Section 1The First PeopleChapter 1 The Beginnings of CivilizationPrehistory to 1000 BC                                    ...
Anthropologists• Anthropologists  study culture and  artifacts                              Archaeologists                ...
• Key Discoveries  • Mary Leakey finds “Nutcracker Skull” in East Africa. 1.75    million years old.  • Donald Johanson fo...
• Modern Humans • Everyone today is a Homo sapien, means “wise man.” Had   larger brains than earlier species • Developed ...
• Early humans began to move because of the change in  climate.• 1.6 million years ago, earth cycled between cold and  war...
• Adaptation to new environments causes genetic variety• One view – two groups of modern humans  • Neanderthals (200,000-3...
• First humans lived in the Paleolithic Era, the early part of the Stone  Age – people made tools from stone (2.5 million ...
• Began to form societies of shared cultures, which  included language, art, and spiritual beliefs• Cro-Magnons and other ...
1.   What methods are used to study the distant past?2.   What does evidence suggest about human origins?3.   How did earl...
Section 2The Beginning ofAgricultureChapter 1 The Beginnings of CivilizationPrehistory to 1000 BC                         ...
• New tools that were polished and grinded instead of  chipped led to Neolithic Era – New Stone Age• 10,000 years ago, peo...
• Domesticated animals led to larger and more reliable food  supply  • Dogs among the first. Used for hunting and guarding...
• By 6000 BC, early farming led to growth of villages and  cities as more people settled together. Led to:  • Job speciali...
• New technologies  • Use of animals and new tools led to better farming and food    preparation techniques (like pottery ...
1. What new tools and technologies did early humans   develop during the New Stone Age?2. How did early agriculture develo...
Section 3Foundations ofCivilizationChapter 1 The Beginnings of CivilizationPrehistory to 1000 BC                          ...
• Development of irrigation led to farming more land and  producing surpluses of food to support large populations  and tr...
CHARACTERISTICS OF  CITIES• Larger and more populated  than villages• Diverse people• Formal organization (city  centers, ...
•    Civilizations formed from early     cities usually near fertile river     valleys. Examples:    • Ur and Uruk near Ti...
• Civilizations had:  1. Developed cities  2. Organized government (decision making and building     projects)  3. Formali...
• Environmental influences (floods,  droughts, storms, etc.) led to expansion  in trade to get scarce resources• Cultural ...
1. Why did some early villages develop into cities?2. What characterized the world’s first civilizations and   where did t...
• Which                     1.Developed cities  characteristics of                            2.Organized  civilizations d...
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Ch. 1 beginnings of civilizations

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Ch. 1 beginnings of civilizations

  1. 1. Section 1The First PeopleChapter 1 The Beginnings of CivilizationPrehistory to 1000 BC 1
  2. 2. Anthropologists• Anthropologists study culture and artifacts Archaeologists New findings are Excavate sites to Studies human constantly revising find objects that material remains our knowledge of will give them clues historyStudying the Distant Past 2
  3. 3. • Key Discoveries • Mary Leakey finds “Nutcracker Skull” in East Africa. 1.75 million years old. • Donald Johanson found partial skeleton called Lucy in Ethiopia. • ML finds footprints in Tanzania - oldest evidence of hominids walking upright. 3.5 million years old • 2001 skull resembling both Australopithicine and chimpanzee found in Central Africa. 6-7 million years old • Walking upright = free to use hands for handling toolsHuman Origins 3
  4. 4. • Modern Humans • Everyone today is a Homo sapien, means “wise man.” Had larger brains than earlier species • Developed sophisticated tools, shelter, and learned to use fire • May be the first with spoken language because of increased brain function • Cooperate • Hunt in groups • Resolve issues • Form stronger relationships and interact with othersHuman Origins 4
  5. 5. • Early humans began to move because of the change in climate.• 1.6 million years ago, earth cycled between cold and warm periods revealing new areas of land. (Ice Age)• Ability to walk upright and control fire enabled migration out of Africa into the other continents. By 9000 BC humans spread to all but AntarcticaSpreadingAround the World 5
  6. 6. • Adaptation to new environments causes genetic variety• One view – two groups of modern humans • Neanderthals (200,000-30,000 years ago). Died out. May not have been homo sapiens • Cro-Magnons (40,000 years ago). Sturdy and muscular, looked like humans today. Made tools, and had better hunting and survival skillsSpreadingAround the World 6
  7. 7. • First humans lived in the Paleolithic Era, the early part of the Stone Age – people made tools from stone (2.5 million to 10,000 years ago)• People were nomadic, hunted and gathered food, and men and women were equal• Later learned to work with wood and bone. Led to better tools which improved hunting• Other tools: • string from plant fiber = net for fish and small animals • Bow and arrow, bone hooks, fishing spears • Canoe for travel • Needle from bone = animal skin clothing, shoes, hats, carrying sacksLife in theStone Age 7
  8. 8. • Began to form societies of shared cultures, which included language, art, and spiritual beliefs• Cro-Magnons and other Stone Age people produced a variety of art from coal, clay, and iron• Scholars unsure about meaning of art. Anthropologists think they practiced animism, belief that all things in nature have spirits.Life in theStone Age 8
  9. 9. 1. What methods are used to study the distant past?2. What does evidence suggest about human origins?3. How did early people spread around the world?4. How did early people adapt to life in the Stone Age?READING CHECK! 9
  10. 10. Section 2The Beginning ofAgricultureChapter 1 The Beginnings of CivilizationPrehistory to 1000 BC 10
  11. 11. • New tools that were polished and grinded instead of chipped led to Neolithic Era – New Stone Age• 10,000 years ago, people learned to farm. Turning point because it changed the way people lived.• Plants – learned to grow the best seeds and domesticated wild plants to produce larger food suppliesDevelopment of Agriculture 11
  12. 12. • Domesticated animals led to larger and more reliable food supply • Dogs among the first. Used for hunting and guarding • Cattle, goats, pigs, and sheep used for meat, milk, and clothing • Large animals used for pulling heavy loads and farming• The development of agriculture and domestication of animals happened independently around the world at different times. It spread slowly through trade and travel.Developmentof Agriculture 12
  13. 13. • By 6000 BC, early farming led to growth of villages and cities as more people settled together. Led to: • Job specialization – people performing different tasks in the group • Extra food for trade • Differences in social status because of wealth and influence • Religion • War with other societies for more land and resources • Spread of diseases like flu, measles, and smallpoxAgriculture Changes Society 13
  14. 14. • New technologies • Use of animals and new tools led to better farming and food preparation techniques (like pottery for cooking and storing food) • Learned to spin yarn from wool of goats and sheep to make blankets and clothes • Learned to use metal, first copper then bronze (a mix of copper and tin). • Bronze was harder and stronger. Led to Bronze Age in 3000 BCDevelopmentof Agriculture 14
  15. 15. 1. What new tools and technologies did early humans develop during the New Stone Age?2. How did early agriculture develop and spread?3. In what ways did the development of agriculture change Stone Age Society?READING CHECK! 15
  16. 16. Section 3Foundations ofCivilizationChapter 1 The Beginnings of CivilizationPrehistory to 1000 BC 16
  17. 17. • Development of irrigation led to farming more land and producing surpluses of food to support large populations and trade• Less people needed to farm created other jobs in the village like weavers, potters, and religious leaders – division of labor• Leaders began to make decisions for the villageFrom Villages to Cities 17
  18. 18. CHARACTERISTICS OF CITIES• Larger and more populated than villages• Diverse people• Formal organization (city centers, government buildings, boundaries/walls)• Centers of tradeFrom Villages to Cities 18
  19. 19. • Civilizations formed from early cities usually near fertile river valleys. Examples: • Ur and Uruk near Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Middle East • Memphis on the Nile River, Africa • Mohenjo Daro on the Indus River, India • Anyang near the Huange He (Yellow River), ChinaThe First Civilizations 19
  20. 20. • Civilizations had: 1. Developed cities 2. Organized government (decision making and building projects) 3. Formalized religion (ceremonies and rituals) 4. Division of labor 5. Social classes (based on occupation, wealth, and influence) 6. Record keeping and writing (track history, calendars) 7. Art and architecture (symbols of power and ruler’s prestige)The First Civilizations 20
  21. 21. • Environmental influences (floods, droughts, storms, etc.) led to expansion in trade to get scarce resources• Cultural diffusion – spread of ideas, beliefs, customs, and technology from one people to anther because of : • Trade • Migration • Conquest• Competition for resources led to war and conflict. Nomads became skilled warriors to protect their herdsChange in Civilizations 21
  22. 22. 1. Why did some early villages develop into cities?2. What characterized the world’s first civilizations and where did they develop?3. What factors cause civilizations to change over time?READING CHECK! 22
  23. 23. • Which 1.Developed cities characteristics of 2.Organized civilizations do you government predict were most 3.Formalized religion beneficial in helping 4.Division of labor the first civilizations grow and endure? 5.Social classes 6.Record keeping and writing 7.Art and architectureQuick-Write 23

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