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Leadership in nursing , 2022-DTBY-S.pptx

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Leadership in nursing , 2022-DTBY-S.pptx

  1. 1. Introduction to nursing Leadership and management After completing this chapter , you will be able to : Define leadership List principles of leadership List types of leadership Styles of leadership Application to nursing profession Application into health sector
  2. 2. Leadership • Is the ability of a leader to influence the behavior of followers and persuade them to follow a particular course of action. • Is influencing people to achieve particular goal • 'Leading an organization means marshalling/organizing/coordinating the people, capital & intellectual resources of the organization to move it in the right direction’
  3. 3. Leadership Cont.… Competences that are must to lead your team or group:-  Ability to diagnose or understand the situation  Adaptation  Communication • Effective nurse leaders are those who engage others to work together effectively in pursuit of a shared goal.
  4. 4. LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS • Leadership involves not just “doing,” but “being • Leadership is exercised with others • Leadership is responsibility. • Leadership happens at all levels. • Leadership is enabling people
  5. 5. QUALITIES OF AN EFFECTIVE LEADER • Integrity • Courage • Initiative • Energy • Optimism • Perseverance • Balance • Ability to handle stress • Self-awareness
  6. 6. BEHAVIORS Behaviors of effective leader • Think critically • Solve problems • Communicate skillfully • Set goals, share vision • Develop self and others BEHAVIORS
  7. 7. Roles of a Leader Roles of a Leader • Visionary & strategist • Resource mobilization/effective utilization • Team building/effective communication • Effective partnership, collaboration, networking, dialoguing, negotiating • Empowerment • Challenger • Change agent in a changing environment
  8. 8. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP 1.Great Man Theory 2. Trait Theory 3. Behavioral Theories 4.Situational Leadership 5. Contingency Theory 6. Transactional Leadership 7. Transformational Leadership
  9. 9. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP CONT.… 1. Great man theory: assumes that the capacity for leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born, not made 2. Trait Theory: Leader traits - characteristics that might be used to differentiate leaders from non leaders Traits 1) Management of attention. able to communicate a sense of goal or direction to attract followers. 2) Management of meaning. Created and communicated meaning with clarity and purpose. 3) Management of trust. Demonstrated reliability and consistency. 4) Management of self. self and work within their strengths and weaknesses (Bennis, 1984).
  10. 10. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP CONT.… 3. Behavioral Theories • Focus on the behavior of leaders rather than on their personal characteristics traits • lent themselves more readily to scientific examination • Behavioral Approach • Two primary behaviors – Task-oriented – Relationship-oriented
  11. 11. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP CONT.… University of Michigan Studies • Identified two dimensions of leader behavior – Employee oriented: emphasizing personal relationships – Production oriented: emphasizing task accomplishment Research findings: – Leaders who are employee and product oriented are strongly associated with high group productivity and high job satisfaction.
  12. 12. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP CONT.… University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin) identified three leadership styles: I. Autocratic style: centralized authority, low participation II.Democratic style: involvement, high participation, feedback III.Laissez faire style: hands-off management-give complete freedom to the followers. E.g. for experts and trusting staffs Research findings: mixed results – No specific style was consistently better for producing better performance – Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader
  13. 13. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP CONT.… Managerial Grid – Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions: – Concern for people – Concern for production – Places managerial styles in five categories: – Impoverished management – Task management – Middle-of-the-road management – Country club management – Team management
  15. 15. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP CONT.… 4. Contingency Theories Of Leadership Basic Assumptions – leader effectiveness depends on the situation –certain leadership style are effective in different types of situations. –Matching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favorable to the leader is required.
  16. 16. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP CONT.… Contingency Theories Of Leadership Fiedler Model Proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between • the leader’s style of interacting with followers and • the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence. Assumptions: – A certain leadership style should be most effective in different types of situations. – Matching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favorable to the leader is required.
  17. 17. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP CONT.… 5. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Argues that successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style which is contingent/depend on the level of the followers’ acceptance and readiness. • Creates four specific leadership styles incorporating Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions: • Telling: high task-low relationship leadership • Selling: high task-high relationship leadership • Participating: low task-high relationship leadership • Delegating: low task-low relationship leadership
  18. 18. 12/9/2022 18
  19. 19. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP CONT.… Transformational A leadership style focused on effecting revolutionary change in organizations through a commitment to the organization's vision Why transformational leadership? • Build & facilitate leadership • Nurture employees • Respond to current problems
  20. 20. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP CONT.… DIMENSIONS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP (The four ‘I’s’) Idealized influence (charisma): - follower admiration & respect - risk sharing - consideration for follower needs - ethical & moral conduct (trust) • Inspirational motivation - meaning & challenge to work • Intellectual stimulation – creative problem solving • Individualized consideration - listening, praising
  21. 21. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP CONT.… Characteristics of Transformational Leaders • Set Visions • Communicate the Vision • Model the Vision • “walk the talk”-do what you say • “watch what I do, not what I say.” • Builds Commitment towards the vision • Empower and involve
  22. 22. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP CONT.… Transactional Leadership • It is founded on the belief that leaders & followers can raise each other to higher levels of motivation & morality by contributing to each other’s objectives. • It uses rewards, punishments, reciprocity ( relationship involving mutual exchange), • exchanges (economic, emotional, physical) & other; such "transactions" are the basis of leadership.
  23. 23. Transformational versus transactional leadership THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP CONT.…
  24. 24. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP CONT.… SUMMARY POINTS ‗ No single leader decision making authority style is correct all the time ‗ Managers / Leaders must adapt and change to fit to situation
  25. 25. MANAGEMENT After completing this lesson you will be able to : • Define management • Explain the theories of management • Explain the levels of management and their functions • Explain skills of managers • Explain roles of managers Management
  26. 26. MANAGEMENT • Management is the art of getting things done(reaching organizational goals ) through people. • It is the process of PLANNING, ORGANIZING, LEADING AND CONTROLLING the work of organization members and of using all available organizational resources to reach stated organizational goals. • It is the process of directing, coordinating and influencing the operation of an organization to obtain desired result and enhance total performance Management
  27. 27. Nursing Service Administration • both an art and a science • is the marshaling (arranging, organizing, coordinating, sort out, etc.) of resources, activities, people, clients, etc. to accomplish a purpose or goal (rendering of nursing service to clients.).
  28. 28. Reason For Learning Management and Leadership – The universality of management • Good management is needed in all organizations. – The reality of work • Employees either manage or are managed. – Rewards and challenges of being a manager • Management offers challenging, exciting and creative opportunities for meaningful and fulfilling work. • Successful managers receive significant monetary/finacial rewards for their efforts.
  29. 29. Theories Of Management Scientific management • Frederick Taylor argued that most jobs could be done more efficiently if they were analyzed thoroughly (Lee, 1980; Locke,1982). Human relationship management • Theory Y – Keep their moral high, Satisfied and motivated Employees • Theory X- Employee do not need to work hard • a manager needs to employ strict rules, constant supervision, and the threat of punishment
  30. 30. Levels of management • Provide strategic direction for the organization. Monitor the external environment • Supervise first-line managers. Link between top management and first- line managers. Translate strategy into action / operations. • Supervise individuals who are directly responsible for producing the organization’s service. 12/9/2022 30 Operational employees
  31. 31. Management Skills Technical Skills The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise Human Skills The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups Conceptual Skills The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations 12/9/2022 31
  32. 32. Managerial roles Henry Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles 12/9/2022 32 Interpersonal Roles Figurehead Leader Liaison/ rshp Informational Roles Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Decisional Roles Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Top managers spend their time as follows: 59 % on scheduled meetings 22 % at their desks 10 % on unscheduled meetings 6 % on telephone calls 3 % on inspecting facilities
  33. 33. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles 12/9/2022 33
  34. 34. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d) 12/9/2022 34
  35. 35. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d) 12/9/2022 35
  36. 36. Major management functions • Major management functions includes: Planning, Implementation, Evaluation Planning, Organizing, Staffing, -Leading(directing ,motivating, communicating), Decision making, Evaluation
  37. 37. After completing this lesson you will be able to: • Define human resource management • Explain components of human resource management • Explain each tools of performance appraisal • Explain common performance errors Human resource Management
  38. 38. Resource Management • Management is getting things done through people. Key assumptions • ‘Employees are the most important asset of the organization’ – Success for most organizations depends on : • the quality of the people that are employed
  39. 39. Human resource management • HSM : The strategies, tactics, plans, and programs that healthcare organizations utilize to accomplish the work of the organization through its employees. • The process of: – attracting, – developing and – maintaining a talented and energetic workforce to support organisational mission, objectives and strategies.
  40. 40. 2-COMPONENTS OF HRM Human resource management Acquiring Human resource planning Recruitment Selection Orientation Retention Performance appraisal Training and development Benefit and compensation Safety and health Promotion, transfer, separation 2-Components of hrm
  41. 41. RECRUITMENT • Searching for and attracting prospective employees from – within the organization or – outside the organization. • Selection is choosing the most suitable person among the applicants
  42. 42. SELECTION INSTRUMENT • Degree to which selection techniques used accurately match people’s qualifications to job requirements • Validity • Reliability – Fewer than 25% • Potential outcomes of a weak selection instrument: – Poor matching of people to jobs – Lack of knowledge of success in matching people to jobs – Lack of information of how to improve matching process – Lack of evidence to support legal challenges
  43. 43. ORIENTATION/INDUCTION • Is the process of: – receiving and welcoming an employee when he/she joins an organization and – giving in the basic information he/she needs to settle down quickly and happily and start work
  44. 44. Orientation programmers • General information about: – the organization : history, purpose, operation, services – expected contribution of the employee to the organization and providing of job description – Detailed information about the polices and rules of the organization – Orientation to staff and mangers – Safety measures
  45. 45. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL • Performance Appraisal is a systemic review of an individual employee's performance on the job, which is used to evaluate the effectiveness of his/her work Performance Appraisal Purpose • Provide information to decisions regarding – salary raises, promotions, transfers, or discharges • assist employees in their personal development • assess the effectiveness of hiring practices • identify training and development needs of the employees • establishment of standards of job performance
  46. 46. TOOLS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL  Rating scales (each from poor to excellent)  The checklist (traits of employees in the form of YES/NO)  Multisource (360°) Appraisal (systematic collection of performance data on an individual or group, derived from number of stake holders like supervisors, team members, customers, peers and self)  Management by objective (Performance rated against the achievement of the objectives stated)
  47. 47. Common problems in performance appraisal • Leniency Errors (positive impression) • Halo errors ( Bias in both direction) • Central tendency errors (rate all or most employees as average)
  48. 48. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT • Training and Development is the formal procedure which an organization utilizes to facilitate learning so that the resultant behavior contributes to the attainment of organization's goals and objectives
  49. 49. TYPES OF TRAINING • On the job training • Off-the-job training 12/9/2022 49
  50. 50. ASSESSING TRAINING NEEDS 1.Organizational analysis 2. Operational analysis 3. Personnel analysis 12/9/2022 50
  51. 51. COMPENSATION AND BENEFIT ADMINISTRATION • Compensation: wage and fringe benefits • Benefit – Health insurance, housing , transportation, pension/retirement income, vacation, sick leave, maternity leave… • Equity – Internal – External 12/9/2022 51
  52. 52. PROMOTIONS, TRANSFERS, & SEPARATION • Promotion to shift to other positions with change in status or pay. • Transfers refers to shift to other positions without change in status or pay. • Separation : is departing a staff : – with poor performance – retirement, death, release… • Discipline: is a form of training that enforces organizational rules 12/9/2022 52
  53. 53. After completing this lesson you will be able to : • Define budgeting • Explain each types of budgeting • Explain each approaches of budgeting Budgeting
  54. 54. BUDGETING • Is a plan for the allocation of resources and a control for ensuring that results comply with the plans • Prerequisite for budgeting – Sound organizational structure – Goals and objectives – Formal budgeting policies and procedures 12/9/2022 54
  55. 55. THE BUDGETING PROCESS The budgeting process should provide for: – Plans of anticipated activity – A mechanism for measurement of work effort on timely basis – Accountability by someone for variances from budget – An awareness of costs by all participants in the budgeting program 12/9/2022 55
  56. 56. MAJOR TYPES OF BUDGETS • Operating/recurrent- – estimates of operating expenses, estimates of operating revenues and estimates of activity – Example: personnel salaries, supplies, light water, drugs, repairs and maintenance • Plant/Capital- – estimates of expenditure for adding, replacing or improving buildings or equipment for the budget period – Example: buildings, major equipment 12/9/2022 56
  57. 57. APPROACHES TO BUDGETING • There are different ways in which budget-setting can be approached The two main approaches to budgeting are incremental and zero- based. • Activity-based or flexible budgeting allows budget-holders to adjust their budgets to reflect changes from the planned level of activity 12/9/2022 57
  58. 58. ZERO-BASED BUDGETING • Many budgeting procedures allocate funds to departments based on their previous year’s expenditures. • managers decide how the funds will be used. • Allows for : – enrichment and – enlargement of programs – but seldom for decreases or deletion of programs.. 12/9/2022 58
  59. 59. INCREMENTAL BUDGETING – incremental budgeting is the most commonly used approach to budgeting in both public and private sectors – it involves taking the previous year’s budget as the starting point and – concentrating on adjusting the figures to reflect the changes in planned activity levels and in costs and prices between the two years – this involves taking into account any change in planned activity as well as the level of inflation and projected pay rises 12/9/2022 59
  60. 60. After this lesson you will be able to : • Define time management • Explain principles of time management • Explain time wasting stations • Explain how to handle time wasters • Explain forms of time plan Time management
  61. 61. TIME MANAGEMENT 12/9/2022 61
  62. 62. W H AT I S T I M E M A N A G E M E N T ? I S A T E C H N I Q U E F O R A L L O C AT I O N O F O N E ’ S T I M E T H R O U G H : S E T T I N G G O A L S assigning priorities identifying and eliminating time wasters, and use of managerial techniques to reach goals efficiently 12/9/2022 62
  63. 63. Principles of time management 1. List goals and set priorities 2. Make a daily “to do” list 3. Start with the most important to do list 4. Handle each piece of paper only once 5. Do it now! 6. Setting priorities by placing elements of importance and urgency. 12/9/2022 63
  64. 64. TIME WASTERS Something that prevents a person from accomplishing the job or achieving goals . Unclear objectives Disorganization inability to say no Interruptions, Periods of inactivity Too many things at once etc . 12/9/2022 64
  65. 65. TIME WASTERS • people waste about 2 hours per day. Signs of time wasting: – Messy desk and cluttered (or no) files(disorganized) – Can’t find things – Miss appointments, need to reschedule them late and/or unprepared for meetings – Volunteer to do things other people should do – Tired/unable to concentrate 12/9/2022 65
  66. 66. Planning time arrangements  Events are arranged in daily, weekly, monthly or yearly time periods.  The periodicity depends on the frequency or regularity of particular events. Forms of Time plans:  Timetable: daily or weekly regularly recurring events.  Schedule: intermittent or irregular or variable events, and where they take place.  Roster: duties planned for different staff members, for different times in turn. 12/9/2022 66
  67. 67. After completing this lesson you will be able to ; • Define group and team • Explain types of group and team • Explain reason for studying groups and teams • Explain characteristics of effective team • Explain stages of group developments and leadership style at each stage Group dynamics and team work
  68. 68. Overview of Groups and Group Dynamics A group is two or more people who interact with one another such that each person influences and is influenced by each other person. • The Importance of Studying Groups – studying the behavior of people in group settings helps to understand organizational behavior. – Managers can manage conflicts better when they understand why groups form Types of group Formal and Informal 12/9/2022 68 Group dynamics and team work Time management
  69. 69. TUCK MAN’S FIVE-STAGE THEORY OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT 12/9/2022 69 Individual Issues Forming Storming Norming Performing “How do I fit in?” “What’s my role here?” “What do the others expect me to do?” “How can I best perform my role?” Group Issues “Why are we here?” “Why are we fighting over who’s in charge and who does what?” “Can we agree on roles and work as a team?” “Can we do the job properly?”
  70. 70. INDIVIDUAL VERSUS GROUP DECISION MAKING • Speed • Clear Accountability • Consistent Values • Knowledge & Diversity • High Quality Decisions • Increased Acceptance 12/9/2022 70 Individuals Groups
  71. 71. TEAM WORK A team is defined as : • two or more people who interact and influence each other toward a common purpose • Multiple individuals with specific skills and roles, coordinating their activities towards a mutually understood and agreed upon aim Teamwork: is a set of interrelated behaviors, cognitions, and attitudes that combine to facilitate coordinated, adaptive performance.” • Knowledge: what we think • Behaviors/Skills: what we do • Attitudes: how we feel 12/9/2022 71
  72. 72. TEAM WORK • “Individual commitment to a group effort --that is what makes a team work, an organization work, a society work, a civilization work.” 12/9/2022 72
  73. 73. TEAM WORK Types of teams 1. Formal Team: is a team deliberately created by managers to carry out specific activities, which help the organization to achieve its objectives. 2. Informal team: emerge whenever people come together and interact regularly. 12/9/2022 73
  74. 74. WHY HAVE TEAMS? • Society & technology are complex • Require interdisciplinary knowledge • Advantages in diversity • One vision, many hands • Shared responsibility • Timing is essential 12/9/2022 74
  75. 75. CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE TEAM • Communication • Trust • Shared decision-making • Positive reinforcement • Cooperation • Flexibility • Focus on common goals • Synergy 12/9/2022 75
  76. 76. 12/9/2022 76 TEAM DEVELOPMENT MODEL
  77. 77. LEADERSHIP MODEL Stages of team Development Leadership Forming Telling Guidance and direction Storming Selling, coaching Norming Participating: facilitates, enables 12/9/2022 77
  78. 78. Task Variables and Group Composition A homogenous group is more useful for A heterogeneous group is more useful for Simple tasks Complex tasks Sequential tasks Collective tasks Tasks that require cooperation Tasks that require creativity Tasks that must be done quickly Tasks that need not be done quickly 12/9/2022 78
  79. 79. MANAGING GROUP DYNAMICS • Managing groups requires: –Knowing what types of groups exist in the organization. –Possibly “formalizing” some informal groups. –Breaking up groups to realign the organization and goals. 12/9/2022 79
  80. 80. MANAGING GROUP DYNAMICS – Nurturing groups through the developmental stages. – Encouraging the development of group norms and roles. – Developing a reward structure that fosters individual efforts to achieve group goals. – Assuming a linking role to coordinate the activities of groups. 12/9/2022 80