Paleolithic Age


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Paleolithic Age

  1. 1. Do Now: If History is the study of the past… then what is Pre-History? “ It is now clear that long before the invention of writing , human beings made a place for their species in the natural world and laid the social, economic, and cultural foundations on which their successors built increasingly complex societies.” Bentley p.8
  2. 2. Do Now: On your handout, in the space provided, make a list of images that come to mind when you hear the word “Stone Age.” Aim: How did humans live during the Paleolithic Age?
  3. 3. The Origin of Humans
  4. 4. Theories on prehistory and early man constantly change as new evidence comes to light. - Louis Leakey, British archaeologist The First Humans
  5. 5. Cornell Notes
  6. 6. Australopithecus Hominids --> any member of the family of two-legged primates that includes all humans. 4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE
  7. 7. &quot;Lucy&quot; 3.5 Million Years old <ul><li>40% of her bones were found – most complete and best preserved skeleton on any early ancestor. </li></ul><ul><li>Small brain: size of a grapefruit </li></ul><ul><li>Short, hairy, limited in intelligence but walked upright, had opposable thumbs, and communicated verbally </li></ul>
  8. 8. Homo Erectus “ Upright Walking Human Being” <ul><li>Larger Brain: Larger and more varied tools. primitive technology, better communication, organized hunts. </li></ul><ul><li>First hominid to migrate and leave Africa for Europe and Asia. Traveled for stone for tools </li></ul><ul><li>By 200,000 years ago, they were established in temperate areas </li></ul><ul><li>First to use and control fire ( 500,000 BCE ) </li></ul>BIPEDALISM 2,500,000 BCE – 200,000 BCE
  9. 9. Homo Sapiens 200,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE “ Consciously thinking human” <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large brain with well developed areas for </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> conscious and reflective thought-highly </li></ul><ul><li> intelligent </li></ul><ul><li>Could live in areas beyond the temperate zones because intelligence allowed them to make clothes and shelters to protect them from the cold. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed more advanced tools than predecessors (knives, spears, bows, arrows); made shelters of wood, bones, and animal skins </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Land bridge exposed by an ice age allowed them to travel to SE Asia, Australia, and the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>With larger populations, large mammals became extinct due to hunting and changes in Earth’s environment </li></ul>Land Bridge Wooly Mammoth
  11. 11. Castaway <ul><li>Scene One: </li></ul><ul><li>How does Tom Hanks’ Character finally succeed? What skills did he need to acquire? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe his reaction? Why was it so important to him? </li></ul><ul><li>Scene Two: </li></ul><ul><li>How has he adapted to his environment? What skills has he developed? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did it take him so long to take this action? </li></ul>Yeah, Cavemen weren’t so simple after all!
  12. 12. Humans evolved over a long period time and developed more advanced brains, which allowed them to spread out in the world and adapt their environments to suit their needs. Summary 4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE 2,500,000 BCE – 200,000 BCE 200,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE Australopithecus Homo Erectus Homo Sapiens
  13. 13. Spread of Human Populations
  14. 14. The Paleolithic Age “ Paleolithic” --> “ Old Stone ” Age Hunting (men) & gathering (women) --> small bands of 20-30 humans NOMADIC (moving from place to place) 2,500,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE
  15. 15. Economy and Society <ul><li>Hunting and gathering: no private property or social distinctions based on wealth due to mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Possessed some small items carried during migrations </li></ul><ul><li>Social distinctions based on age, strength, courage, intelligence, personality </li></ul><ul><li>Gender equality because both contributed to survival </li></ul>What role did men and women play in a Hunter-Gatherer society?
  16. 16. Economy and Society <ul><li>Small bands with agreements with neighboring bands on territories, marriage partners </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic hunting using special tools, tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent settlements were established in areas with abundant food resources (grains, fish) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Neander Valley, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>First fully modern human beings-physically and mentally </li></ul><ul><li>First humans to bury their dead. Burial sites with rituals (Shanidar-covered bodies with flowers) </li></ul><ul><li>Sites where items left with bodies may indicate belief in afterlife </li></ul>Neanderthal Man
  18. 18. <ul><li>Made clothes from animal skins. </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in caves and tents. </li></ul>Neanderthal Man Early Hut/Tent
  19. 19. Neanderthal Man
  20. 20. Cro-Magnon Man <ul><li>Homo sapiens sapiens (“Wise, wise human” ) </li></ul><ul><li>First Human beings of the fully modern type – Direct descendant of modern day humans </li></ul><ul><li>By 30,000 BCE they replaced Neanderthals. </li></ul>WHY???
  21. 21. <ul><li>Humans during this period found shelter in caves. </li></ul><ul><li>Cave paintings were left behind </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in fashion and art </li></ul>Cro-Magnon Man
  22. 22. <ul><li>Depictions of animals and humans; possibly to gain control over animals they were hunting by capturing their spirits </li></ul><ul><li>Made paints and brushes from natural materials – shows higher order thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Small sculpture of women with exaggerated sexual features, showing interest in fertility </li></ul>Venus Figurines
  23. 23. Paleolithic Cave Art
  24. 24. What do these paintings tell us about Paleolithic Culture? Cave Paintings
  25. 25. Stone Age Tool Kit
  26. 26. Religion fire/animals were sacred Buried their dead with personal possessions Paleolithic Age “ Old Stone Age” 2.5 million years ago – 8000B.C Society Nomadic – find food Traveled with clan 20-30ppl Lived in caves Food Hunter-Gatherers No Farming Technology Used stone tools for hunting and war Harnessed fire
  27. 27. Paleolithic peoples lived in small nomadic bands with few class distinctions, and had an interest in art and simple spiritual beliefs. Summary Homo Sapiens Neanderthals ( 200,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE ) Cro-Magnons ( 40,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE ) Homo Sapien Sapien (40,000 BCE-Present )
  28. 28. Homo sapiens sapiens in Europe
  29. 29. The Last Ice Age 70,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE