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World History Chapter 1, Sections 1-2


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World History Chapter 1, Sections 1-2

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Sections 1 and 2
  2. 2. What is prehistory? History : recorded information about beliefs, activities, and important events Prehistory : the whole time period on earth before people recorded events in writing
  3. 3. <ul><li>What can we learn about a society if we uncover these items? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Human Origins <ul><li>How do we discover info about people who lived before the invention of writing? (p.4) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artifacts : human-made objects, such as tools and jewelry </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From these they re-create early people’s culture , or way of life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fossils </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. “ In 1976, members of a team led by Mary Leakey discovered the fossilized footprints of human ancestors in Laetoli, Africa. The footprints were formed 3.5 million years ago when at least two individuals walked over wet volcanic ash. The wet ash hardened like cement and was then covered by more ash.”
  6. 6. <ul><li>Hominids : humans and other creatures that walk upright </li></ul><ul><li>“Lucy” </li></ul><ul><li>Pgs. 8-9 </li></ul>Human Origins
  7. 7. The Old and New Stone Ages <ul><li>Paleolithic Age : 2.5 million to 8000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where archaeologists find the oldest stone tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also during the last Ice Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australopithecines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homo habilis, Homo erectus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homo erectus, or “upright man” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First to develop technology : ways of applying knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet their needs (including fire and language) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The first to migrate from Africa (p.3) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Neolithic Age : 8,000 to 3,000 B.C. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Neanderthals </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens , “wise men” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cro-Magnon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appear identical to modern humans, though about 5 feet, 1 inch tall </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>The Old and New Stone Ages
  9. 9. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>artifact </li></ul><ul><li>culture </li></ul><ul><li>hominid </li></ul><ul><li>Paleolithic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic Age </li></ul><ul><li>technology </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens </li></ul>Section 1 Cave paintings pages 12-13
  11. 11. Section 1 <ul><li>Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>1. Why was the discovery of fire so important? </li></ul>2. Why will specific details about the physical appearance and customs of early peoples never fully be known? 3. Which skill—toolmaking, the use of fire, or language– do you think gave hominids the most control over their environment?
  12. 12. Section 2 <ul><li>“ Humans Try to Control Nature” </li></ul><ul><li>Page 15 </li></ul><ul><li>How did the “Ice Man’s” belongings show an attempt to control his environment? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Humans Try to Control Nature <ul><li>Did more than just survive </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“I’m dying to be alive, not trying to just survive” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tools for Survival </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nomads : highly mobile people who moved in search of food; usually groups of 25 to 70 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hunter-gatherers : nomadic groups who depend on hunting animals and collect plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early modern humans created more than 100 different tools that made surviving easier </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Artistic Expression </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Necklaces, sculptures, cave paintings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Neolithic Revolution : agricultural revolution, the changes in human life resulting from the beginnings of farming </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change from nomadic food-gathering to settled food-producers </li></ul></ul></ul>Humans Try to Control Nature
  15. 15. Humans Try to Control Nature <ul><li>Rising temps and climate change worldwide provided longer growing seasons to support population growth </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike hunting, provides a steady source of food </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Slash and burn farming : </li></ul><ul><li>- cut trees/grasses and burn to clear a field </li></ul><ul><li>- the ashes then fertilize the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Domestication : taming of animals either for slaughter or for work </li></ul>Humans Try to Control Nature
  17. 17. <ul><li>Where did the first farming begin? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraq! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China (pg 17) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once it began, however, the change took place in many places over the same period of time </li></ul>Humans Try to Control Nature
  18. 18. <ul><li>Now humans lived in groups of the thousands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catal Huyuk, modern-day Turkey (8,000 yrs ago) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5,000-6,000 people living in houses </li></ul></ul></ul>Humans Try to Control Nature
  19. 19. <ul><li>Benefits of living the new way </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large crop production possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled workers can develop (pottery, weavers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks of living the new way </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural disasters could wipe out a settlement (floods, fire, drought, etc) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diseases can spread easily when living so close </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jealous neighbors or roving nomads can attack a wealthy village </li></ul></ul></ul>Humans Try to Control Nature
  20. 20. Section 2 <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>- Nomads </li></ul><ul><li>-Hunter-gatherers </li></ul><ul><li>-Neolithic Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>-Slash and burn farming </li></ul><ul><li>-Domestication </li></ul>
  21. 21. Section 2 <ul><li>Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>1. What kinds of tools would have made survival easier for Cro-Magnon? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Why do you think the development of agriculture occurred around the same time in several different places? </li></ul>