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CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADRESHIP
• Leadership is a process of influence
• Leadership is related to a situation
• Leadership is the function of stimulation
• Leadership gives an experience of helping to attain
the common objectives
• Employees must be satisfied with the type of
• Critical thinking
• Initiating action
• Risk taking
Charismatic leadership/ Great man theory
Developed by Max Webber
he believes that a leader is born and is not
Authentic hero in the eyes of his followers
Leadership calls for certain qualities like
commanding personality, charm, courage,
intelligence, persuasiveness and
aggressiveness. These qualities are of such
a nature that they can’t be taught or learnt in
a formal sense.
Such qualities could be learnt also
through learning and experience
Scientific Leadership Theory
•Developed by Frederick
•Technology as the basis of
•Careful selection and training
• Leader wil be the most
competent individual in
planning and organising the
work of subordinates in
Human Relations Theory
•Developed by Elton Mayo and Fritz
•they believe that real power centers within
organization are the interpersonal relationship
established within the work organization.
•The findings of their study conclude that a
leader not only should plan, decide, lead and
control but also consider the human element.
•Participatory decision making
•Concern for developing self motivational
Henri Fayol Theory of Managerial Style
•Leadership is planning, organising,
directing, and controlling.
•Division of work and task specialization.
•Worker should have authority with his
•Interest of individual should be
subordinated to interest of total work
•Unbroken chain of authority.
•All employees: equal, justice.
•Managers should develop team work.
Douglas McGregor  categorised leadership style
in to two brand categories
Theory X: leader assumes that people are more
interested in financial incentives than personal
achievements. So Managers exercise strong control and
Theory Y: Assumes employees enjoy physical and
mental work if they are happy in the organization. Also
believes that people will work harder and assume
responsibilities if they can satisfy their personal needs
as well as goals of their organization.
• Developed by Abraham H Maslow
• Japanese have adapted the principle of
human relation theory, is commonly known as
• The theory believes that employee inherently
• So Emphasize on group decision making,
lifetime job security and strong commitment
to goals of organization.
• Results are greater sense of job commitment
and higher productivity.
Trait Theory of Leadership
• Developed by William Paley in 1974
• According to this theory, leader is gifted
with or develops certain physical,
intellectual or personality characteristics.
• Leadership traits are not completely
inborn. These traits are not responsible
solely to identify whether a person will be
a successful leader or not, but they are
essentially seen as preconditions that
endow people with leadership potential.
– There is bound to be some subjective judgment
in determining who is regarded as a ‘good’ or
– There is also a disagreement over which traits
are the most important for an effective leader
– The model attempts to relate physical traits such
as, height and weight, to effective leadership.
Most of these factors relate to situational factors.
For example, a minimum weight and height
might be necessary to perform the tasks
efficiently in a military leadership position. In
business organizations, these are not the
requirements to be an effective leader.
Leader Member Exchange Theory
• Leadership is a process that is centered on the
interactions between leaders and followers.
• LMX makes the dyadic relationship between
leaders and followers the focal point of the
• Focus is also placed on the differences that
might exist between the leader and each of his
or her followers – the leader can not treat all
the followers the same.
Leader Member Exchange
& concern from
highly involved &
usually just come to
work, do their job &
• On the surface this theory doesn’t seem “fair”
because it does not treat everyone equally.
Also can support the development of privileged
groups in the work place.
• The basic ideas of the theory are not fully
developed. Fails to explain how high quality
exchanges are created.
• No part of the research uses dyadic measures
to analyze the LMX process
• In this approach, a leader is the product of a
given situation and the behavior may in fact
vary from one situation to another.
Natural leader – Mahatma Gandhi
Rational leader - Plato
Consensus Leader – president of nation
Leader by Force - Nepolian
• Leadership is shown by a person’s acts more
than by his traits
• leader behaves according to the role
expectations of the group
• This theorist believes that leadership style like
other behaviours can be learned, regulated
• It arose late in the last millennium.
• Leaders who effectively transformed
structures, human resources and profitably
balanced with quality.
• It refers to process whereby the leader
attends to the needs and motives of morality.
• The leader is a role model who inspires
followers through displayed optimism,
provides intellectual stimulation and
encourages follower creativity.
• Transformational leadership makes use of
impression management and therefore lends
itself to self promotion by leaders
• The theory is very difficult to be trained or
taught because it is a combination of many
• Followers might be manipulated by leaders
and there are chances that they lose more
than they gain.
• The transactional style of leadership was first
described by Max Weber in 1947 and then by
Bernard Bass in 1981.
• Here, the exchange between leader and
follower takes place to achieve routine
– Active management by exception
– Passive management by exception
• Refers to leader’s behaviours
• The style varies with the personality of the
• Most often, leader exhibits some
characteristics of each style of leadership
though one style will typically be more
Autocratic/ authoritarian leader
• “you do what I say, I know that is best for you”.
• There are three categories of autocratic
– Strict autocrat
– Benevolent autocrat
– Manipulative autocrat
• Behavior of leader
– Strong control is maintained over groups.
– Communication flows downwards.
– Decision making does not involve others
– Criticism is punitive
• New, untrained staffs
• Need of effective supervision
• Staffs do not respond to any
other leadership style
• Limited time in which to
make a decision
• Manager’s power challenged
• Work needs to be
coordinated with another
department or organization
• Staffs become tensed
fearful and resentful.
• Staffs expect their opinions
• Staff depend on their
manager to make all their
– Low staff morale, high
turnover, absenteeism and
– Rely on threats and
punishment to influence staff
– Do not trust staff
– Do not allow for employee
• gives instructions only after consulting the group
• the leader values the individual values, the
individual characteristics and abilities of each
• people centred approach
• It is a creative leadership; here leader delegates
authority to subordinates
• Participative style of leadership is a compromise
between autocratic and democratic styles
• Less control is maintained.
• Economic and ego awards are used to
• Others are directive through suggestions and
• Communication flows up to down
• Emphasis in ‘’we’’ rather than I and you
• Criticism is constructive.
• improves the attitudes of
• increases the cooperation
• deduction in the number of
complaints and grievance
• Increases the morale of the
• help staff evaluate their own
• Allows staff to establish goals
• Recognizes and encourages
• Time consuming
• Manager feels threatened
by this type of leadership
• Staff safety is a critical
Laissez faire/ free rein/ abdicratic
• does not lead, but leaves the group entirely to itself
• also referred to as the freedom style or permissive
• This type of leader denies responsibilities and
abdicates authority to group
• Here leader chooses not to adopt a leadership role
• The leader may think that subordinates will perform
better if a great deal of freedom is given.
• This style will be effective where the subordinates
are highly motivated and experienced.
Behavior of leader
• He or she is permissive with little or no control
• Motivates by support when requested by the
group or individual
• Little or no direction is provided
• Communication is between members of group
and upward and downward
• Decision making is dispersed throughout the
• Emphasis on the group
• Criticism not given.
Bureaucratic /Transaction– “ by
• performing routine tasks
• Staffs needs to understand
standards or procedures
• Safety or security training
need to conducted
• Staff performing tasks that
require handling cash
• Bookish knowledge is no
• Work habits form that are
hard to break
• Loss of interest
• Staff do only what is
expected of them
• To respond to a dynamic environment the
Transformational Leadership Make change
• Groups, and
• Charisma a special leadership style commonly
associated with transformational leadership; extremely
powerful, extremely hard to teach