The Empire of Mali


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The Empire of Mali

  1. 1. Do Now:  Find your note sheet on the back table  Answer the first question on the note sheet
  2. 2. Introduction  The kingdom of Mali emerged as a dominant power in the Western Sudan after the fall of Ghana. Mali took control of the salt and gold trades from 1240 to 1500.
  3. 3. The Fall of Ghana  After the Almoravids fell from power in 1087 competing clans fought for control of the gold and salt trade. The region was so unstable eastern caravans avoided Koumbi Saleh, which pushed Ghana to ruin.
  4. 4. Sumanguru  Sumanguru became king of Ghana shortly after the Almoravids fell. He declared himself emperor of all Ghana.  Presided over a reign of terror. He levied high taxes, ordered his opponents killed, and brutally enslaved the women he captured.  He did not protect trade routes or enforce any laws
  5. 5. The Empire of Mali  Sundiata led the Mandinka people against the emperor Sumanguru in 1235 in the Battle of Kirina  Empire of Mali formed in 1240— southern area of Ghana’s empire  Sundiata became Mansa or King
  6. 6. Mali Builds on Ghana’s    an Empire Foundation Sundiata—great chief of Malinke people; frst Mali leader - his powerful army captured Ghana capital; he extended empire - reestablished gold-salt trade; expanded trade route - supported development of crops, cotton farming, weaving trade Like Ghana kings, Sundiata balanced Islam with traditional religion Sundiata was popular; still considered a hero by Africans today
  7. 7. Mansa Munsa Expands the Empire • Mansa Musa takes power in 1307—devout Muslim, Mali’s most famous king - allowed subjects to practice other religions  Musa’s elaborate pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324 was legendary - caravan attracted many merchants to Mali; gold trade boomed - gold trade with Europe helped support European Renaissance
  8. 8. Timbuktu  Musa returned to Mali with an architect, Arab scholar  Timbuktu became international hub of scholarship, art, architecture - Musa’s architect designed Sankore mosque built in Timbuktu - city attracted poets, artists from Africa, Asia  Musa continued to expand empire until his death, in 1332
  9. 9. T he Decline of Mali Essential Question: How did weak rulers lead to Mali’s Decline?
  10. 10. Internal Problems  Battle for rule after Musa weakened empire; Timbuktu raided, burned  Songhai—rebels in east Mali empire, near bend of Niger River - In 1365, recaptured the city Gao from Mali; declared independence
  11. 11. External Problems  North African Berbers seized Mali lands, captured Timbuktu in 1433  Bandits in south raided trade caravans, military outposts  By 1500, Mali Empire reduced to original Mandinke people area
  12. 12. Review Question What internal problems led to the decline of Mali’s Empire?