Group process and innovation


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Group process and innovation

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  3. 3. Group3  Two or more people who interact with each other to accomplish certain goals or meet certain needs.  A group is a collection of individual  Who have significantly interdependent relations with each other  Whose group identity is recognised by non-members  Who have differentiated roles in the group.
  4. 4. Team4  A group of people working together to achieve common objectives or goals.  All teams are groups but not all groups are teams.  Value of teams is increasing because of their roles in employee motivation, productivity, employee satisfaction, improving communication, expanding job skills, etc.
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  6. 6. 6 Fig. Groups’ and Teams’ Contribution to Organisational Effectiveness
  7. 7. Competitive Advantage with Groups7 & Teams  Performance Enhancement: Make use of synergy  Workers in a group have the opportunity to produce more or better output than separate workers.  Members correct other’s errors, bring new ideas to bear.  Managers should build groups with members of complimentary skills.  Responsive to Customers: Difficult to achieve given many constraints.  Safety issues, regulations, costs.  Cross-functional teams provide the wide variety of skills needed.  Teams consist of members of different departments.
  8. 8. Competitive Advantage with Groups8 & Teams  Innovation: individuals rarely possess the wide variety of skills needed.  Team members also uncover flaws and develop new ideas.  Managers should empower the team for the full innovation process.  Motivation: members of groups, and particularly teams, are often better motivated and satisfied than individuals.  It is fun to work next to other motivated people.  Team members see their contribution to the team.  Teams also provide social interaction.
  9. 9. Types of Group & Team9 Groups & Teams Formal Groups Informal Groups created by managers created by workers Cross- Top Self- Friendship Interest Functional Mgmt. Managed Groups Groups Teams Teams Teams Cross- R&D Command Task Cultural Teams Groups Forces Teams
  10. 10. Types of Group & Team10 Type of Team Top-management A group composed of the CEO, the president, team and the heads of the most important departments Research and A team whose members have the expertise development team and experience needed to develop new products Command groups A group composed of subordinates who report to the same supervisor, also called a department or unit, Task forces A committee of managers or nonmanagerial employees from various departments or divisions who meet to solve a specific, mutual problem; also called an “ad hoc” committee
  11. 11. Types of Group & Team11 Type of Team Self-managed work A group of employees who supervise their team own activities and monitor the quality of the goods and services they provide. Cross-functional composed of members from different teams departments Cross-cultural teams composed of members from different cultures or countries Friendship group An informal group composed of employees who enjoy each other’s company and socialize with each other. Interest group An informal group composed of employees seeking to achieve a common goal related to their membership in an organization.
  12. 12. Self-managed Work Team12 Keys to effective self managed teams:  Give the team enough responsibility and autonomy to be self-managing.  The team’s task should be complex enough to include many different steps.  Select members carefully for their diversity, skills, and enthusiasm.  Managers should guide and coach, not supervise.  Determine training needs and be sure it is provided.  The team is free to decide:  Which working methods will be used  Who shall belong to the group  Who shall perform which duties
  13. 13. 13 Dynamics affect how a group or team functions.
  14. 14. Group Size14 Group size affects how a group performs.  Advantage of small groups  Interact more with each other and easier to coordinate their efforts  More motivated, satisfied, and committed  Easier to share information  Better able to see the importance of their personal contributions
  15. 15. Group Size15  Advantages of large groups  More resources at their disposal to achieve group goals  Enables managers to obtain division of labor advantage  Disadvantages of large groups  Problem of communication and coordination  Lower level of motivation  Members might not think their efforts are really needed
  16. 16. Group Task16  Group tasks impact how a group interacts. Task interdependence shows how the work of one member impacts another; as interdependence rises, members must work more closely together. Task interdependence Types: Pooled Task Interdependence: each member of a group makes separate and independent contributions to group performance. Sequential Task Interdependence: requires specific behaviors to be performed by group members in a predetermined order. Reciprocal Task Interdependence: the activities of all work group members are fully dependent on one another so that each member’s performance influences the performance of every other member of the group.
  17. 17. Task Interdependence17
  18. 18. Group Roles18  Role:set of behaviors a group member is expected to perform because of their position in the group.  In cross-functional teams, members perform roles in their specialty.  Managers need to clearly describe expected roles to group members when they are assigned to the group.  Role-making occurs as workers take on more roles as group members.  Self-managed teams may assign the roles to members themselves.
  19. 19. Group Leadership19  Effective leadership is a key ingredient in high performing groups, teams, and organizations.  Formal groups created by an organization have a leader appointed by the organization.  Groups that evolve independently in an organization have an informal leader recognized by the group.
  20. 20. Group Cohesiveness20 Group Cohesion - interpersonal attraction binding group members together  Enables groups to exercise effective control over the members  Groups with high cohesiveness  demonstrate lower tension & anxiety  demonstrate less variation in productivity  demonstrate better member satisfaction, commitment, & communication
  21. 21. Group Cohesiveness21  Level of Participation: as cohesiveness rises, so will participation.  Participation helps get members actively involved, but too much can waste time.  Level of Conformity: as conformity rises, so does cohesiveness.  With too much conformity, performance can suffer.  Level of Group Goal Accomplishment: as cohesiveness rises, the emphasis on group accomplishment will rise.  High levels of cohesiveness can cause the group to focus more on itself than the firm.
  22. 22. Factors Leading to Group Cohesiveness22 Group Cohesiveness
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