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The stone age


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Published in: Education, Technology

The stone age

  1. 1. The Stone Age Objective: To understand what life was like for people during the Stone Age
  2. 2. The Dawn of Modern Humans
  3. 3.  Scientists believe that Humans, the species Homo sapiens, emerged between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago in Africa.
  4. 4. The first humans had faced a struggle for survival. For thousands and thousands of years, they had two concerns: finding food and protecting themselves.
  5. 5.  The people who had lived in the early part of the Old Stone Age were nomads. Nomads are people who wander from place to place, instead of settling down.
  6. 6.  Groups like this whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods were called hunter-gatherers. They found food by hunting and gathering nuts, berries, and roots.
  7. 7.  They adapted to their environments by making simple tools.
  8. 8.  The early ages of humankind are based on the kind of tools used: first stone, then copper and bronze, and then iron.
  9. 9.  The term Paleolithic Age (pay-lee-oh-lith-ik) means Old Stone Age, referring to the crude stone tools of the time.
  10. 10.  These early modern humans used many tools - more than 100 different ones. They used stone, bone, and wood. They made knives, hooks, and bone needles.
  11. 11.  These tools were an important part of their survival. They helped with hunting.
  12. 12.  Scientists think that these people worked with one another in planning large-scale hunts of animals.
  13. 13.  Hunting was aided by improved communication skills.
  14. 14. 10,000 BC
  15. 15.  Humans learned to use tools to make fire.
  16. 16.  They made clothes from animal skins.
  17. 17. These advancements along with shelter would help them survive in a wide variety of environments.
  18. 18. Much of the Old Stone Age overlapped the Ice Age, when the earth was colder than it is now. Huge sheets of ice (glaciers covered much of the land.
  19. 19.  Scientists believe the first homo sapiens came from Africa.
  20. 20.  From Africa, they believe that they migrated to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas.
  21. 21.  Another group of early humans, the Neanderthals, lived around 200,000 to 30,000 B.C. They lived in caves or built shelters of wood or animal skins.
  22. 22. They were once thought to be rough and wild people.
  23. 23.  Now scientists think that they may have held religious beliefs.  One site suggests that they buried their dead.
  24. 24.  Artifacts found near their grave sites show that they also had music.
  25. 25. These people found ways to survive the freezing cold of the Ice Age.
  26. 26.  About 30,000 years ago, though, the Neanderthals strangely disappeared.
  27. 27.  DNA evidence suggests that they were not an ancestor of modern humans.
  28. 28. They may have also had more skill at speaking than did the Neanderthals. Because they had these skills, the Cro-Magnons were better at finding food. That may explain why Cro- Magnons survived and Neanderthals did not.
  29. 29.  Early man also created works of art (known as pictographs), including painting. Thousands of years ago, artists mixed charcoal, mud, and animal blood to make paint.
  30. 30.  They used this paint to draw pictures of animals on cave walls and rocks.
  31. 31. History of the World
  32. 32. The Neolithic Revolution
  33. 33.  For centuries, humans lived by hunting and gathering. Humans lived in small groups of only 20 or 30 people. They often returned to a certain area in the same season each year because they knew it would be rich in food at that time.
  34. 34.  Over the years, some humans realized that they could leave plant seeds in an area one year and find plants growing there the next year. This was the beginning of a new part of human life: farming.
  35. 35.  Scientists think that the climate became warmer all around the world at about the same time. Humans' new knowledge about planting seeds combined with this warmer climate to create the Neolithic Revolution — the agricultural revolution that occurred during the Neolithic period.
  36. 36.  The Neolithic Age, or New Stone Age, went from about 8000 B.C. to around 3000 B.C.
  37. 37. Instead of relying on gathering food, people began to produce food. One early farming method was slash-and-burn farming. That meant cutting trees and burning them to clear a field. The ashes were used to fertilize the soil.
  38. 38.  Along with growing food, they also began to raise animals. They tamed horses, dogs, goats, and pigs. Domestication is the taming of animals and plants.
  39. 39. • domesticated animals
  40. 40.  Societies during the Neolithic Era (New Stone Age) developed agriculture (domesticated plants)
  41. 41. • made pottery
  42. 42. Archaeologists have studied a site in the Zagros Mountains of northeastern Iraq. It is called Jarmo. The people who lived in this region began farming and raising animals about 7000 B.C.
  43. 43. Villages Grow and Prosper
  44. 44.  People began to farm in many spots all over the world. The study of one village, Catal Huyuk, in modern- day Turkey shows what early farming communities were like.
  45. 45.  The village grew on the good land near a river. Some workers grew wheat, barley, and peas.
  46. 46. Others raised sheep and cattle. Because these workers produced enough food for all the people, others could begin developing other kinds of skills.
  47. 47. Population = 6000 Some made pots out of clay that they baked—the first pottery.
  48. 48.  Others worked as weavers. Some artists decorated the village. Archaeologists have found wall paintings that show animals and hunting scenes.
  49. 49.  They have found evidence that the people had a religion, too.
  50. 50.  The people of Catal Huyuk used volcanic rock, called obsidian, to make mirrors, knives, and jewelry. They also began to trade these items.
  51. 51.  Early farming villagers had problems, too. If the farm crop failed or the lack of rain caused a drought, people starved. Floods and fires caused damage and death. With more people living near each other than before, diseases spread easily. Still, some of these early villages grew into great cities.
  52. 52.  Two other villages that developed during the Neolithic Era were Jericho (starting around 9000 BCE) and near Aleppo in Syria (starting around 5000 BCE).
  53. 53. When did the Agricultural Revolution begin? When was population growth the greatest? Use the Chart to answer the questions
  54. 54. Compare and Contrast the Paleolithic Age with the Neolithic Age