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  • 1. History’s Beginnings
  • 2. Earliest Human Societies
  • 3. Early Human Migration to 10,000 years ago  et_chapter_group.htm?cin=1&ci=1&rg=map_center&at =animated_maps&var=animated_maps
  • 4. Studying History and Early Humans  Why do people study history and try to learn more about the past?  To find out about ancestors and more about themselves  age_build.htm?id=resources/jsp/starting_with_a_stor y/starting_with_a_story_ch1
  • 5. Why Study History  What has happened to a person, a family, or society in the past may affect what will occur in the future  More than recounting and studying past events  Involves: studying society’s culture, religion, politics, and economics  Historians try to find patterns and see past through eyes of people who lived it
  • 6. Primary and Secondary Sources  Evidence used to answer Historians questions  Primary Source: something written or created by a person who witnessed a historical event  Military records, marriage certificates, diaries, and private letters  Artifacts: buildings, works of art, tools  Oral History: made up of verbal or unwritten accounts of events  includes stories, customs, and songs
  • 7.  Secondary Source: a work produces about a historical event by someone who was not actually there  Newspapers, books, and paintings  Oral History
  • 8. Why History Changes  Historians might use different evidence  Steps:  Evidence is examined and trustworthy evidence is sorted.  Evidence is interpreted: articles, books, and museum displays  Interpretations can be conflicting  Discovery of new evidence may lead to new conclusions
  • 9. Early Humans Were Hunter- Gatherers  Hunted animals and gathered plants for food  Moved to new locations when food ran out
  • 10. Adapting to the Environment  Depended on Environment for shelter  Lived in caves, rock shelters, made shelters out of tree branches, plant fibers or skins of animals  Lived together in bands  Made up of several families (30 people)  Men: hunted and fished  Women: gathered foods and cared for children
  • 11. Early Humans on the Move  Hunter-gatherers were nomads: people who move from place to place  Movement limited; returned to same places with changing seasons  Some moved to new lands  Migration: the act of moving from one place to settle in another  Migration  People followed animals to hunt  13,000 B.C. had migrated to much of world  Traveled across a land bridge connecting Siberia and Alaska
  • 12. Developing Tools and Culture  Technology: ways in which people apply knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet their needs.  The Development of Technology  2 million years ago Stone tools for cutting  Carrying bags, stone hand axes, awls, drills, bows, flint spearheads, metal tools  Tools used for: building shelter, hunting and butchering animals  The Use of Fire  500,000 years ago: learned to make fire  Provided heat and light (could cook food)  Used to temper tools made of metal
  • 13. Early Human Culture  Art, language, and religion are unique to humans  Language: develop out of need to communicate  Religion: the worship of God, gods, or spirits  Early Humans: everything in nature had a spirit  Early Art: created in caves or on rocks
  • 14. The Beginnings of Agriculture  8,000 B.C.  Learned to grow plants and raise animals  Climate Changes  Rising temps caused glaciers to melt  Humans could move into new areas  Growing seasons became longer  Domesticated : (humans learned to grown and breed the grasses ) wild grasses
  • 15. The Domestication of Animals  Learned to capture and tame animals  Captured animals provided constant source of food  9,000 B.C.  1st animals domesticated  Reliable food source, clothing, and other products  Made tools from bones  Horses, llamas, and camels used for transportation  Dogs domesticated to help in hunts
  • 16. The Agricultural Revolution  Development of farming  Agriculture: planting of seeds to raise crops  Ag. Revolution  Shift from food gathering to food raising  Began around 8,000 B.C.  Brought changes in tools and technology  People made hoes, plows and sickles  More food available allowed for increases in population and better opportunities to settle in one place