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PRE-HISTORY (time before writing or this class:)<br />
Scientists who search for human origins<br />Archeologists excavate early settlements & study evidence (artifacts, bones)<...
Artifacts - human made objects such as tools & jewelry (can tell us how people dressed, worked or worshipped)<br />Culture...
LUCY(complete skull of an female adult hominid who lived 3.5 mil yrs ago)  found by David Johanson in Ethiopia in 1974<br />
1978 near Laetoli Tanzania, Mary Leakey found <br />  prehistoric<br />  footprints <br />  made 3.6 mil <br />  years ago...
Prints left by australopithecines (human like beings)  aka:<br />Hominids, a group that includes  humans & other species t...
Paleolithic or Old Stone Age (2.5 mil to 8000 BC) had:<br />   a. invention of tools<br />   b. Dev of <br />       langua...
Neolithic Age or New Stone Age(8000 to 3000 BC)<br />a. People learned to make<br /> polished stone <br /> tools <br />b. ...
Homo hablis: 2.5 mil years<br />   a. found in Olduvai gorge,<br />      made crude tools<br />
Homo erectus: 1.6 mil yrs <br />   a. Dev technology, <br />       migrated from Africa to<br />       Asia, Eur & India<b...
Homo-sapiens have larger brains & include:<br />Neanderthals: 200,000-30,000 years ago<br />Dev ritual burials, religious ...
Homo sapiens alsoinclude:<br /> Cro-Magnons-<br />40,000 years <br />   ago<br />5.5 feet tall<br />Planned <br />   hunts...
Advances in Technology and Art<br />
Early people were Nomads (highly mobile, moved to search for food)<br />Develop technology: ways<br />                    ...
Used bone, wood, & stone to create tools (knives, hooks,                    needles, harpoons)<br />And for weapons: spear...
Necklaces of claws, polished bone<br />Sculptures<br />Cave paintings using paint from charcoal, mud  & blood<br />
Beginning of Agriculture: Neolithic Revolution caused by:<br /> rising temps led to longer growing season<br />Pop rose, s...
Domestication (taming) of animals such as pgs, horses, dogs goats (driven in to be slaughtered, later raised)<br />Farming...
Civilization develops!!<br />
Stable communities dev based on agriculture<br />food surpluses (thanks to irrigation, tools) allow other skills to develo...
What is a Civilization? <br />It is an advanced society that is highly organized .<br />Don’t write: Civilizations are cha...
5 Characteristics  1. Advanced Cities/Settlements<br />Not just size of pop<br />City is center of trade for large area<br...
5 Characteristics 2. Specialized Workers<br />Specialization: dev of skills in a specific kind of work<br />surplus of foo...
5 Characteristics     <br />.3.  Complex Institutions (govt/Religion)<br />Institution: long lasting pattern of organizati...
4. Record Keeping<br />As govt, econ & religion get more complex,  people needed way to keep records. (taxes, laws, ritual...
5. Improved Technology<br />New tools & techniques needed to solve problems   Ex: plows, pottery wheels<br />Change from s...
Social classes (w/ wealth, power, influence) emerge as special groups of workers form<br />Religion more organized w/ gods...
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Civilizations & pre history

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Civilizations & pre history

  1. 1. PRE-HISTORY (time before writing or this class:)<br />
  2. 2. Scientists who search for human origins<br />Archeologists excavate early settlements & study evidence (artifacts, bones)<br />Anthropologist <br /> study culture<br /> thru artifacts<br />Paleontologists<br /> study fossils<br />
  3. 3. Artifacts - human made objects such as tools & jewelry (can tell us how people dressed, worked or worshipped)<br />Culture-people’s unique way of life<br />
  4. 4. LUCY(complete skull of an female adult hominid who lived 3.5 mil yrs ago) found by David Johanson in Ethiopia in 1974<br />
  5. 5. 1978 near Laetoli Tanzania, Mary Leakey found <br /> prehistoric<br /> footprints <br /> made 3.6 mil <br /> years ago<br />
  6. 6. Prints left by australopithecines (human like beings) aka:<br />Hominids, a group that includes humans & other species that walk upright<br />dev opposable<br /> thumbs (crucial to<br /> make tools, hold <br /> objects) <br />
  7. 7. Paleolithic or Old Stone Age (2.5 mil to 8000 BC) had:<br /> a. invention of tools<br /> b. Dev of <br /> language<br /> c. Mastery <br /> of fire<br />*AKA the Ice Age<br /> as glaciers advanced & retreated <br />
  8. 8. Neolithic Age or New Stone Age(8000 to 3000 BC)<br />a. People learned to make<br /> polished stone <br /> tools <br />b. make pottery, <br />c. grow crops <br />d. raise animals<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Homo hablis: 2.5 mil years<br /> a. found in Olduvai gorge,<br /> made crude tools<br />
  11. 11. Homo erectus: 1.6 mil yrs <br /> a. Dev technology, <br /> migrated from Africa to<br /> Asia, Eur & India<br /> b. 1st to use <br /> fire, <br /> beginning<br /> of spoken<br /> language <br />
  12. 12. Homo-sapiens have larger brains & include:<br />Neanderthals: 200,000-30,000 years ago<br />Dev ritual burials, religious beliefs, built shelters, made tools<br />
  13. 13. Homo sapiens alsoinclude:<br /> Cro-Magnons-<br />40,000 years <br /> ago<br />5.5 feet tall<br />Planned <br /> hunts<br />Spoken <br /> language<br />
  14. 14. Advances in Technology and Art<br />
  15. 15. Early people were Nomads (highly mobile, moved to search for food)<br />Develop technology: ways<br /> of applying<br /> knowledge, <br /> tools & <br /> inventions to<br /> meet needs<br />
  16. 16. Used bone, wood, & stone to create tools (knives, hooks, needles, harpoons)<br />And for weapons: spears, axe<br />
  17. 17. Necklaces of claws, polished bone<br />Sculptures<br />Cave paintings using paint from charcoal, mud & blood<br />
  18. 18. Beginning of Agriculture: Neolithic Revolution caused by:<br /> rising temps led to longer growing season<br />Pop rose, so need new sources of food<br />Slash and burn farming<br />
  19. 19. Domestication (taming) of animals such as pgs, horses, dogs goats (driven in to be slaughtered, later raised)<br />Farming dev independently all over world : Africa in Nile Valley, China in Huang He, Mexico, Peru in Andes<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Civilization develops!!<br />
  22. 22. Stable communities dev based on agriculture<br />food surpluses (thanks to irrigation, tools) allow other skills to develop<br />Trade dev w/ new products created (wheel and sail allow goods to move over long distances)<br />
  23. 23. What is a Civilization? <br />It is an advanced society that is highly organized .<br />Don’t write: Civilizations are characterized by: <br /> 1. permanent settlements, <br /> 2. trade, labor, workers <br /> 3. government, laws, religion &<br /> social hierarchy<br /> 4. written language,<br /> 5. achievement in technology, <br /> art & architecture.<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. 5 Characteristics 1. Advanced Cities/Settlements<br />Not just size of pop<br />City is center of trade for large area<br />Market for<br /> goods<br />
  26. 26. 5 Characteristics 2. Specialized Workers<br />Specialization: dev of skills in a specific kind of work<br />surplus of food allowed people to become experts in other areas.<br />Artisans: skilled <br /> workers who make goods by hand<br />
  27. 27. 5 Characteristics <br />.3. Complex Institutions (govt/Religion)<br />Institution: long lasting pattern of organization in a community<br />Examples include govt, religion & economy<br />Need to maintain order & est laws<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. 4. Record Keeping<br />As govt, econ & religion get more complex, people needed way to keep records. (taxes, laws, rituals etc)<br />Most develop <br /> system of writing<br />Later write about<br /> dramatic events<br />
  30. 30. 5. Improved Technology<br />New tools & techniques needed to solve problems Ex: plows, pottery wheels<br />Change from stone & copper to bronze<br />Art & <br /> architecture <br /> develop<br />
  31. 31. Social classes (w/ wealth, power, influence) emerge as special groups of workers form<br />Religion more organized w/ gods/goddesses who they believed had power over nature<br />Rituals & traditions develop<br />

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