Prepared by
Savitha shetty
Psychiatric nursing
department
LEADERSHIP
What is leadership?
Leading people
Influencing people
Commanding people
Guiding people
DEFINITION
According to Seckler and Hudson,
“Leadership is influencing and
energising of people to work together
in a comm...
PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIP
Be technically proficient
Seek responsibility and take
responsibility for your actions
Make sound and timely decisions
Set the example
Know your people and look out for
their well-being
Keep your workers informed
Ensure that tasks are understood,
supervised, and accomplished
Train as a team
Use the full capabilities of your
organization
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADRESHIP
• Leadership is a process of influence
• Leadership is related to a situation
• Leadership i...
FACTORS OF LEADERSHIP
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
Charismatic leadership/ Great man theory
 Developed by Max Webber
 he believes that a leader is born and is not
made
 A...
Scientific Leadership Theory
•Developed by Frederick
Winslow Taylor
•Technology as the basis of
increasing productivity
•C...
Human Relations Theory
•Developed by Elton Mayo and Fritz
Roethlisberger
•they believe that real power centers within
orga...
Henri Fayol Theory of Managerial Style
•Leadership is planning, organising,
directing, and controlling.
•Division of work ...
McGregor Theory
Douglas McGregor [1960] categorised leadership style
in to two brand categories
Theory X: leader assumes...
Theory Z
• Developed by Abraham H Maslow
• Japanese have adapted the principle of
human relation theory, is commonly known...
Trait Theory of Leadership
• Developed by William Paley in 1974
• According to this theory, leader is gifted
with or devel...
Physical characteristics - age, height, weight.
Background characteristics – education, social
status, experiences.
Int...
• Limitations
– There is bound to be some subjective judgment
in determining who is regarded as a ‘good’ or
‘successful’ l...
Leader Member Exchange Theory
(LMX)
• Leadership is a process that is centered on the
interactions between leaders and fol...
Leader Member Exchange
Leader Member Exchange
S Subordinate
In-GroupOut-Group
Leader
S
S
S
S S
S
S
S S
S
S
S
In-Group
more information,
influence...
Weakness
• On the surface this theory doesn’t seem “fair”
because it does not treat everyone equally.
Also can support the...
Situational Theory
• In this approach, a leader is the product of a
given situation and the behavior may in fact
vary from...
Behavioural theory
• Leadership is shown by a person’s acts more
than by his traits
• leader behaves according to the role...
• Leadership behaviour views in 2 ways
– Functional behaviour
– Dysfunctional behaviour
Transformational theories
• It arose late in the last millennium.
• Leaders who effectively transformed
structures, human ...
Criticism
• Transformational leadership makes use of
impression management and therefore lends
itself to self promotion by...
Transactional theory
• The transactional style of leadership was first
described by Max Weber in 1947 and then by
Bernard ...
LEADERSHIP STYLE
• Refers to leader’s behaviours
• The style varies with the personality of the
leader.
• Most often, lead...
Autocratic/ authoritarian leader
• “you do what I say, I know that is best for you”.
• There are three categories of autoc...
Advantage
• New, untrained staffs
• Need of effective supervision
• Staffs do not respond to any
other leadership style
• ...
Democratic/ participative/
creative leader
• gives instructions only after consulting the group
• the leader values the in...
Behaviors
• Less control is maintained.
• Economic and ego awards are used to
motivate
• Others are directive through sugg...
Advantages
• improves the attitudes of
employees
• increases the cooperation
• deduction in the number of
complaints and g...
Laissez faire/ free rein/ abdicratic
leaders
• does not lead, but leaves the group entirely to itself
• also referred to a...
Behavior of leader
• He or she is permissive with little or no control
• Motivates by support when requested by the
group ...
Bureaucratic /Transaction– “ by
book”
Effective
• performing routine tasks
• Staffs needs to understand
standards or proce...
Transformational leadership
• To respond to a dynamic environment the
Transformational Leadership Make change
happen in:
•...
Inspirational
motivation
Intellectual
stimulation
Individualized
consideration
Idealized
influence
• Corrective Leadership
• Change Leadership
• Intelligence Leadership
• Multicultural Leadership
• Pedagogical Leadership
...
THE NURSE AS A LEADER
• LEADERSHIP WITHIN THE WORKPLACE
– The staff nurse as a leader
– Nurses as community volunteers
• L...
Which Type of leader you want to
be?
Good
Leader
Queries??????
???
“Not everything old was bad and
not everything new is good.”
THANK YOU
Leadership (2)
Leadership (2)
Leadership (2)
Leadership (2)
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Leadership (2)

  1. 1. Prepared by Savitha shetty Psychiatric nursing department
  2. 2. LEADERSHIP
  3. 3. What is leadership? Leading people Influencing people Commanding people Guiding people
  4. 4. DEFINITION According to Seckler and Hudson, “Leadership is influencing and energising of people to work together in a common effort to achieve the purposes of the enterprise”.
  5. 5. PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIP Be technically proficient
  6. 6. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions
  7. 7. Make sound and timely decisions
  8. 8. Set the example
  9. 9. Know your people and look out for their well-being
  10. 10. Keep your workers informed
  11. 11. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished
  12. 12. Train as a team
  13. 13. Use the full capabilities of your organization
  14. 14. CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADRESHIP • Leadership is a process of influence • Leadership is related to a situation • Leadership is the function of stimulation • Leadership gives an experience of helping to attain the common objectives • Employees must be satisfied with the type of leadership provided • Communication • Credibility • Delegation • Critical thinking • Initiating action • Risk taking
  15. 15. FACTORS OF LEADERSHIP
  16. 16. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
  17. 17. Charismatic leadership/ Great man theory  Developed by Max Webber  he believes that a leader is born and is not made  Authentic hero in the eyes of his followers  Leadership calls for certain qualities like commanding personality, charm, courage, intelligence, persuasiveness and aggressiveness. These qualities are of such a nature that they can’t be taught or learnt in a formal sense.  Limitation  Such qualities could be learnt also through learning and experience
  18. 18. Scientific Leadership Theory •Developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor •Technology as the basis of increasing productivity •Careful selection and training of workers • Leader wil be the most competent individual in planning and organising the work of subordinates in scientific way.
  19. 19. Human Relations Theory •Developed by Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger •they believe that real power centers within organization are the interpersonal relationship established within the work organization. •The findings of their study conclude that a leader not only should plan, decide, lead and control but also consider the human element. •Basic principles: •Decentralization •Participatory decision making •Concern for developing self motivational employees
  20. 20. Henri Fayol Theory of Managerial Style •Leadership is planning, organising, directing, and controlling. •Division of work and task specialization. •Worker should have authority with his responsibility. •Interest of individual should be subordinated to interest of total work group. •Unbroken chain of authority. •All employees: equal, justice. •Managers should develop team work.
  21. 21. McGregor Theory Douglas McGregor [1960] categorised leadership style in to two brand categories Theory X: leader assumes that people are more interested in financial incentives than personal achievements. So Managers exercise strong control and direction. Theory Y: Assumes employees enjoy physical and mental work if they are happy in the organization. Also believes that people will work harder and assume responsibilities if they can satisfy their personal needs as well as goals of their organization.
  22. 22. Theory Z • Developed by Abraham H Maslow • Japanese have adapted the principle of human relation theory, is commonly known as “theory Z”. • The theory believes that employee inherently dislike job. • So Emphasize on group decision making, lifetime job security and strong commitment to goals of organization. • Results are greater sense of job commitment and higher productivity.
  23. 23. Trait Theory of Leadership • Developed by William Paley in 1974 • According to this theory, leader is gifted with or develops certain physical, intellectual or personality characteristics. • Leadership traits are not completely inborn. These traits are not responsible solely to identify whether a person will be a successful leader or not, but they are essentially seen as preconditions that endow people with leadership potential.
  24. 24. Physical characteristics - age, height, weight. Background characteristics – education, social status, experiences. Intelligence – judgment, knowledge, think scientifically, analyze accurately and interpret clearly and precisely the problems. Personality, alertness, dominance, self confidence, enthusiasm, independence, self confidence. Task Oriented Characteristics – achievement need, responsibility, initiative, persistence. Social Characteristics – supervisory abilities, cooperativeness, popularity, prestige.
  25. 25. • Limitations – There is bound to be some subjective judgment in determining who is regarded as a ‘good’ or ‘successful’ leader – There is also a disagreement over which traits are the most important for an effective leader – The model attempts to relate physical traits such as, height and weight, to effective leadership. Most of these factors relate to situational factors. For example, a minimum weight and height might be necessary to perform the tasks efficiently in a military leadership position. In business organizations, these are not the requirements to be an effective leader.
  26. 26. Leader Member Exchange Theory (LMX) • Leadership is a process that is centered on the interactions between leaders and followers. • LMX makes the dyadic relationship between leaders and followers the focal point of the leadership process. • Focus is also placed on the differences that might exist between the leader and each of his or her followers – the leader can not treat all the followers the same.
  27. 27. Leader Member Exchange
  28. 28. Leader Member Exchange S Subordinate In-GroupOut-Group Leader S S S S S S S S S S S S In-Group more information, influence, confidence & concern from Leader more dependable, highly involved & communicative than out-group Out-Group less compatible with Leader usually just come to work, do their job & go home
  29. 29. Weakness • On the surface this theory doesn’t seem “fair” because it does not treat everyone equally. Also can support the development of privileged groups in the work place. • The basic ideas of the theory are not fully developed. Fails to explain how high quality exchanges are created. • No part of the research uses dyadic measures to analyze the LMX process
  30. 30. Situational Theory • In this approach, a leader is the product of a given situation and the behavior may in fact vary from one situation to another. Natural leader – Mahatma Gandhi Rational leader - Plato Consensus Leader – president of nation Leader by Force - Nepolian
  31. 31. Behavioural theory • Leadership is shown by a person’s acts more than by his traits • leader behaves according to the role expectations of the group • This theorist believes that leadership style like other behaviours can be learned, regulated and developed.
  32. 32. • Leadership behaviour views in 2 ways – Functional behaviour – Dysfunctional behaviour
  33. 33. Transformational theories • It arose late in the last millennium. • Leaders who effectively transformed structures, human resources and profitably balanced with quality. • It refers to process whereby the leader attends to the needs and motives of morality. • The leader is a role model who inspires followers through displayed optimism, provides intellectual stimulation and encourages follower creativity.
  34. 34. Criticism • Transformational leadership makes use of impression management and therefore lends itself to self promotion by leaders • The theory is very difficult to be trained or taught because it is a combination of many leadership theories. • Followers might be manipulated by leaders and there are chances that they lose more than they gain.
  35. 35. Transactional theory • The transactional style of leadership was first described by Max Weber in 1947 and then by Bernard Bass in 1981. • Here, the exchange between leader and follower takes place to achieve routine performance goals – Rewards – Active management by exception – Passive management by exception – Laissez-faire
  36. 36. LEADERSHIP STYLE • Refers to leader’s behaviours • The style varies with the personality of the leader. • Most often, leader exhibits some characteristics of each style of leadership though one style will typically be more dominant.
  37. 37. Autocratic/ authoritarian leader • “you do what I say, I know that is best for you”. • There are three categories of autocratic leadership; – Strict autocrat – Benevolent autocrat – Manipulative autocrat • Behavior of leader – Strong control is maintained over groups. – Communication flows downwards. – Decision making does not involve others – Criticism is punitive
  38. 38. Advantage • New, untrained staffs • Need of effective supervision • Staffs do not respond to any other leadership style • Limited time in which to make a decision • Manager’s power challenged by staff • Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization Disadvantages • Staffs become tensed fearful and resentful. • Staffs expect their opinions heard. • Staff depend on their manager to make all their decisions – Low staff morale, high turnover, absenteeism and work stoppage. – Rely on threats and punishment to influence staff – Do not trust staff – Do not allow for employee input
  39. 39. Democratic/ participative/ creative leader • gives instructions only after consulting the group • the leader values the individual values, the individual characteristics and abilities of each subordinate. • people centred approach • It is a creative leadership; here leader delegates authority to subordinates • Participative style of leadership is a compromise between autocratic and democratic styles
  40. 40. Behaviors • Less control is maintained. • Economic and ego awards are used to motivate • Others are directive through suggestions and guidance • Communication flows up to down • Emphasis in ‘’we’’ rather than I and you • Criticism is constructive.
  41. 41. Advantages • improves the attitudes of employees • increases the cooperation • deduction in the number of complaints and grievance • Increases the morale of the employees • help staff evaluate their own performance • Allows staff to establish goals • Recognizes and encourages Achievement Disadvantages • Time consuming • Manager feels threatened by this type of leadership • Staff safety is a critical concern
  42. 42. Laissez faire/ free rein/ abdicratic leaders • does not lead, but leaves the group entirely to itself • also referred to as the freedom style or permissive leadership • This type of leader denies responsibilities and abdicates authority to group • Here leader chooses not to adopt a leadership role • The leader may think that subordinates will perform better if a great deal of freedom is given. • This style will be effective where the subordinates are highly motivated and experienced.
  43. 43. Behavior of leader • He or she is permissive with little or no control • Motivates by support when requested by the group or individual • Little or no direction is provided • Communication is between members of group and upward and downward • Decision making is dispersed throughout the group • Emphasis on the group • Criticism not given.
  44. 44. Bureaucratic /Transaction– “ by book” Effective • performing routine tasks • Staffs needs to understand standards or procedures • Safety or security training need to conducted • Staff performing tasks that require handling cash Ineffective • Bookish knowledge is no longer useful • Work habits form that are hard to break • Loss of interest • Staff do only what is expected of them
  45. 45. Transformational leadership • To respond to a dynamic environment the Transformational Leadership Make change happen in: • Self, • Others, • Groups, and • Organizations • Charisma a special leadership style commonly associated with transformational leadership; extremely powerful, extremely hard to teach
  46. 46. Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Idealized influence
  47. 47. • Corrective Leadership • Change Leadership • Intelligence Leadership • Multicultural Leadership • Pedagogical Leadership • Servant Leadership • Bridging leadership • Quite Leadership
  48. 48. THE NURSE AS A LEADER • LEADERSHIP WITHIN THE WORKPLACE – The staff nurse as a leader – Nurses as community volunteers • LEADERSHIP THROUGH APPOINTED AND ELECTED OFFICE
  49. 49. Which Type of leader you want to be?
  50. 50. Good Leader
  51. 51. Queries?????? ???
  52. 52. “Not everything old was bad and not everything new is good.” THANK YOU

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