Organizational Behavior - Session 4

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Organizational Behavior

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Organizational Behavior - Session 4

  1. 1. Foundations of Group Behavior and Work Teams Lecturer: Do Tien Long 09 04 51 54 46 dotienlong_mc@yahoo.com.vn Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  2. 2. Popular group definitions Popular group definitions A popular definition defines groups in psychological terms Any number of people who – Interact with one another Are psychologically aware of one another Perceive themselves to be a group Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  3. 3. Defining and Classifying Groups Defining and Classifying Groups Group(s) Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. Formal Group Informal Group A designated work group A group that is neither formally defined by the structured nor organizationally organization’s structure. determined; appears in response to the need for social contact. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  4. 4. Defining and Classifying Groups (cont’d) Defining and Classifying Groups (cont’d) Command Group Task Group A group composed of the Those working together to individuals who report complete a job or task. directly to a given manager. Interest Group Friendship Group Those working together Those brought together to attain a specific because they share one or objective with which each more common is concerned. characteristics. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  5. 5. Group characteristics Group characteristics A definable membership Group consciousness A sense of shared purpose Interdependence Interaction Ability to act in a unitary manner Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  6. 6. Why People Join Groups Why People Join Groups • Security • Status • Self-esteem • Affiliation • Power • Goal Achievement Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  7. 7. Reasons for forming groups or teams Reasons for forming groups or teams So that certain tasks can be performed through the combined efforts of a number of individuals working together Collusion between members aiding creativity & initiative Provide companionship & a source of mutual understanding & support Provide guidelines on generally acceptable behaviour Protection for its membership Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  8. 8. Importance of groups on organisations Importance of groups on organisations Groups are an essential feature of the work patterns of organisations People in groups influence each other, they may develop their own hierarchies & leaders Group pressures can have a major influence over the behaviour of individual members & their work performance The activities of the group are associated with the process of leadership The style of leadership of the manager has an important influence on the behaviour of group members Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  9. 9. Group values and norms Group values and norms Group developed its owned pattern of informal social relations and codes and practices of what constituted proper group behavior: – Not to be a “rate buster” – Not to be a “chiseller” – Not to be a “squealer” – Not to be a “officious” Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  10. 10. The Five-Stage Model of Group The Five-Stage Model of Group Development Development Forming Stage The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty. Storming Stage The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. Norming Stage The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  11. 11. …Group Development (cont’d) …Group Development (cont’d) Performing Stage The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. Adjourning Stage The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  12. 12. Stages of Group Development Stages of Group Development E X H I B I T 9–2 E X H I B I T 9–2 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  13. 13. An Alternative Model: Temporary An Alternative Model: Temporary Groups with Deadlines Groups with Deadlines Punctuated-Equilibrium Model Temporary groups under time constrained Sequence of actions: Sequence of actions: deadlines go through 1. 1. Setting group direction Setting group direction transitions between 2. 2. First phase of inertia First phase of inertia inertia and activity---at 3. 3. Half-way point transition Half-way point transition the half-way point, they 4. 4. Major changes Major changes experience an increase in 5. Second phase of inertia 5. Second phase of inertia productivity. 6. Accelerated activity 6. Accelerated activity Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  14. 14. The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model E X H I B I T 9–3 E X H I B I T 9–3 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  15. 15. Group Properties Group Properties Roles Norms Status Size Cohesiveness Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  16. 16. Group Properties -- Roles Group Properties Roles Role(s) A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. Role Identity Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role. Role Perception An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  17. 17. Group Properties -- Roles (cont’d) Group Properties Roles (cont’d) Role Expectations How others believe a person should act in a given situation. Psychological Contract An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee and vice versa. Role Conflict A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  18. 18. Group Properties -- Norms Group Properties Norms Norms Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members. Classes of Norms: Classes of Norms: •• Performance norms Performance norms •• Appearance norms Appearance norms •• Social arrangement norms Social arrangement norms •• Allocation of resources norms Allocation of resources norms Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  19. 19. Group Properties -- Norms (cont’d) Group Properties Norms (cont’d) Conformity ASCH STUDY ASCH STUDY Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group. Reference Groups Important groups to which EXHIBIT 9–4 individuals belong or hope to EXHIBIT 9–4 belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  20. 20. Group Properties -- Norms (cont’d) Group Properties Norms (cont’d) Deviant Workplace Behavior Antisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally violate established norms and result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both. Group norms can influence the presence of deviant behavior. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  21. 21. Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior Category Examples Production Leaving early Intentionally working slowly Wasting resources Property Sabotage Lying about hours worked Stealing from the organization Political Showing favoritism Gossiping and spreading rumors Blaming coworkers Personal Aggression Sexual harassment Verbal abuse Stealing from coworkers Source: Adapted from S.L. Robinson, and R.J. Bennett. “A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors: A E X H I B I T 9–5 E X H I B I T 9–5 Multidimensional Scaling Study,” Academy of Management Journal, April 1995, p. 565. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  22. 22. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  23. 23. Group Properties -- Status Group Properties Status Status: A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Power over Power over Norms & Norms & Others Others Interaction Interaction Ability to Ability to Group Member Group Member Contribute Contribute Status Status Other things influencing or Personal Personal influenced by status Characteristics Characteristics Status Inequity Status Inequity National Culture National Culture Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  24. 24. Group Properties -- Size Group Properties Size Social Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. Performance Other conclusions: Other conclusions: ) ed g • • Odd number groups do Odd number groups do fin t ec a better than even. better than even. lo p Ex o u et • • Groups of 55to 77perform Groups of to perform ( d better overall than larger or better overall than larger or u al smaller groups. smaller groups. A ct Group Size Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  25. 25. Group Properties -- Cohesiveness Group Properties Cohesiveness Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group. Increasing group cohesiveness: Increasing group cohesiveness: 1. 1. Make the group smaller. Make the group smaller. 2. 2. Encourage agreement with group goals. Encourage agreement with group goals. 3. 3. Increase time members spend together. Increase time members spend together. 4. 4. Increase group status and admission difficultly. Increase group status and admission difficultly. 5. 5. Stimulate competition with other groups. Stimulate competition with other groups. 6. 6. Give rewards to the group, not individuals. Give rewards to the group, not individuals. 7. 7. Physically isolate the group. Physically isolate the group. Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  26. 26. Relationship Between Group Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness, Performance Norms, and Cohesiveness, Performance Norms, and Productivity Productivity E X H I B I T 9-7 E X H I B I T 9-7 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  27. 27. S. Adams, Build a Better Life by Stealing Office Supplies (Kansas City MO: Andrews & McMeal, E X H I B I T 9–8 1991), p. 31. Dilbert reprinted with permission of United Features Syndicate, Inc. E X H I B I T 9–8 Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  28. 28. Factors contributing to group Factors contributing to group cohesiveness & performance cohesiveness & performance Membership Work environment Organisational Group development & maturity Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long
  29. 29. Factors contributing to group cohesiveness & performance – membership Size of the group Compatibility of members Performance Nature of the task Physical setting Communications Technology Organisational Behavior, Do Tien Long

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