called a contingency theory because it consists of three sets of contingencies (leader behavior and style, situational contingencies, and the use of rewards to meet subordinates’ needs.)  According to this theory, the main function of the leader is to provide clear direction and required guidance to his followers or subordinates and support/assist them to achieve organizational goals. The Leader should also establish individual (or group) goals for employees that are compatible with the broad organizational goals.  The impact that leader behavior has on subordinate’s motivation, satisfaction & performance.  The leader attempts to make the path to subordinates goal as smooth as possible.  To accomplish this path-goal facilitation, the leader must use appropriate style contingent on the situational variables present. Leader Roles in the Path-Goal Theory
  18. 18. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 18 Contingency relationships in the Path-Goal Theory  Two important situational contingencies are: 1.) Follower Contingencies - The personal characteristics of group members. Include such factors:  Ability  Skills  Needs  Motivations 2.) Environmental Contingencies Include such factors:  Degree of task structure – the extent task are well-defined and have explicit descriptions and work procedures.  Nature of formal authority system – the amount of legitimate power used by managers and the extent to which policies and rules constrain employees’ behavior.  The work group – the educational level of subordinates and the quality of relationships among them.  Robert House suggested 4 types of leadership by this model: 1.) Supportive Leadership  Make work pleasant.  Treat group members as equals.  Be friendly and approachable.  Show concern for subordinates’ well-being.  This is similar to the consideration leadership.  Effective when worker self-confidence is low. 2.) Directive Leadership  Communicate expectations.  Give directions.  Schedule work.  Maintain performance standards.  Clarify leader’s role.  This is similar to the initiating-structure leadership.  Effective when job assignments are ambiguous. 3.) Participative Leadership  Involve subordinates in decision making.  Consult with subordinates.  Ask for subordinates’ suggestions.  Use subordinates’ suggestions.  Effective when performance incentives are poor. 4.) Achievement-Oriented Leadership  Set challenging goals.  Expect high performance levels.  Emphasize continuous improvement.  Display confidence in meeting high standards.  Effective when task challenge is insufficient.
  19. 19. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 19 Fiedler’s Critical Dimensions of Leadership Situation  Fiedler’s Contingency Model  The Fiedler contingency model is a leadership theory of industrial and organizational psychology developed by Fred Fiedler (1967).  The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader.  Fiedler's model assumes that group performance depends on the Leadership style that may be: o Relationship-motivated – concerned with people, as in the consideration style. o Task-motivated – primarily motivated by task accomplishment, which is similar to the initiating structure style.  Measuring the Situation  Leadership requirements depend on the situation the leader; and the choice of the most appropriate style of leadership depends on whether the overall situation is favorable or unfavorable to the leader.  Leadership situations are classified as high, moderate, or low control  Control is determined by three dimensions: a) Leader-member relations  The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates has in their leader including group atmosphere and members’ attitude toward and acceptance of the leader. b) Degree of Task structure  The degrees to which tasks on hand can be performed efficiently by the group are defined, involve specific procedures, and have clear, explicit goals. c) Position power or the Leader’s position  Influence derived from one’s formal structural authority in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.  Leadership Effectiveness based on Contingency Model  Matching Leadership Style and Situation  Evaluation of Fiedler’s Contingency Theory  Fiedler’s work prompted others to conduct studies about the contingency nature of leadership.  The model has alerted leaders to the importance of sizing up the situation to gain control.  However, contingency theory is too complicated to have much of an impact on most leaders.
  20. 20. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 20 Functions of a Leader 1) Establishing direction - Giving the proper direction to the followers where determining the destination. 2) Aligning people - Keeping the followers within the control of leader. 3) Motivating and inspiring - Motivate them and try to be inspired by the leader. 4) Change management - Manage any type of organizational change convincing the followers, creating trust to the management. 5) Coordination - Coordinate where necessary 6) Determining goal - Determine both long and short-term goals and objectives to be achieved. 7) Representing organization - Leader represents on behalf of the organization. 8) Making quick and rational decision -Leaders should be able to make immediate and rational decisions. 9) Environmental adaptation - Make the change according to the environmental change to it. 10) Communication - Effective communication to its stakeholders. Leadership Styles  Leadership Style is a manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans and motivating people.  Leadership Style is the way in which a leader influences followers.  No matter what their traits or skills, leaders carry out their roles in a wide variety of styles.  Leadership style may be dependent on various factors: o Risk - decision making and change initiatives based on degree of risk involved o Type of business - creative business or supply driven? o Organizational culture - may be long embedded and difficult to change o Nature of the task - needing cooperation? Direction? Structure? o How important change is… change for change’s sake?  Two (2) Major Styles of Leadership 1.) Task-Oriented Leadership  Leaders focus only on getting the job done, and can be quite autocratic.  Leaders will actively define the work and the roles required, put structures in place, plan, organize and monitor.  However, as task-oriented leaders spare little thought for the well- being of their teams, this approach can suffer many of the flaws of autocratic leadership, with difficulties in motivating and retaining staff. 2.) People-Oriented / Relation-Oriented Leadership  This style of leadership is the opposite of task-oriented leadership.  A participative style, it tends to lead to good teamwork and creative collaboration.  Leaders are totally focused on organizing, supporting, and developing the people on their teams. The Leadership Grid ®  The Leadership (Managerial) grid model is a behavioral leadership model developed by Robert R. Blake and Jane Srygley Mouton in 1964.  This model identified five different leadership styles based on the concern for people in y-axis and the concern for production in x-axis.  Understanding the Model The Managerial Grid is based on two behavioral dimensions: 1.) Concern for People - This is the degree to which a leader considers the needs of team members, their interests, and areas of personal development when deciding how best to accomplish a task. 2.) Concern for Production - This is the degree to which a leader emphasizes concrete objectives, organizational efficiency and high productivity when deciding how best to accomplish a task.
  21. 21. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 21 LEADERSHIP Styles identified 1.) IMPOVERISED LEADERSHIP STYLE (1,1) 2.) TASK MANAGEMENT STYLE (9,1) 3.) MIDDLE OF THE ROAD (5,5) 4.) COUNTRY CLUB (1,9) 5.) TEAM MANAGEMENT (9,9) IMPOVERISED LEADERSHIP (1, 1) “Low Production / Low People”  Managers with this approach are low on both the dimensions and exercise minimum effort to get the work done from subordinates.  The leader has low concern for employee satisfaction and work deadlines.  As a result disharmony, disorganization, and dissatisfaction prevail within the organization.  The leaders are termed ineffective wherein their action is merely aimed at preserving job and seniority. TASK MANAGEMENT STYLE (9, 1) “High Production / Low People”  “Produce or Perish”  Also known as Authoritarian or Compliance Leaders, people in this category believe that employees are simply a means to an end.  Employee needs are always secondary to the need for efficient and productive workplaces.  This type of leader is very autocratic, has strict work rules, policies, and procedures, and views punishment as the most effective means to motivate employees. MIDDLE OF THE ROAD (5, 5) “Medium Production / Medium People”  “Dampened Pendulum / Status Quo”  This is basically a “compromising style” wherein the leader tries to maintain a balance between goals of company and the needs of people.  The leader does not push the boundaries of achievement resulting in average performance for organization.  Here neither employee nor production needs are fully met. TEAM MANAGEMENT (9, 9) “High Production / High People”  This style is based on the McGregor’s Theory Y and has been termed as most effective (pinnacle) style.  The leader feels that empowerment, commitment, trust, and respect are the key elements in creating a team atmosphere which will automatically result in high employee satisfaction and production.  The premise here is that employees are involved in understanding organizational purpose and determining production needs.
  22. 22. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 22 Traits, Attributes & Qualities of a Leader  Leadership ATTRIBUTES  are inner or personal qualities that constitute effective leadership;  a large array of characteristics such as values, character, motives, habits, traits, competencies, motives, style, behaviors, and skills.  Leadership QUALITIES  Leadership qualities are demonstrated in a leader’s behavior, not their position.  “Leadership is not just one quality but rather a blend of qualities”.  Leadership TRAITS  a set of stable characteristics  the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader.  potentially lasting throughout one's entire life. I. Personality Traits of a Leader 1.) Physical proficiency and resiliency  It enables the leader to quickly recover under times of exceptional stress and immediately continue his work. 2.) Intelligence  Ability to Gather, Analyze, Interpret, create visions, Solve Problems, and make correct decisions.  It enables the leader to thoroughly understand his job and his people, as well as anticipate critical problems. 3.) Character  It strongly determines the individuality of the leaders and his attitudes toward his responsibilities. II. Character Traits of a Leader 1.) Judgment  It is the power of the mind to weigh various intervening factors affecting a problem and arrive at a sound decision with due care and prudence. 2.) Unselfishness  It is the avoidance of providing for one’s own comfort or advantage at the expense of others.  A leader must show some degree of magnanimous considerations to subordinates without prejudicing the interest of others who are in need of help. 3.) Decisiveness  A Leader should have the ability to decide promptly and correctly at the proper time and to announce/express his decision clearly and briefly with authority. 4.) Enthusiasm  A Leader must possess a higher degree of interest and sensitivity in responding the needs of the organization and performance of all duties. 5.) Loyalty  It is the quality of faithfulness to superiors, subordinates and to the ideals organization where the leaders belong. 6.) Dependability  A Leader must demonstrate a higher degree of initiative in the performance of his duty even with or without supervision. 7.) Integrity  It is uprightness of moral character and the quality of honesty and truthfulness. 8.) Courage  It is the physical and mental ability which recognizes but enables the individual to accept or meet challenges with calmness and fearlessness. 9.) Knowledge  A leader must have a thorough knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of his subordinates.  A leader should be endowed with superior intelligence and have the necessary professional know-how of the job.
  23. 23. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 23 10.) Bearing  A Leader dignified in appearance and behavior to earn respect.  It is the act of creating a favorable impression in personal conduct at all times. 11.) Initiative  It is the quality of seeing what needs to be done and initiating a course of action.  A Leader should have the ability to start or originate an idea or a work concept leading to action when others are absent or passive. 12.) Tact  It is the ability to deal with others without giving offense. This is a keen feeling and a sense of what is appropriate, tasteful, and aesthetically pleasing. 13.) Endurance  A Leader must have a physical and mental endurance to continue relentlessly in pursuing the goals and objectives of the organization for the common good.  It is the leader’s mental and physical stamina moved by the ability to stand pain or hardships. 14.) Justice  It is the ability to be impartial and consistent in dealing with subordinates.  A Leader must be able to render judgement which conforms to principles of reason, to genarally accepted standards of right and wrong, and to the stated terms of laws, policies, and rules.  A Leader should be impartial in rendering punishment and giving credit where credit is due. 15.) Humility A Leader must possess the virtue of humility – the state of being reasonably modest and not proud, assuming, arrogant, and boastful. 16.) Sympathy A Leader must be able to understand and to share the feelings of another, especially in time of sorrow or adversity. 17.) Empathy A Leader must show some intellectual and emotional identification with feelings, thoughts, and attitudes to the employees affected by pain because of misfortune. 18.) Force A Leader must be able to demonstrate efficacious power within the bounds of law to compel obedience among his subordinate. 19.) Humor A Leader must posses a good sense of humor which is a mental disposition to appreciate and narrate amusing incidents of everyday life in a comical way. 20.) Wit A Leader must posses a keen percepcion and appropriate expression of amusing words and ideas which awaken amusement and pleasure. Implications of Leadership Varying leadership styles  While the proper leadership style depends on the situation, there are other factors that also influence which leadership style to use. The Leaders’ personal background - What personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the leader have. What does he or she think will work? The Members (employee) being supervised - Members of an organization are individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The leadership style managers use will vary depending upon the individual and what he or she will respond best to.
  24. 24. (PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 24 The Perfect Leader A good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are involved between the followers, the leader, and the situation. Some examples include: o Using an authoritarian style on a new employee who is just learning the job. The leader is competent and a good coach. The employee is motivated to learn a new skill. The situation is a new environment for the employee. o Using a participative style with a team of workers who know their job. The leader knows the problem, but does not have all the information. The employees know their jobs and want to become part of the team. o Using a delegative style with a worker who knows more about the job than you. You cannot do everything! The employee needs to take ownership of her job. Also, the situation might call for you to be at other places, doing other things. Forces that influence the style to be used included: o How much time is available? o Are relationships based on respect and trust or on disrespect? o Who has the information - you, your employees, or both? o How well your employees are trained and how well you know the task. o Internal conflicts? o Stress levels? o Type of task. Is it structured, unstructured, complicated, or simple? Conclusion 1.) Effectiveness of leadership depends upon matching leadership behavior style with the maturity of the group in a specific situation. 2.) Remember knowing and doing are different things. 3.) Leaders must develop flexibility to change style. 4.) Matching style and situation is not the only leadership role; group development is another important role, that is, moving the group to readiness and responsibility is also an leadership role. Changes in the Philippines’ Scenario The Philippines has today seen a lot of transformation from an exciting mix of government owned companies and private family owned companies. Also, today there is talk of privatizing some public sector companies. All these changes in the business environment has led to a change in the leadership styles, in certain cases leadership styles have changed business. It has become more democratic. In a leader abundant country, people’s satisfaction is an easy thing to forget, however, it is important that their needs are fulfilled, if organization has to be successful. People are the greatest asset and if leaders of organizations adopt styles that are democratic and transforming, then the organization would well be on its way to achieve its objectives. As the CEO of GE, Jack Welch has said , “we cannot afford management styles that suppress and intimidate.” PA7 – HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS BPA III-A (GROUP 7) DIMARUCOT, Omar Navarro DISPO, Cenzarlie Ree Ian SUBARAN, Sherwin SEVILLA, Jeffey T. MALLARI, Ma. Jelly Jade L. VALDEZ, Frank Amiel