The Empire of Ghana


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The Empire of Ghana

  1. 1. The Empire of Ghana Enduring Understandings: ►Natural Resources and geographic features contribute to success in trade ►Trade results in the blending of cultural traditions and belief systems
  2. 2. West Africa’s Empires ► What they have in common…  Thrived due to their location – Niger River, Natural Resources, and proximity to other trading nations  Strong leadership contributed to their success  Influenced by Islam because of trade
  3. 3. Do Now ► On a scrap piece of paper answer the following question: ► How did geography effect the location of the empire of Ghana? Ghana
  4. 4. The Foundation of the Empire ► ► ► The empire of Ghana existed between 300 -1267 CE Became wealthy by controlling the natural resources available and taxing traders Ghana was primarily located in the savannah of Africa
  5. 5. Ghana’s Northern Border ► Northern Ghana bordered Sahara; ideal hub for salt, gold trade -served as trade regulators of salt from north, gold from south - kept gold source secret and limited supply; increased trade value
  6. 6. Ghana’s Southern Border ► Southern Ghana was border by the Niger river and the rainforests. ► The Rainforests contained gold, the kings of Ghana decided to hide the location of the mines a secret in order to control the value of the gold
  7. 7. Ghana’s Kings ► Ghana received it’s name from the people who inhabited the land. “Ghana” is what the people called their king. ► The kings were responsible for keeping trade running smoothly and playing an important role in the relgious life of the people. Kings performed the proper prayers and rituals to make the land fertile and to bring prosperity to the people
  8. 8. Empire of Ghana  Ghana became wealthy for several reasons:  Koumbi Saleh (popl.15,000), Ghana’s capital was located at the crossroads of several major trade routes.  The king controlled the secret of the gold mines, therefore controlled the price of gold  The king taxed traders and collected tributes from conquered peoples
  9. 9. Kingdom to Empire ► Once the kindgom of Ghana became wealthy, the king took the opportunity to begining to expand it’s borders by conquering lands surrounding the empire. ► By acquiring more lands the kingdom became even more wealthy and as a result grew even further resulting in an empire
  10. 10. Religious and Cultural Changes ► Berbers, Islam, Arabic greatly influenced empires of West Africa ► Berbers—North Africans who developed trade routes, raised camels - spoke Arabic, practiced Islam, worked with Umayyads in African trade
  11. 11. Berbers ► Berbers brought writing (Arabic), Islam, scholars to West Africa - some Ghana kings converted to Islam, used Arabic in government
  12. 12. Influence of Islamic Beliefs ► Some Ghana kings converted to Islam but kept some traditional beliefs in order to keep the support of their subjects -belief that ancestry gave king right to rule was maintained
  13. 13. Influence of Islamic Beliefs ► Muslims gained power in Ghana government, advised kings ► Ghana 's upper class accepted Islam, learned Arabic, read Qur'an ► Islamic ethics, or beliefs, influenced the law and culture in Ghana
  14. 14. Ghana Under Attack Despite Islam’s influence Ghana declined ► Almoravids —North African Muslims – a group made up of a confederation of Berbers - who came to power in 11th century -Almoravids were camel herders who envied Ghana 's wealth -wanted Muslims to follow their interpretation of Islam ► Almoravids attacked Ghana, weakened trade network ► Ghana crumbled; Almoravids seized capital in 1076 ► Almoravid Empire Capital of Ghana
  15. 15. Review How did natural Resources and geographic features contribute to success in trade? Trade results in the blending of cultural traditions and belief systems?