AP WH Chap 13


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Tropical Africa & Asia: 1450-1700
Earth and Its Peoples: Chapter 13

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AP WH Chap 13

  1. 1. Tropical Africa and Asia 1200-1500
  2. 2. Tropical Lands and Peoples
  3. 3. Tropical Environment <ul><li>Tropical zone between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. </li></ul><ul><li>Afro-Asian tropics have a cycle of rainy and dry seasons dictated by winds known as monsoons. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical Zones have areas of abundant rainfall as well as arid zones. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Feeding a Population <ul><li>Human societies adopted different means of surviving in order to fit into the different ecological zones found in the tropics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wild food and fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herding and grain trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming of rice, wheat, sorghum, and millet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice growing </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Rainfall <ul><li>Tropics has an uneven distribution of rainfall during the year. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to have year-round access to water, tropical farming societies constructed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation canals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoirs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Managing Water Resources <ul><li>India, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka – governments used resources to construct and maintain large irrigation and water-control projects. </li></ul><ul><li>These were not the smartest use of resources because they were vulnerable to natural disaster and political disruptions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Village-based irrigation systems were much more stable. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Mineral Resources <ul><li>Tropical peoples used iron for agricultural implements, weapons, and needles. </li></ul><ul><li>Copper was used to make wire and decorative objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Africa produced a great deal of gold. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stability <ul><li>Metalworking and food-producing systems were very important at this time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobilized the labor of ordinary people in order to produce surpluses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This helped to support powerful states and profitable commercial systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither of these elite enterprises would have been possible without the work of ordinary people. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. New Islamic Empires
  10. 10. Spread of Islam <ul><li>Islam spread to sub-Saharan Africa by a gradual process of peaceful conversion. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion was facilitated by commercial contacts. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sundiata <ul><li>Muslim leader of the Malinke people </li></ul><ul><li>Established the Kingdom of Mali </li></ul>
  12. 12. Kingdom of Mali <ul><li>Economy rested on agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Supplemented by control of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>regional and trans-Saharan trading routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold mines of the Niger headwaters </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Mansa Kankan Musa <ul><li>Ruled from 1312-1337. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrated his wealth during a pilgrimage to Mecca. </li></ul><ul><li>Upon his return to Mali, he established new Mosques and Quranic schools. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Islam Comes to Timbuktu
  15. 15. Decline <ul><li>Kingdom declined and collapsed in the mid to late fifteenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Decline caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebellion from within </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks from without </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intellectual life and trade moved to other African states like the Hausa states and Kanem-Bornu </li></ul>
  16. 16. Division <ul><li>Between 1206 and 1236 the divided states of northwest India were defeated by violent Muslim Turkish conquerors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Sultan Iltutmish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established Delhi Sultanate as a Muslim state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muslim elite settled down to rule India peacefully, but Hindu subjects never forgave the violence of the conquest. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Tomb of Sultan Iltutmish
  18. 18. Raziya <ul><li>Iltutmmish passed throne to his daughter, Raziya. </li></ul><ul><li>Very talented ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Driven from office by men who were unwilling to accept a female monarch </li></ul>
  19. 19. Grave of Sultan Raziya
  20. 20. Ala-ud-din and Muhammad ibn Tughluq <ul><li>Carried out a policy of aggressive territorial expansion that was accompanied by a policy of religious toleration towards Hindus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This policy was later reversed after their rules. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Delhi Sultans <ul><li>In general, they ruled by terror and were a burden on their subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>In the mid-fourteenth century, internal rivalries and external threats undermined the stability of the Sultanate. </li></ul><ul><li>Sultanate was destroyed when Timur sacked Delhi in 1398. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Indian Ocean Trade
  23. 23. Monsoon Mariners <ul><li>Indian Ocean trade increased between 1200 and 1500 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated by the: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prosperity of Latin Europe, Asian, and African states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collapse of overland trade routes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Ships <ul><li>In the Red and Arabian Seas, trade was carried on dhows. </li></ul><ul><li>From India on to Southeast Asia, junks dominated the trade routes. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Junks <ul><li>Technologically advanced vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Had watertight compartments </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 12 sails </li></ul><ul><li>Carried up to 1,000 tons </li></ul><ul><li>Developed in China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Later built in Bengal and Southeast Asia </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Indian Ocean Trade <ul><li>Decentralized and cooperative </li></ul><ul><li>Various regions were supplying particular goods </li></ul><ul><li>In each region a certain port functioned as the major emporium for trade in which good from smaller ports were consolidated and shipped onward. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Swahili Coast <ul><li>By 1500, there were 30 or 40 separate city-states along the East Africa coast participating in Indian Ocean trade. </li></ul><ul><li>The people of these coastal cities, the “Swahili” people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All spoke an African language enriched with Arabic and Persian vocabulary </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Zimbabwe <ul><li>Swahili cities, including Kilwa, were famous exporters of gold that was mined in or around the inland kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Capital was Great Zimbabwe </li></ul><ul><li>Great Zimbabwe’s economy rested on agriculture, cattle herding, and trade. </li></ul><ul><li>City declined due to an ecological crisis brought on by deforestation and overgrazing. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Great Zimbabwe
  30. 30. Great Zimbabwe
  31. 31. Zimbabwe
  32. 32. Arabia: Aden and the Red Sea <ul><li>Aden had enough rainfall to produce wheat for export and a location that made it a central transit point for trade in the Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>Aden’s merchants prospered on this trade and built a wealthy and impressive city. </li></ul><ul><li>Common interest in trade allowed peoples to live in peace. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian Ethiopia fought with Muslims over control of Red Sea Trade </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Gujarat <ul><li>State of Gujarat prospered from the Indian Ocean trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Exported cotton textiles and indigo in return for gold and silver. </li></ul><ul><li>Gujarat manufactured textiles, leather goods, carpets, silk, and other commodities. </li></ul><ul><li>Gujarat’s overseas trade was dominated by Muslims, but Hindus also benefited. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Malabar Coast <ul><li>Calicut and other cities of the Malabar Coast exported cotton textiles and spices. </li></ul><ul><li>Also served as clearing-houses for long-distance trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities of the Malabar Coast were unified in a loose confederation whose rulers were tolerant of other religious and ethnic groups. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Rise of Malacca <ul><li>Strait of Malacca is the principal passage from the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>In the fourteenth century a gang of Chinese pirates preyed upon the strait </li></ul><ul><li>In 1407, the forces of the Ming dynasty crushed the Chinese pirates. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim ruler of Malacca took advantage of this to exert his domination over the strait. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Strait of Malacca
  37. 37. Societal and Social Change
  38. 38. Architecture <ul><li>Commercial contacts and spread of Islam led to a variety of social and cultural changes in which local cultures incorporated and changed ideas, customs, and architectural styles from other civilizations. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Moroccan Carving
  40. 40. Education <ul><li>Spread of Islam brought literacy to African peoples who learned Arabic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Then they used Arabic script to write their own languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indian literacy was already established, but the spread of Islam brought the development of a new Persian-influenced language (Urdu) and papermaking. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Further Study <ul><li>As Islam spread to Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, Islam also brought: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of Islamic law and administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek science, mathematics, and medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Timbuktu, Delhi, and Malacca were new centers of Islamic learning. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Religion <ul><li>Islam spread peacefully and forced conversions were rare. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim domination of trade contributed to the spread of Islam as merchants converted and traveled. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic destruction of the last center of Buddhism in India contributed to the spread of Islam in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Islam brought social and cultural changes to the communities that were converted, but Islam changed as it developed in different societies. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Social Distinctions <ul><li>Gap between elites and common people widened in tropical societies as the wealthy urban elites prospered from the increased Indian Ocean trade. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Slavery <ul><li>Slavery increased in both Africa and in India. </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 2.5 million African slaves were exported across the Sahara and the Red Sea between 1200 and 1500, while more were shipped from the cities of the Swahili coast. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Slaves <ul><li>Most slaves were trained in specific skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hereditary military slaves could become rich and powerful </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other slaves worked hard at menial jobs like copper mining. </li></ul><ul><li>Many women were employed as household workers and entertainers. </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of slaves meant the price was quite low. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Status of Women <ul><li>Early arranged marriage was the rule for Indian women and they were expected to obey strict rules of fidelity and chastity. </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s status was generally determined by the status of their male masters. </li></ul><ul><li>Women would cook, brew, spin thread, and work on farms. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Spread of Islam on Women <ul><li>Difficult to tell what effect the spread of Islam might have had on women. </li></ul><ul><li>It is clear in some places, such as Mali, Muslims did not adopt the Arab practice of veiling and secluding women. </li></ul>