The Kingdoms Of West Africa


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The Kingdoms Of West Africa

  1. 1. The Kingdoms of West Africa<br />I Am Me Creativity Inc.<br />
  2. 2. Trading Gold And SaltDominating Sahara Trade<br />Neolithic farmers grew beans, melons, and cereal grains<br />Villagers traded any surplus food they made.  <br />Atrade network linked the savanna to forest lands in the south then across the Sahara to civilizations along the Mediterranean and in the Middle East. <br />A lot of gold in present-day Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal.<br /> Gold bearing soil was dug by men and women then washed the soil to take out the gold dust. <br />The precious metal was then stuffed into hollow feather quills for safe travel to the markets of Europe and North Africa. <br />In return, West Africa received salt, an equally important commodity. <br />Salt is needed to prevent dehydration, especially in hot, tropical areas. <br />At Taghaza, in the central Sahara, people used salt blocks to build homes. <br />
  3. 3. Gold Wealth of Ghana<br />The rulers of the Soninke people united many farming villages to create the kingdom of Ghana, by A.D 800. <br />Ghana was located in the broad “V” made by the Senegal and Niger rivers. <br />The king controlled gold-salt trade across West Africa were the Two trade streams met in the marketplaces of Ghana, where the king collected tolls on all goods entering or leaving his land. <br />KumbiSaleh was the capitol of Ghana<br /> Made up of two separate, walled towns, nearly six miles apart. <br />The king of Ghana presided over elaborate ceremonies and to the people, he was a semi divine figure who dispensed justice and kept order.<br />
  4. 4. Islamic Influence<br />Gold wealth in Ghana lured Muslim merchants to help make KumbiSalen a center of trade.<br />Brought their Islamic faith to Ghana <br />employed as counselors and officials. <br />People gradually absorbed Muslim military technology and ideas in government. <br />Most Soninke people stayed with their own traditional beliefs <br />Dwellers adopted Islam<br />Muslims introduced their written language, coinage, business methods and architecture styles. <br />About 1050 Almoravids tried to spread their form of Islam but were overwhelmed by Ghana and were unable to gain control. <br />
  5. 5. The Kingdom of Mali<br />Sumangururuled in Western Africa in early 1200s. <br />According to legend, he feared the Mandinka ruling family and killed all but one son who was sick and seemed to be near his demise soon. <br />Sundiata, the spared son, survived and recruited army that defeated Sumanguru in 1235 <br />Persuaded the other chiefs to surrender and let him rul. <br />Founded the Mali.<br />Mansasexpanded influence over gold-mining region to the south and Tagnaza salt supplies.<br /> <br />
  6. 6. Great Emperor Mansa Musa<br />Came to the throne around 1312.<br />Expanded Mali’s borders westward to the Atlantic Ocean <br />conquered many northern cities <br />Worked to ensure peace and order in his empire.<br />Converted to Islam and based justice system on the Quran. <br />In 1324, he fulfilled one of the five pillars by making the pilgrimage to Mecca.<br />Made new diplomatic and economic ties to other Muslim states.<br />Movement of wealthy people and ideas increased Mali’s popularity <br />By the 1400s, Timbuktu became a popular learning center<br /> <br />
  7. 7. A New Empire in Songhai In the 1400s the empire shriveled as disputes over succession weakened Mali. Goa emerged as capital of Songhai, the new West African kingdom.<br />Two great Leaders<br />Sonni-Ali used powerful army to create the biggest state ever to exist in the West Africa, between 1464-1492. <br />Took control of trade routes and he, unlike the rest rulers of Mali, followed traditional religious beliefs.<br />AskiaMuhammad set up a Muslim dynasty and expanded Songhai territory and improved government. <br />He set up a bureaucracy with separate departments for the army, farming, and treasury. <br />He also made a pilgrimage to Mecca, increasing ties with the Muslim world. <br />Built mosques and opened schools in towns and cities across Songhai.<br />Invaders from the North<br />Songhai prospered until disputes over succession led to civil war around 1586. <br />The ruler of Morocco sent armies to defeat the disunited forces of Songhai to seize the West African gold mine using gun powder weapons. <br />Just like the almoravids, they were unable to control an empire across the Sahara. <br />
  8. 8. Other Kingdoms of West Africa<br />The people of Hausa were in the fertile northern lands of modern-day Nigeria. <br />Were successful at both farming and trading. <br />Cotton weavers, and dyers, leatherworkers, and other artisans produced goods for sale as the independent city-states expanded into commercial centers.<br />Kano was the most prosperous Hausa city-state. <br />Populations of more than 30,000 people were protected by walls 14 miles in circumference. <br />Its greatest king, Muhammad Rumfa, was a Muslim like many officials and merchants.<br />Hausa developed an Arabic based written language<br />Many rulers were women.<br />Amina of the city state Zaria.<br />Conquered Kano and expanded Zahria’s boundary to as far as the Niger River. <br />Hausa started to dominate many Saharan trade routes under her rule.<br /> <br />
  9. 9. The Forest kingdom of Benin<br />Began its rise in the rain forests of the Guinea coast. <br />People made farming villages and traded ivory, pepper and later they traded slaves to their neighbors in the savanna.<br />Kingdoms were organized in the 1300s. <br />An oba, or king, was a religious and political leader. <br />Much of the power was spread among other figures, including the queen mother and a council of heredity chiefs.<br />Benin City, the capital, was surrounded by a tree-mile-long wall.<br />The palace was decorated with elaborate brass plaque and sculptures. <br />Tradition says that Ife artisans, an earlier forest society, taught the Benin people how to cast brass and bronze. <br />Benin sculptors developed a unique style for representing the human form. <br />Works depicted warriors armed for battle, queen mothers with unswept hairstyles and the Oba himself.<br />