ExerciseEach group is required to create a tower with the givenmaterial. The tower shall be judged on its height,sturdiness and beauty.
Exercise Questions• How did the groups’ behavior differ?• What characterized the most effective groups?• How could the behavior of the less effective groups be improved?
Defining and Classifying GroupsGroup(s)Two or more individuals interacting andinterdependent, who have come togetherto achieve particular objectives.Formal Group Informal GroupA designated work A group that is neithergroup defined by the formally structured noworganization’s structure. organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact.
Defining and Classifying GroupsCommand Group Task GroupA group composed of Those working togetherthe individuals who to complete a job or task.report directly to agiven manager.Interest Group Friendship GroupThose working together Those brought togetherto attain a specific because they share oneobjective with which or more commoneach is concerned. characteristics.
The Five-Stage Model of Group DevelopmentForming StageThe first stage in group development, characterizedby much uncertainty.Storming StageThe second stage in group development,characterized by intragroup conflict.Norming StageThe third stage in groupdevelopment, characterizedby close relationships andcohesiveness.
…Group Development (cont’d)Performing StageThe fourth stage in group development, when thegroup is fully functional.Adjourning StageThe final stage in groupdevelopment for temporarygroups, characterized byconcern with wrapping upactivities rather thanperformance.
An Alternative Model: Temporary Groups with DeadlinesPunctuated-EquilibriumModelTemporary groups go Sequence of actions:through transitionsbetween inertia and 1. Setting group directionactivity. 2. First phase of inertia 3. Half-way point transition 4. Major changes 5. Second phase of inertia 6. Accelerated activity
Group Structure – RolesRole(s)A set of expected behavior patterns attributed tosomeone occupying a given position in a social unit.Role IdentityCertain attitudes and behaviorsconsistent with a role.Role PerceptionAn individual’s view of how he or sheis supposed to act in a given situation.
Group Structure - Roles (cont’d)Role ExpectationsHow others believe a personshould act in a given situation.Psychological ContractAn unwritten agreement that setsout what management expects fromthe employee and vice versa.Role ConflictA situation in which an individual is confronted bydivergent role expectations.
Group Structure - NormsNormsAcceptable standards of behavior within a groupthat are shared by the group’s members. Classes of Norms: • Performance norms • Appearance norms • Social arrangement norms • Allocation of resources norms
The Hawthorne Studies• A series of studies undertaken by Elton Mayo at Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Works in Chicago between 1924 and 1932.• Research Conclusions: • Worker behavior and sentiments were closely related. • Group influences (norms) were significant in affecting individual behavior. • Group standards (norms) were highly effective in establishing individual worker output. • Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, and security.
Group Structure - Norms (cont’d)ConformityAdjusting one’s behavior to alignwith the norms of the group.Reference GroupsImportant groups to whichindividuals belong or hopeto belong and with whosenorms individuals are likelyto conform.
Group Structure - Norms (cont’d)Deviant Workplace BehaviorAntisocial actions by organizational membersthat intentionally violate established norms andresult in negative consequences for theorganization, its members, or both.
Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior Category Examples Production Leaving early Intentionally working slowly Wasting resources Property Sabotage Stealing from the organization Political Showing favoritism Gossiping and spreading rumors Blaming coworkers Personal Aggression Sexual harassment Verbal abuse Stealing from coworkersSource: Adapted from S.L. Robinson, and R.J. Bennett. “A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors:A Multidimensional Scaling Study,” Academy of Management Journal, April 1995, p. 565.
Group Structure - StatusStatusA socially defined position or rank given to groups orgroup members by others. Group Norms Group Member Status Equity Status Culture
Group Structure - Size Social Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.Performance Other conclusions: • Odd number groups do better than even. • Groups of 7 or 9 perform better overall than larger or smaller groups. Group Size
Group Structure - CompositionGroup DemographyThe degree to which members of a group share acommon demographic attribute, such as age, sex,race, educational level, or length of service in theorganization, and the impact of this attribute onturnover.CohortsIndividuals who, as part ofa group, hold a commonattribute.
Group Structure - CohesivenessCohesivenessDegree to which group members are attracted toeach other and are motivated to stay in the group. Increasing group cohesiveness: 1. Make the group smaller. 2. Encourage agreement with group goals. 3. Increase time members spend together. 4. Increase group status and admission difficultly. 5. Stimulate competition with other groups. 6. Give rewards to the group, not individuals. 7. Physically isolate the group.
S. Adams, Build a Better Life by Stealing Office Supplies (Kansas City MO: Andrews &McMeal, 1991), p. 31. Dilbert reprinted with permission of United Features Syndicate, Inc.
Group Tasks• Decision-making • Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex tasks. • Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and facilitating the implementation of complex tasks. • Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the requirement that group processes be effective in order for the group to perform well.
Group Decision Making• Strengths • Weaknesses • More complete information • More time consuming • Increased diversity of views (slower) • Higher quality of decisions • Increased pressure to (more accuracy) conform • Increased acceptance of • Domination by one or a few solutions members • Ambiguous responsibility
Group Decision Making (cont’d)GroupthinkPhenomenon in which the norm for consensusoverrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courseof action.GroupshiftA change in decision risk between the group’sdecision and the individual decision that memberwithin the group would make; can be either towardconservatism or greater risk.
Symptoms Of The Groupthink Phenomenon• Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made.• Members apply direct pressures on those who express doubts about shared views or who question the alternative favored by the majority.• Members who have doubts or differing points of view keep silent about misgivings.• There appears to be an illusion of unanimity.
Group Decision-Making TechniquesInteracting GroupsTypical groups, in which the members interact witheach other face-to-face.Nominal Group TechniqueA group decision-making method in which individualmembers meet face-to-face to pool their judgmentsin a systematic but independent fashion.
Group Decision-Making TechniquesBrainstormingAn idea-generation process that specificallyencourages any and all alternatives, whilewithholding any criticism of those alternatives.Electronic MeetingA meeting in which membersinteract on computers, allowingfor anonymity of comments andaggregation of votes.
Evaluating Group Effectiveness TYPE OF GROUPEffectiveness Criteria Interacting Brainstorming Nominal ElectronicNumber and quality of ideas Low Moderate High HighSocial pressure High Low Moderate LowMoney costs Low Low Low HighSpeed Moderate Moderate Moderate ModerateTask orientation Low High High HighPotential for interpersonal conflict High Low Moderate LowCommitment to solution High Not applicable Moderate ModerateDevelopment of High High Moderate Lowgroup cohesiveness
Explaining group behavior• Organization strategy / regulations• Authority structure• Resources• Selection process• Evaluation and reward system• Culture• Work setting
Analyzing group interactionSociometry and sociogram
Why Have Teams Become So Popular• Teams typically outperform individuals.• Teams use employee talents better.• Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment.• Teams facilitate employee involvement.• Teams are an effective way to democratize and organization and increase motivation.
Team Versus Group: What’s the DifferenceWork GroupA group that interacts primarilyto share information and tomake decisions to help eachgroup member perform withinhis or her area of responsibility.Work TeamA group whose individual effortsresult in a performance that isgreater than the sum of theindividual inputs.
Types of TeamsProblem-Solving TeamsGroups of 5 to 12 employees from thesame department who meet for a fewhours each week to discuss ways ofimproving quality, efficiency, and thework environment.Self-Managed Work TeamsGroups of 10 to 15 people who takeon the responsibilities of their formersupervisors.
Types of Teams (cont’d)Cross-Functional TeamsEmployees from about the same hierarchical level,but from different work areas, who come together toaccomplish a task.• Task forces• Committees
Types of Teams (cont’d)Virtual TeamsTeams that use computertechnology to tie togetherphysically dispersedmembers in order toachieve a common goal. Team Characteristics 1. The absence of paraverbal and nonverbal cues 2. A limited social context 3. The ability to overcome time and space constraints
Creating Effective Teams: DiversityGroup DemographyThe degree to which members of a group share acommon demographic attribute, such as age, sex,race, educational level, or length of service in theorganization, and the impact of this attribute onturnover.CohortsIndividuals who, as part ofa group, hold a commonattribute.
Turning Individuals Into Team Players• The Challenges • Overcoming individual resistance to team membership. • Countering the influence of individualistic cultures. • Introducing teams in an organization that has historically valued individual achievement.• Shaping Team Players • Selecting employees who can fulfill their team roles. • Training employees to become team players. • Reworking the reward system to encourage cooperative efforts while continuing to recognize individual contributions.
Teams and Quality Management• Team Effectiveness and Quality Management Requires That Teams: 1. Are small enough to be efficient and effective. 2. Are properly trained in required skills. 3. Allocated enough time to work on problems. 4. Are given authority to resolve problems and take corrective action. 5. Have a designated “champion” to call on when needed.
Beware: Teams Aren’t Always the Answer• Three tests to see if a team fits the situation: • Is the work complex and is there a need for different perspectives? • Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the group that is larger than the aggregate of the goals for individuals? • Are members of the group involved in interdependent tasks?
Decentralization: Benefits When Low and When HighLow Decentralization High Decentralization(High Centralization) (Low Centralization)Eliminates the additional Can eliminate levels ofresponsibility not desired by people management, making a leanerperforming routine jobs organizationPermits crucial decisions to be Promotes greater opportunitiesmade by individuals who have the for decisions to be made be“big picture” people closest to problems
Matrix Structure (College of Business Administration) (Director) (Dean) Employee
New Design options• The team organization• The virtual organization• The boundaryless organization