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African trading kingdoms


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African trading kingdoms

  1. 1. TradingStates and Kingdoms of Africa Pre-colonial African civilizations
  2. 2. Kingdoms of West Africa Why did powerful kingdoms emerge inWest Africa?
  3. 3. The Salt-Gold Trade • Trans-Saharan trade - scarcity • N. Africa- salt • W. Africa – gold • strong trading kingdoms emerge in W. Africa
  4. 4. The Empire of Ghana• Soninke – founders; controlled gold south of Ghana• “middlemen” of salt-gold trade• armed with iron tipped weapons Modern day Ghana
  5. 5. • Welcomed Berbers (merchants from Northern edge of Sahara) who brought back gold to N. Africa• Became wealthy from TAXING the TRADE
  6. 6. During the Middle Ages: 6th-16th
  7. 7. The Empire of MaliInvasion and Fall of Ghana• Berbers from the North captured Ghana, then split into smaller states• Mandingo farmers took advantage of weakness and est. empire of Mali• Sundiata = first ruler
  8. 8. Mansa Musa • Increased empire’s wealth (captured salt mines) • Est. a SECURE empire • Adopted ISLAM – hajj to Mecca made Mali famous and increased contact between the Middle East, N. AfricaMansa = emperor and West Africa
  9. 9. Effects of Mansa Musa’s Hajj• Based system of justice on Koran• Built mosques• Schools/libraries - people could study Qu’ran, other Islamic writings• Literally put Mali on the map• Europeans began to search West Africa for source of Mali’s riches
  10. 10. University of Timbuktu Sankore University
  11. 11. Islamization of MaliBy the fourteenth century, Muslim traders were established in the town of Djenne, located in the inland delta of theNiger. The most impressive monument of intercultural borrowing is the Friday Mosque at Djenne. There, salt from theSahara, goods from northern Africa and fine silks were exchanged for gold, and ivory. The monumental mosque wasconstructed around 1320 (the present building was reconstructed on the foundation of the original mosque in 1907).
  12. 12. Timbuktu: City of Legends• Crossroads of trade between Arabia, N. Africa and W. Africa• Salt, gold, and kola nuts passed through• MM built the GrandMosque which attracted Muslim scholars• Intellectual and spiritual center of Africa
  13. 13. The Grand Mosque (Timbuktu)
  14. 14. Rise of Songhai • Sunni Ali captured Gao and Timbuktu • Askia Muhammad followed Islam – made Timbuktu center of learning • Moroccan soldiers overpowered Songhai warriors’ spears and arrows with guns and cannons
  15. 15. Timbuktu became known as "The Center of Learning," and "The Mecca of the Sudan"Askia Muhammad(Askia the Great)
  16. 16. What factors allowed for the emergence of trading city-states in East Africa?• Location – Indian Ocean (monsoon winds) – Access to Middle East, India, far East• Access to raw materials (exports from the interior) – gold, ivory, slaves, etc.• Spread of Islam
  17. 17. East Africa: Kilwa Monsoon winds Cultural Diffusion Swahili – blend of Bantu (African) and Arab language/culture Pd 1 – Jan 10, 2007
  18. 18. Southeastern Africa: ZIMBABWE
  19. 19. Zimbabwe “stone dwelling”10th century walls – 36 ft. high/20 ft. thick –
  20. 20. Ibn Battuta Where did Ibn Battuta travel? How did his travels differ from those of Marco Polo?
  21. 21. TradingStates and Kingdoms of AfricaPre-colonial Africancivilizations
  22. 22. • In your group create a rap or a skit that addresses the following questions: – How did empires/city states in Africa become rich? – How did trade affect the lives of people in E. and W. Africa?The more THOROUGH details you use from your notes, the more points you will earn.STELLAR = 20 pointsSo-so = 10 points, and so on…**UNDERLINE all facts in your rap/skit
  23. 23. Bronzes ofBenin/IfeBronzes (Brass) casts usingthe “Lost Wax Process”