(PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 1
L E A D E R S H I P
Define Leadership and explain its effectiveness and importance for
Familiarize with the 8 Dimensions of Leadership
Identify the different Leadership Styles and their advantages & disadvantages
Understand the various Leadership Theories/Approaches and their
implications to organizations.
Explain the Principled-Centered Leadership Power and the five sources of
Power and how each causes different subordinate behavior.
Describe the Situational Theories of the Contingency Approach of
Leadership, specifically the Hersey and Blanchard’s Theory, House’s Path-
Goal Theory, & Fiedler’s Contingency Model and its application to leader’s
Discuss the Leadership Grid.
Identify the Functions and Traits of an Effective Leader.
The Meaning of Leadership…
Process: what leaders actually do?
Using non coercive influence to shape the group’s or organization’s goals.
Motivating others’ behavior toward goals.
Helping to define organizational culture.
Property: who leaders are.
The set of characteristics attributed to individuals perceived to be leaders.
L E A D E R S H I P
The process of influencing the behavior of others to work willingly and
enthusiastically for achieving predetermined goals.
Leader - a person who can influence others to be more effective in working to
achieve their mutual goals and maintain effective working relationships among
Leadership Skills - sum total of your ability to help the group achieve its goals and
maintain an effective working relationship among members.
Nature of Leadership
Leadership is the continuous process of behavior.
Leadership may be seen in terms of relationship between a leader and his
Leaders try to influence the behavior of individuals or group of individuals
around him to achieve common goals.
Leadership gives an experience of help to followers to attain common goals.
Leadership is exercised in a particular situation, at a given point of time, and
under specific set of circumstances.
Leadership Versus Management
Leadership Activity Management
Establishing direction and
vision for the organization
Creating an agenda Planning and budgeting,
Aligning people through
communications and actions
that provide direction
Developing a human network
for achieving the agenda
Organizing and staffing,
structuring and monitoring
Motivating and inspiring by
Executing plans Controlling and problem
Produces useful change and
new approaches to challenges
Outcomes Produces predictability and
order and attains results
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Importance of Leadership
Initiates action - Leader is a person who starts the work by communicating
the policies and plans to the subordinates from where the work actually
Motivation - A leader proves to be playing an incentive role in the concern’s
working. He motivates the employees with economic and non-economic
rewards and thereby gets the work from the subordinates.
Providing guidance - A leader has to not only supervise but also play a
guiding role for the subordinates. Guidance here means instructing the
subordinates the way they have to perform their work effectively and
Building morale - A leader can be a morale booster by achieving full co-
operation so that they perform with best of their abilities as they work to
Builds work environment - An efficient work environment helps in sound
and stable growth. Therefore, human relations should be kept into mind by a
Co-ordination - Co-ordination can be achieved through reconciling personal
interests with organizational goals. This synchronization can be achieved
through proper and effective co-ordination which should be primary motive of
DETERMINANTS OF LEADERSHIP
The effectiveness of an individual as a leader can be determined by two variables:
1) Quality of Subordinates - The quality of subordinates is a primary indicator
of effective leadership. An effective leader always builds a strong term
consisting of people who are independent and self-motivated.
2) The Nature of the Situation - Different individuals are effective in different
situations. An individual who has the background and knowledge relevant to
a given situation will come forward by himself to lead the group when that
Leadership effectiveness is fundamentally the practice of the following
1) Build a collective vision, mission, and set of values that help people focus on
their contributions and bring out their best.
2) Establish a fearless communication environment that encourages accurate
and honest feedback and self-disclosure.
3) Make information readily available.
4) Establish trust, respect, and peer-based behavior as the norm.
5) Be inclusive and patient, show concern for each person.
6) Demonstrate resourcefulness and the willingness to learn.
7) Create an environment that stimulates extraordinary performance.
Dimensions of Leadership Behavior
(See Behavioral Theory - Ohio State Studies)
CONSIDERATION - The degree to which the leader creates an environment
of emotional support, warmth, friendliness, and trust
Involves being friendly and approachable, looking out for the personal welfare
of the group, keeping the group abreast of new developments, and doing
small favors for the group.
INITIATING STRUCTURE - Organizing and defining relationships in the
group by engaging in such activities as assigning specific tasks, specifying
procedures to be followed, scheduling work, and clarifying expectations for
team members. Also referred to as production emphasis, task orientation,
and task motivation.
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Four Combinations of Initiating Structure and Consideration
8 Dimensions of Leadership
No matter how good one-dimensional leaders are, they can’t provide the kind
of leadership that leads to innovation, social change, and business
Multidimensional leaders understand that great leadership requires a range of
competencies and skills and know that their own personality traits can work
both for and against them.
1.) The Pioneering Leader
At their best: Bold and passionate, they inspire others to take chances on new
At their worst: Impulsive and overconfident, they use their charm to gain support for
poorly thought-out ideas.
2.) The Energizing Leader
At their best: Upbeat and eager, they take chances on colorful new ideas.
At their worst: Scattered and erratic, they see little need for consistency.
3.) The Affirming Leader
At their best: Kind and supportive, they create a respectful and positive
At their worst: Indirect and conflict-averse, they fail to hold others accountable.
4.) The Inclusive Leader
At their best: Sincere and accommodating, they collaborate with others to make
At their worst: Passive and overly trusting, they let others take advantage of their
supportive, patient nature.
5.) The Humble Leader
At their best: Modest and fair-minded, they provide reliable outcomes through
steadiness and consistency.
At their worst: Rigid and overly cautious, they are afraid to move beyond the status
6.) The Deliberate Leader
At their best: Conscientious and disciplined, they provide high-quality outcomes
through careful analysis and planning.
At their worst: Risk-averse and perfectionistic, they pay little attention to the human
7.) The Resolute Leader
At their best: Questioning and independent, they aren’t afraid to challenge the
status quo to get better results.
At their worst: Cynical and insensitive, they seem intent on putting a negative spin
8.) The Commanding Leader
At their best: Powerful and decisive, they enlist others to work quickly toward
At their worst: Forceful and egotistical, they push others at the expense of morale.
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Theories of Leadership
These are the main theories that attempt to explain Leadership:
I. Trait Theory
II. Behavioral Theory
III. Situational Theory
IV. Power-Influence Approach
Trait theory is a major approach to the study of human personality.
Assumed that a basic set of personal traits that differentiated leaders from
non-leaders could be used to identify leaders and as a tool for predicting who
would become leaders.
The trait approach was unsuccessful in establishing empirical relationships
between traits and persons regarded as leaders.
Behavioral theories of leadership do not seek inborn traits or capabilities.
Rather, they look at what leaders actually do.
The behavioral theorists concentrated on the unique behavioral aspects
found in leaders that enabled them to attain effective leadership.
Basic Assumptions of Behavioral Theories
Leaders can be made, rather than are born.
Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior.
Various Behavioral Theories of Leadership
1) The Ohio State Studies
2) University of Michigan Studies
3) University of Iowa Studies
4) The Managerial / Leadership Grid®
5) Scandinavian Studies
1.) The Ohio State Studies
In 1945, the research was based on a questionnaire called ‘Leader Behavior
They narrowed down to two independent dimensions along which an
individual’s leadership behavior could be studied.
1.) Initiating Structure - the leader clearly defines the leader-subordinate
role expectations, formalizes communications, and sets the working agenda.
2.) Consideration - the leader shows concern for subordinates and attempts
to establish a friendly and supportive climate.
2.) University of Michigan Studies
As a result of these studies, the following dimensions of leadership were
a) Employee-oriented Dimension - managers who focus on the
development of cohesive work groups and employee satisfaction.
b) Job/Production-oriented Dimension - leaders who pay close
attention to subordinates’ work, explain work procedures, and are
keenly interested in performance.
Researchers concluded that leaders with an inclination towards employee
oriented dimension resulted in higher job satisfaction and greater productivity.
3.) University of Iowa Studies
Identified three leadership styles:
a) Autocratic style: centralized authority, low participation
b) Democratic style: involvement, high participation, feedback
c) Laissez-faire style: hands-off management
Research findings: “mixed results”
No specific style was consistently better for producing better performance.
Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic
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4.) The Managerial / Leadership Grid
The Leadership Grid® is a method of evaluating leadership styles.
The Grid® is used to train managers so that they are simultaneously more
concerned for people and for production.
The Grid® is a very simple framework that elegantly defines FIVE basic
styles that characterize workplace behavior and the resulting relationships.
The FIVE managerial Grid styles are based on how two fundamental
concerns (concern for people and concern for results) are manifested at
varying levels whenever people interact.
5.) Scandinavian Studies
The behavior theories did not take into account the dynamics, or even chaotic
environments that influence the modern organizations.
Some Finnish and Swedish theorists began reviewing earlier theories to find
new dimensions that could incorporate the dynamics of the environment.
The new dimension found was called as “Development–oriented
According to this dimension leaders were ready to experiment with new ideas
and practices and embrace change.
Leaders who were inclined towards this dimension were found to be more
efficient by the subordinates.
According to this theory of leadership, a single leadership style is not
applicable to all situations.
Emphasizes the importance of contextual factors:
work performed by the leader’s unit,
external environment, and
Characteristics of followers.
Attempts to identify the aspects of the situation that “moderate” the
relationship of leader behaviors and leadership effectiveness.
Situational Theories of Leadership
1) Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Leadership Continuum
2) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory
3) Path Goal Theory
4) Fiedler’s Contingency Model
Attempts to understand leadership by examining influence processes
between leaders and followers.
Power is viewed as important not only for influencing subordinates, but also
for influencing peers, superiors and people outside the organization.
How is power acquired and lost by various individuals.
Leadership Styles Based on the Use of Authority
Kurt Zadek Lewin, together with Ronald Lipitt, and Ralph White developed in 1939
the seminal work on the influence of leadership styles and performance. The
researchers evaluated the performance of groups of eleven-year-old boys under
different types of work climate. In each, the leader exercised his influence regarding
the type of group decision making, praise and criticism (feedback), and the
management of the group tasks (project management) according to three styles:
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… also known as Authoritarian, Directive, Monothetic, Centric, or “boss-
The Leader exerts high levels of power over his or her employees or team
The Leader structures the complete situation for his/her employees,
centralizes decision making power in himself/herself and issue
The Leader functions with high concern for task accomplishment but low
concern for the people who perform these tasks.
The Leader has no confidence and trust in his or her subordinates. No
suggestions – No considerations
The threat of punishment and penalties make the workers obey their orders.
May also offer rewards (positive motivation) to their followers for their good
performance. In such cases the leaders are termed as BENEVOLENT
3 Categories of Autocratic Leadership
1) STRICT AUTOCRAT - The Leader follows in a very strict sense. His
method of influencing subordinates behavior is through negative
motivation, that is, by criticizing subordinates, imposing penalty etc.
2) BENEVOLENT AUTOCRAT - The Leader centralizes decision-making
power in him, but his motivation style is positive. He can be getting
efficiency in many situations.
Some people like to work under strong authority structure and they derive
satisfaction by this leadership.
3) INCOMPETENT AUTOCRAT - Sometimes superiors may adopt
autocratic leadership style just to hide their incompetence because in
other styles, they may be exposed before their subordinates. However,
this cannot be used for a long time.
Quick decision-making due to centralized authority.
Less competent and less skilled employees can also be hired.
Can prove to be successful in short-run.
Reduced stress due to increased control.
A more productive group while the leader is watching.
Improved logistics of operations
Leadership may be negative because followers are uninformed,
insecure, and afraid of the leader’s authority.
Negative impact on organizational productivity and efficiency due to
strict leadership and lack of motivation as frustration, low morale,
dissatisfaction amongst the members, and conflict develop in the
There is more dependence and less individuality in the organization.
As such, future leaders in the organization do not develop.
When it is Effective?
Short term projects with a highly technical, complex or risky element.
Work environments where spans of control are wide and hence the
manager has little time to devote to each employee.
Industries where employees need to perform low-skilled, monotonous
and repetitive tasks and generally have low levels of motivation.
Projects where the work performed needs to be completed to exact
specifications and/or with a tight deadline.
Companies that suffer from a high employee turnover, i.e. where time
and resources devoted to leadership development would be largely
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Participation is defined as mental and emotional involvement of a person in a
group situation which encourages him to contribute to group goals and share
responsibility in them.
This style is also known as consultative, or ideographic.
These leaders (one or more) do not centralize the decision making authority
with them; rather they decentralize it to their followers.
Though the ultimate responsibility continues to vest with the leaders, they
take all decisions in consultation with their followers and based on their
followers’ suggestions & ideas.
The followers thus develop a sense of involvement and contribute positively
towards the group goals.
The participation may be real.
Highly motivating technique to employees.
Employee’s productivity is high.
It provides organizational stability by raising morale and attitudes of
employees high and favorable.
Increase in followers’ job satisfaction and cooperation with management
Reduction in employees’ turnover and absenteeism.
Mismatch between the desired and actual participation
Lengthy and ‘boring’ decision making.
Like the other styles, the participative style is not always appropriate. It is
most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees
or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or
It is a step further than the participative leadership.
Democratic leadership is people oriented. It focuses on human aspects and
builds effective teamwork.
Democratic Leadership is the leadership style that promotes the sharing of
responsibility, the exercise of delegation and continual consultation.
Interaction between the leader and subordinates is open, friendly and
The decisions are made in groups through group discussions, by the
formation of various committees. It is also called as ‘group dynamics’
approach to participation.
It can be most suitable where team working is essential, and quality is more
important than speed to market or productivity.
Positive work environment
Reduction of office politics
Reduced employee turnover
Overall development of the subordinates
Lengthy and ‘boring’ Decision making
Suggestions given by subordinates may sometimes be better than what
leaders could have thought of. Leaders, in such cases, may not feel
happy inviting suggestions.
Danger of pseudo participation: Employees may not always be willing to
Suggestions which are not acceptable to the entire group may invite
resistance from some of the group members.
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When is Participative Leadership & Democratic Leadership Effective?
It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees
or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group
It is applied to an extent in the manufacturing industry, to allow employees to
give their ideas on how processes can become leaner and more efficient.
It is effective in professionals’ organizations where the emphasis is clearly on
training professional & leadership development.
Non-profit organizations also tremendously benefit from drawing upon the
creative energies of all their staff to bring about cost cutting techniques or
fund raising ideas.
As previously mentioned, creative industries such as advertising and
television enjoy a lot of benefits from the free flow of ideas that democratic /
participative leadership brings.
This French phrase means "leave it be," and it describes leaders who allow
their people to work on their own.
This style of leadership is also called “Hands-Off”, Free-Rein, Delegative or
The leader is ultra-liberal: It means giving complete freedom to
subordinates. In this style, the leader once determines policy, programmes
and limitations for action then the entire process is left to subordinates.
Group members perform everything and the leader usually an on-looker who
plays a minor role in affecting the group-goals and maintains contacts with
outside persons to bring the information and materials which the group
Increases morale of employees and they strive for higher job satisfaction
as they hold the responsibility for framing and achieving their group-goals.
The employees’ satisfaction is exploited to the fullest possible extent.
The subordinates train their own group members and motivate them to
work. The results are likely to be more productive.
It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a leader.
The leader cannot provide regular feedback to let employees know how
well they are doing.
Leaders are unable to thank employees for their good work.
The leader doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and is hoping
the employees can cover for him or her.
When it is Effective?
This style of leadership is effective in highly motivated professionals
(outside experts, such as staffs or consultants) where independent
thinking is rewarded. It is not useful in organizations that are highly
This type of style is suitable to certain where the leader can leave a
choice to his group. This helps subordinates to develop independent
Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated.
Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on
Employees are trustworthy.
Other Leadership Styles
1) Visionary Leadership
2) Coaching Leadership
3) Paternalistic Leadership
4) Transactional Leadership
5) Transformational Leadership
6) Charismatic / “Pace-Setting” Leadership
7) Servant Leadership
8) Bureaucratic Leadership
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To build a rich picture of what is needed
Talk about future & not about the past
Share their ideas for the future
Think long term & beyond the current problem set
Communicate at all levels to get buy in
Tell stories & model for how they would like others to behave
Raises performance & develops people for the future
Listen to the needs of their people
Work at the pace of the individuals being coached rather than impose
their own pace
Demonstrate active listening & empathy
Ask tough questions to make the individual think for themselves
Challenge people to do things differently
Help people to set clear development goals
Give frequent feedback
Give regular praise & recognition
Leader assumes that his function is paternal or fatherly.
Leader provides good working conditions & fringe benefits to his sub-
Employees under such leadership will work harder out of gratitude.
It generates resentment in subordinates.
This leadership style starts with the idea that team members agree to obey
their leader when they accept a job.
The "transaction" usually involves the organization paying team members in
return for their effort and compliance.
Leaders are inspiring because they expect the best from everyone on their
team as well as themselves. This leads to high productivity and engagement
from everyone in their team.
Leaders transform the organization by developing vision, building
commitment, and empowering followers.
It has developed frameworks and measures that have led to a body of
research on transformational leadership.
Charismatic / Pace-Setting Leadership
This can resemble transformational leadership because these leaders inspire
enthusiasm in their teams and are energetic in motivating others to move
forward. This excitement and commitment from teams is an enormous
In that the leader injects huge doses of enthusiasm into his or her team, and
is very energetic in driving others forward.
The Leader can tend to believe more in him or herself than in their team.
Charismatic leadership carries great responsibility, and needs long-term
commitment from the leader.
Charisma - “Charisma is a God gifted attribute in a person which makes him
a leader irrespective of the situations in which he works.”
People enjoy leaders who enjoy life
Put a 10 on every person’s head
Give people hope
“How can you have charisma? Be more concerned about making others
feel good about themselves than you are making them feel good about
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In many ways, servant leadership is a form of democratic leadership, as the
whole team tends to be involved in decision-making.
Supporters of this leadership style suggest it is an important way ahead in a
world where values are increasingly important, servant leaders achieve
power on the basis of their values and ideals.
People practicing servant leadership will often find themselves left
behind by leaders using other leadership styles.
Servant leadership, first described by Robert Greenleaf in the 1970’s,
It is leadership upside down because leaders transcend self-interest to serve
others and the organization.
Servant Leader - A leader who works to fulfill subordinates’ needs and goals
as well as to achieve the organization’s larger mission.
This is a very appropriate style for work involving serious safety risks (such
as working with machinery, with toxic substances or at heights) or where
large sums of money are involved (such as cash-handling).
In other situations, the inflexibility and high levels of control exerted can
demoralize staff, and can diminish the organizations ability to react to
changing external circumstances.
Bureaucratic leaders work "by the book." They follow rules rigorously, and
ensure that their people follow procedures precisely.
Principled Centered Leadership Power
It is based on the power that some people have with others because others tend
to believe in them and in what they are trying to accomplish.
It is rare and based on honor & trust.
It is created when values of the followers and the values of the leaders overlap.
“Leaders are leaders only as long as they have the respect and loyalty of
Characteristics of Principle-Centered Leaders
Radiate positive energy.
Believe in other people.
Lead balanced lives.
See life as an adventure.
They exercise for self-renewal.
Seven Habits of Principled Centered Leaders
1) Be Proactive - Self Knowledge or Self Awareness
2) Begin With the End in Mind - Imagination and Conscience
3) First Things First - Willpower
4) Think Win/Win - Abundance Mentality
5) Seek First to Understand, Then to be Understood - Courage Balanced
6) Synergize - Creativity
7) Sharpen the Saw - Continuous Improvement
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Seven Deadly Sins of Principled Centered Leaders
1) Wealth without work (Forgetting the law of the farm: Reap what you Sow)
2) Pleasure without conscience
3) Knowledge without character (Sound mind sound body)
4) Commerce without morality
5) Science without humanity (Technocracy)
6) Religion without sacrifice (No Synergy)
7) Politics without principle
P o w e r
Ability to get someone else to do something you want done or make things
happen the way you want.
The potential ability to affect or influence others’ behavior.
Should be used to influence and control others for the common good rather
seeking to exercise control for personal satisfaction.
Why does having power matter?
With power you can…
Intercede favorably on behalf of someone in trouble.
Get a desirable placement for a talented subordinate.
Get approval for expenditures beyond the budget.
Get items on and off agendas.
Get fast access to decision makers.
Maintain regular, frequent contact with decision makers.
Acquire early information about decisions and policy shifts.
Types of Power
I. Position Power
Based on a manager’s official status in the organization’s hierarchy of
Power derived from the opportunities inherent in a person’s position in an
Sources of Position Power
Organizational position or status confers the lawful right to control those
in subordinate positions and expect compliance.
Power that stems from a formal management position in an organization
and the authority granted to it.
Control over tangible benefits and capability to offer something of value
Power that result from the authority to bestow rewards on other people.
Power that stems from the authority to discipline, punish or recommend
punishment and withhold rewards/positive outcome for non-compliance.
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II. Personal Power
Based on the unique personal qualities that a person brings to the leadership
Power derived from the interpersonal relationships between leaders and
Sources of Personal Power
Capacity to influence others because of one’s specialized knowledge,
skills or abilities, and competence.
The ability to influence others based on personal liking, charisma and
Power that result from characteristics that command subordinates’
identification with, respect and admiration for, and desire to emulate the
Consequences of Power
Turning power into influence …
Successful leadership relies on acquiring and using all sources of power.
Use of reward power or legitimate power produces temporary compliance.
Use of coercive power produces, at best, temporary compliance, often
accompanied by resentment.
Use of expert power or referent power has the most enduring results and
E M P O W E R M E N T
The giving or delegation of power; authority.
Empowerments is the process of enabling or authorizing an individual to
think, behave, take action, and control work and decision making in
Empowering employees works because total power in the organization
seems to increase.
Everyone has to say and hence contributes more to organizational goals.
10 Power Tools of Leadership
There are ten (10) suggestions for processes and principles that will increase a
leader’s power and respect with his subordinates.
1) PERSUASTION - which includes sharing reasons and rationale, making a
strong case for one’s position or desire while maintaining genuine respect for
followers idea’s and perspective: tell why as well as what; commit to stay in
the communication process until mutually beneficial and satisfying outcomes
2) PATIENCE - with the process and the person. In spite of the failings,
shortcomings and the inconveniences created by the followers, and one’s
own patience and anticipation for achieving goals; maintain a long term
perspective and stay committed to goals in the face of short-term obstacle
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3) GENTLENESS - not harshness, hardness, or forcefulness, when dealing with
vulnerabilities, disclosures, and feelings followers might express.
4) TEACHABLE - which means operating with the assumption that one thus not
have all answers, all the insights, and valuing the different viewpoints,
judgments, and experiences followers may have.
5) ACCEPTANCE - It is the quality of faithfulness to superiors, subordinates
and to the ideals organization where the leaders belong.
6) KINDNESS - Sensitive, caring, thoughtful, remembering the small things
(which are the big things) in relationships.
7) OPENNESS - Acquiring accurate information and perspective about followers
as they can become while being worthy of respect for what they are now,
regardless of what they own, control, or do, giving full consideration to their
intentions, desires, values and goals rather than focusing exclusively on
8) COMPASSIONATE CONFRONTATION - acknowledging error, mistakes,
and the need for followers to make “course corrections” in a context of
genuine care, concern and warmth, making it safe for followers to risk.
9) CONSISTENCY - So that one’s leadership style is not a manipulative
technique that one can bring into play when he doesn’t get his way, faced
with crisis or challenge, or is feeling trapped; rather, this become a set of
values, a personal code, a manifestation of character, a reflection of who one
is and who he is becoming .
10) INTEGRITY - Honesty, matching words and feelings and feelings with
thoughts and actions, with no desire other than the goods of others, without
malice or desire to deceive or take advantage , manipulate or control;
Trait Approach to Leadership
TRAIT is defined as relatively enduring quality of an individual.
This theory accepted the fact that leadership traits are not completely inborn
but can also be acquired through learning and experience.
This approach seeks to determine “what makes a successful leader” from the
leaders own personal characteristics.
It gives hypothesis on the qualities such as intelligence, attitudes, personality
and biological factors for effective leaders.
Various traits are classified into innate and acquirable traits.
Basic Assumptions of Trait Theory
People are born with inherited traits.
Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.
People who make good leaders have the right combination of traits.
No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.
Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations.
Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and
Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing
effective and ineffective leaders.
Classification of Traits
1.) Innate Traits - Innate qualities are those which are possessed by various
individuals since their birth. These qualities are natural and often known as god-
gifted. On the basis of such qualities, it is said that ‘Leaders are born and not
made’. These qualities cannot be acquired by the individuals.
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The following are the major innate qualities:
Physical features - Physical features of a man are determined by heredity
factors. Physical characteristics and rate of maturation determine the
personality formation. To some extent, height, weight, physique, health and
appearance are important for leadership.
Intelligence - Intelligence is generally expressed in terms of mental ability. It,
to a very great extent is a natural quality in the individuals because it is
directly related with brain. Though, many psychologists claim that the level of
intelligence in an individual can be increased through various training
2.) Acquirable Traits - Acquirable qualities of leadership are those which can be
acquired and increased through various processes. Such as, when a child is
born, he learns many of the behavioral patterns through socialization and
The following are the major acquirable qualities:
Emotional Stability - A leader should have high level of emotional stability.
He should be free from bias, is consistent in action, and refrains from anger.
He must be self-confident and believes that he can meet most situations
Human Relations - A leader should know how to deal with human beings.
He should have intimate knowledge of people, their relationship to each other
and their reaction to various situations.
Empathy - Empathy refers to observing the things or situations from others
point of view. It is considered as very important aspect for successful leader.
Empathy requires respect for the other persons, their rights, beliefs, values
Objectivity - Objectivity implies that what a leader does should be based on
relevant facts and information. The leader must be objective and doesn’t
permit himself to get emotionally involved to the extent that he finds it difficult
to make an objective diagnosis and implement the action required.
Contingency/Situational Approaches of Leadership
This approach was applied first time in 1920 in the armed forces of Germany
with the objective to get good generals under different situations.
These theories of leadership postulate that leaders should carefully analyze
the nature of the situation before deciding on the appropriate leadership style
to be adopted.
Effectiveness of leadership is affected by the factors associated with the
leader (Leader’s Behavior) and the factor associated with the situation
Leadership as being more flexible – different leadership styles used at
different times depending on the circumstance.
No leadership style is best in all situations.
Factors affecting Leadership Effectiveness
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Leader’s behavior is further affected by two variables:
1) Leader’s Characteristics - The behavior of the individual is
influenced by intelligence and ability, his characteristics like his
personality characteristics, attitudes, interest, motivation, and physical
characteristics such as age, sex, and physical features.
2) Leader’s Hierarchical Position - Leader’s hierarchical position in the
organization is very important because persons at different levels face
different kinds of problem which affect the degree of participation
between the superior and his subordinates in arriving at decisions to
solve the problems.
The various situational factors are grouped into four categories:
1) Subordinate Characteristics - It includes personality characteristics,
attitude, interest, motivation, physical characteristics such as age,
sex, physical features.
2) Leader’s Situation - The variables which determine the leaders
a. Leader’s position power - It helps in influencing others. High
position power simplifies the leader’s task of influencing
others, while low position power makes the leader’s task more
b. Leader’s Subordinate relation - It is based on the classic
exchange theory which suggests that there is two way
influence in a social relationship. If the leader has good
subordinates, and good relation with them, he is likely to be
3) Group Factors - Various group factors like task design, group
composition, group norms, and peer group relationship affect
leadership effectiveness and performance. If these factors are
favorable, the leader will be effective.
4) Organizational Factors - Organizational factors like organizational
climate and organizational culture affect leadership effectiveness. If
these are conductive, the leader will be effective.
SITUATIONAL THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
1) Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Leadership Continuum
2) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory
3) Path-Goal Theory
4) Fiedler’s Contingency Model
Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Leadership Continuum
There are a variety of styles of leadership behavior between two extremes of
Autocratic and Free rein. TANNENBAUM and SCHMIDT have depicted a
broad range of styles on a continuum moving from authoritarian leadership
behavior at one end to free-rein behavior at the other end.
According to them, there is no best leadership style that a leader can adopt;
rather, she/he chooses one amongst the seven leader behaviors, depending
upon three important factors.
1) Forces in Leader
2) Forces in Subordinates (Followers)
3) Forces in the Situation
1) Leader as an Announcer
2) Leader as a Seller
3) Leader as a Clarifier
4) Leader as a Senior Partner
5) Leader as a Seeker
6) Leader as an Equal Partner
7) Leader as a Follower
(PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 16
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory
A contingency approach to leadership that links the leader’s behavioral style
with the task readiness of subordinates.
Leaders adjust their styles depending on the readiness of their followers to
perform in a given situation.
Readiness — how able, willing and confident followers are in
Leadership styles can be categorized into four types – Telling, Selling,
Participating, and Delegating.
The two-by-two matrix shown in the figure indicates that four leadership styles are
(PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 17
(S1) TELLING / DIRECTING
o High-task, low-relationship style.
o Work best in low-readiness situations.
o Leader Defines Tasks of Followers and closely supervising work
o Problem Solving and Decision Making Initiated by the Leader
o One-way Communication
(S2) SELLING / COACHING / MENTORING
o High-task, high-relationship style.
o Work best in low-to-moderate readiness situations.
o Leader emphasizes shared ideas and participative decisions on task
o Leader Now Attempts to Hear Followers
o Suggestions, Ideas, and Opinions
o Two-way Communication
o Control Over Decision Making Remains With the Leader
(S3) PARTICIPATING / SUPPORTING
o Low-task, high-relationship style.
o Works best in moderate-to-high readiness situations.
o Leader explains task directions in a supportive and persuasive way.
o Focus of Control Shifts to Follower.
o Leader Actively Listens.
o Follower Has Ability and Knowledge to Do the Task.
o Low-task, low-relationship style.
o Works best in high readiness situations.
o Allowing the group to take responsibility for task decisions.
o Leader Discusses Problems With Followers.
o Seeks Joint Agreement on Problem Definitions.
o Decision Making Is Handled by the Subordinate.
o They “Run Their Own Show”
Path - Goal Theory
The path-goals theory is a contingency model of leadership developed
develop by Robert House.
This model is called a contingency theory because it consists of three sets of
contingencies (leader behavior and style, situational contingencies, and the
use of rewards to meet subordinates’ needs.)
According to this theory, the main function of the leader is to provide clear
direction and required guidance to his followers or subordinates and
support/assist them to achieve organizational goals. The Leader should also
establish individual (or group) goals for employees that are compatible with
the broad organizational goals.
The impact that leader behavior has on subordinate’s motivation, satisfaction
The leader attempts to make the path to subordinates goal as smooth as
To accomplish this path-goal facilitation, the leader must use appropriate
style contingent on the situational variables present.
Leader Roles in the Path-Goal Theory
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Contingency relationships in the Path-Goal Theory
Two important situational contingencies are:
1.) Follower Contingencies - The personal characteristics of group
Include such factors:
2.) Environmental Contingencies
Include such factors:
Degree of task structure – the extent task are well-defined and have
explicit descriptions and work procedures.
Nature of formal authority system – the amount of legitimate power
used by managers and the extent to which policies and rules
constrain employees’ behavior.
The work group – the educational level of subordinates and the
quality of relationships among them.
Robert House suggested 4 types of leadership by this model:
1.) Supportive Leadership
Make work pleasant.
Treat group members as equals.
Be friendly and approachable.
Show concern for subordinates’ well-being.
This is similar to the consideration leadership.
Effective when worker self-confidence is low.
2.) Directive Leadership
Maintain performance standards.
Clarify leader’s role.
This is similar to the initiating-structure leadership.
Effective when job assignments are ambiguous.
3.) Participative Leadership
Involve subordinates in decision making.
Consult with subordinates.
Ask for subordinates’ suggestions.
Use subordinates’ suggestions.
Effective when performance incentives are poor.
4.) Achievement-Oriented Leadership
Set challenging goals.
Expect high performance levels.
Emphasize continuous improvement.
Display confidence in meeting high standards.
Effective when task challenge is insufficient.
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Fiedler’s Critical Dimensions of Leadership Situation
Fiedler’s Contingency Model
The Fiedler contingency model is a leadership theory of industrial and
organizational psychology developed by Fred Fiedler (1967).
The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a
leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the
situation gives control and influence to the leader.
Fiedler's model assumes that group performance depends on the Leadership
style that may be:
o Relationship-motivated – concerned with people, as in the
o Task-motivated – primarily motivated by task accomplishment, which
is similar to the initiating structure style.
Measuring the Situation
Leadership requirements depend on the situation the leader; and the choice
of the most appropriate style of leadership depends on whether the overall
situation is favorable or unfavorable to the leader.
Leadership situations are classified as high, moderate, or low control
Control is determined by three dimensions:
a) Leader-member relations
The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates has in their
leader including group atmosphere and members’ attitude toward and
acceptance of the leader.
b) Degree of Task structure
The degrees to which tasks on hand can be performed efficiently by
the group are defined, involve specific procedures, and have clear,
c) Position power or the Leader’s position
Influence derived from one’s formal structural authority in the
organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give
Leadership Effectiveness based on Contingency Model
Matching Leadership Style and Situation
Evaluation of Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
Fiedler’s work prompted others to conduct studies about the contingency
nature of leadership.
The model has alerted leaders to the importance of sizing up the situation
to gain control.
However, contingency theory is too complicated to have much of an
impact on most leaders.
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Functions of a Leader
1) Establishing direction - Giving the proper direction to the followers where
determining the destination.
2) Aligning people - Keeping the followers within the control of leader.
3) Motivating and inspiring - Motivate them and try to be inspired by the
4) Change management - Manage any type of organizational change
convincing the followers, creating trust to the management.
5) Coordination - Coordinate where necessary
6) Determining goal - Determine both long and short-term goals and objectives
to be achieved.
7) Representing organization - Leader represents on behalf of the
8) Making quick and rational decision -Leaders should be able to make
immediate and rational decisions.
9) Environmental adaptation - Make the change according to the
environmental change to it.
10) Communication - Effective communication to its stakeholders.
Leadership Style is a manner and approach of providing direction,
implementing plans and motivating people.
Leadership Style is the way in which a leader influences followers.
No matter what their traits or skills, leaders carry out their roles in a wide
variety of styles.
Leadership style may be dependent on various factors:
o Risk - decision making and change initiatives based on degree of risk
o Type of business - creative business or supply driven?
o Organizational culture - may be long embedded and difficult to change
o Nature of the task - needing cooperation? Direction? Structure?
o How important change is… change for change’s sake?
Two (2) Major Styles of Leadership
1.) Task-Oriented Leadership
Leaders focus only on getting the job done, and can be quite
Leaders will actively define the work and the roles required, put
structures in place, plan, organize and monitor.
However, as task-oriented leaders spare little thought for the well-
being of their teams, this approach can suffer many of the flaws of
autocratic leadership, with difficulties in motivating and retaining staff.
2.) People-Oriented / Relation-Oriented Leadership
This style of leadership is the opposite of task-oriented leadership.
A participative style, it tends to lead to good teamwork and creative
Leaders are totally focused on organizing, supporting, and developing
the people on their teams.
The Leadership Grid ®
The Leadership (Managerial) grid model is a behavioral leadership model
developed by Robert R. Blake and Jane Srygley Mouton in 1964.
This model identified five different leadership styles based on the concern
for people in y-axis and the concern for production in x-axis.
Understanding the Model
The Managerial Grid is based on two behavioral dimensions:
1.) Concern for People - This is the degree to which a leader considers the
needs of team members, their interests, and areas of personal development
when deciding how best to accomplish a task.
2.) Concern for Production - This is the degree to which a leader emphasizes
concrete objectives, organizational efficiency and high productivity when
deciding how best to accomplish a task.
(PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 21
LEADERSHIP Styles identified
1.) IMPOVERISED LEADERSHIP STYLE (1,1)
2.) TASK MANAGEMENT STYLE (9,1)
3.) MIDDLE OF THE ROAD (5,5)
4.) COUNTRY CLUB (1,9)
5.) TEAM MANAGEMENT (9,9)
IMPOVERISED LEADERSHIP (1, 1) “Low Production / Low People”
Managers with this approach are low on both the dimensions and
exercise minimum effort to get the work done from subordinates.
The leader has low concern for employee satisfaction and work
As a result disharmony, disorganization, and dissatisfaction prevail within
The leaders are termed ineffective wherein their action is merely aimed at
preserving job and seniority.
TASK MANAGEMENT STYLE (9, 1) “High Production / Low People”
“Produce or Perish”
Also known as Authoritarian or Compliance Leaders, people in this
category believe that employees are simply a means to an end.
Employee needs are always secondary to the need for efficient and
This type of leader is very autocratic, has strict work rules, policies, and
procedures, and views punishment as the most effective means to
MIDDLE OF THE ROAD (5, 5) “Medium Production / Medium People”
“Dampened Pendulum / Status Quo”
This is basically a “compromising style” wherein the leader tries to
maintain a balance between goals of company and the needs of people.
The leader does not push the boundaries of achievement resulting in
average performance for organization.
Here neither employee nor production needs are fully met.
TEAM MANAGEMENT (9, 9) “High Production / High People”
This style is based on the McGregor’s Theory Y and has been termed as
most effective (pinnacle) style.
The leader feels that empowerment, commitment, trust, and respect are
the key elements in creating a team atmosphere which will automatically
result in high employee satisfaction and production.
The premise here is that employees are involved in understanding
organizational purpose and determining production needs.
(PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 22
Traits, Attributes & Qualities of a Leader
are inner or personal qualities that constitute effective leadership;
a large array of characteristics such as values, character, motives, habits,
traits, competencies, motives, style, behaviors, and skills.
Leadership qualities are demonstrated in a leader’s behavior, not their
“Leadership is not just one quality but rather a blend of qualities”.
a set of stable characteristics
the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader.
potentially lasting throughout one's entire life.
I. Personality Traits of a Leader
1.) Physical proficiency and resiliency
It enables the leader to quickly recover under times of exceptional
stress and immediately continue his work.
Ability to Gather, Analyze, Interpret, create visions, Solve Problems,
and make correct decisions.
It enables the leader to thoroughly understand his job and his people,
as well as anticipate critical problems.
It strongly determines the individuality of the leaders and his attitudes
toward his responsibilities.
II. Character Traits of a Leader
It is the power of the mind to weigh various intervening factors affecting
a problem and arrive at a sound decision with due care and prudence.
It is the avoidance of providing for one’s own comfort or advantage at
the expense of others.
A leader must show some degree of magnanimous considerations to
subordinates without prejudicing the interest of others who are in need
A Leader should have the ability to decide promptly and correctly at
the proper time and to announce/express his decision clearly and
briefly with authority.
A Leader must possess a higher degree of interest and sensitivity in
responding the needs of the organization and performance of all
It is the quality of faithfulness to superiors, subordinates and to the
ideals organization where the leaders belong.
A Leader must demonstrate a higher degree of initiative in the
performance of his duty even with or without supervision.
It is uprightness of moral character and the quality of honesty and
It is the physical and mental ability which recognizes but enables the
individual to accept or meet challenges with calmness and
A leader must have a thorough knowledge of the capabilities and
limitations of his subordinates.
A leader should be endowed with superior intelligence and have the
necessary professional know-how of the job.
(PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 23
A Leader dignified in appearance and behavior to earn respect.
It is the act of creating a favorable impression in personal conduct at
It is the quality of seeing what needs to be done and initiating a
course of action.
A Leader should have the ability to start or originate an idea or a work
concept leading to action when others are absent or passive.
It is the ability to deal with others without giving offense. This is a
keen feeling and a sense of what is appropriate, tasteful, and
A Leader must have a physical and mental endurance to continue
relentlessly in pursuing the goals and objectives of the organization
for the common good.
It is the leader’s mental and physical stamina moved by the ability to
stand pain or hardships.
It is the ability to be impartial and consistent in dealing with
A Leader must be able to render judgement which conforms to
principles of reason, to genarally accepted standards of right and
wrong, and to the stated terms of laws, policies, and rules.
A Leader should be impartial in rendering punishment and giving
credit where credit is due.
A Leader must possess the virtue of humility – the state of being
reasonably modest and not proud, assuming, arrogant, and boastful.
A Leader must be able to understand and to share the feelings of
another, especially in time of sorrow or adversity.
A Leader must show some intellectual and emotional identification with
feelings, thoughts, and attitudes to the employees affected by pain
because of misfortune.
A Leader must be able to demonstrate efficacious power within the
bounds of law to compel obedience among his subordinate.
A Leader must posses a good sense of humor which is a mental
disposition to appreciate and narrate amusing incidents of everyday life in
a comical way.
A Leader must posses a keen percepcion and appropriate expression of
amusing words and ideas which awaken amusement and pleasure.
Implications of Leadership
Varying leadership styles
While the proper leadership style depends on the situation, there are other
factors that also influence which leadership style to use.
The Leaders’ personal background - What personality, knowledge, values,
ethics, and experiences does the leader have. What does he or she think will
The Members (employee) being supervised - Members of an organization
are individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The leadership
style managers use will vary depending upon the individual and what he or
she will respond best to.
(PA7) Human Behavior in Organizations ∣∣ GROUP 7 - LEADERSHIP Page 24
The Perfect Leader
A good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are involved between
the followers, the leader, and the situation. Some examples include:
o Using an authoritarian style on a new employee who is just learning the job.
The leader is competent and a good coach. The employee is motivated to
learn a new skill. The situation is a new environment for the employee.
o Using a participative style with a team of workers who know their job. The
leader knows the problem, but does not have all the information. The
employees know their jobs and want to become part of the team.
o Using a delegative style with a worker who knows more about the job than
you. You cannot do everything! The employee needs to take ownership of her
job. Also, the situation might call for you to be at other places, doing other
Forces that influence the style to be used included:
o How much time is available?
o Are relationships based on respect and trust or on disrespect?
o Who has the information - you, your employees, or both?
o How well your employees are trained and how well you know the task.
o Internal conflicts?
o Stress levels?
o Type of task. Is it structured, unstructured, complicated, or simple?
1.) Effectiveness of leadership depends upon matching leadership behavior
style with the maturity of the group in a specific situation.
2.) Remember knowing and doing are different things.
3.) Leaders must develop flexibility to change style.
4.) Matching style and situation is not the only leadership role; group
development is another important role, that is, moving the group to readiness
and responsibility is also an leadership role.
Changes in the Philippines’ Scenario
The Philippines has today seen a lot of transformation from an exciting mix of
government owned companies and private family owned companies. Also, today
there is talk of privatizing some public sector companies. All these changes in the
business environment has led to a change in the leadership styles, in certain
cases leadership styles have changed business.
It has become more democratic. In a leader abundant country, people’s
satisfaction is an easy thing to forget, however, it is important that their needs are
fulfilled, if organization has to be successful.
People are the greatest asset and if leaders of organizations adopt styles that are
democratic and transforming, then the organization would well be on its way to
achieve its objectives.
As the CEO of GE, Jack Welch has said , “we cannot afford management styles
that suppress and intimidate.”
PA7 – HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
BPA III-A (GROUP 7)
DIMARUCOT, Omar Navarro
DISPO, Cenzarlie Ree Ian
SEVILLA, Jeffey T.
MALLARI, Ma. Jelly Jade L.
VALDEZ, Frank Amiel