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Organizational Behavior

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  1. 1. Group Dynamics Chapter 10McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2008The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Ch. 10 Learning Objectives1. Identify the four sociological criteria of a group and discuss the impact of social networking on group dynamics.2. Describe the five stages in Tuckman’s theory of group development, and discuss the threat of group decay.3. Distinguish between role conflict and role ambiguity4. Contrast roles and norms, and specify four reasons norms are enforced in organizations.5. Distinguish between task and maintenance functions in groups. 10-2
  3. 3. Ch. 10 Learning Objectives6. Summarize the practical contingency management implications for group size.7. Discuss why managers need to carefully handle mixed-gender task groups.8. Describe groupthink, and identify at least four of its symptoms9. Define social loafing, and explain how managers can prevent it. 10-3
  4. 4. Key Social Skills Managers Need for Building Social Capital Social Skill DescriptionSocial perception Ability to perceive accurately the emotions, traits, motives and intentions of othersImpression management Tactics designed to induce liking a favorable first impression by othersPersuasion and social Ability to change others’ attitudesinfluence and/or their behavior in desired directionSocial adaptability Ability to adapt to, or feel comfortable in, a wide range of social situations 10-4
  5. 5. Your ExperienceWhat types of groups have you belonged to?a. Class group projectsb. Groups whose members share an common recreational interest or hobbyc. Student organizationsd. OtherWhat made this experience rewarding?What made this experience challenging? 10-5
  6. 6. Sociological Criteria of a Group Common identity 4 Collective norms 2 1 3 Two or more Collective goals Freely interacting individuals 10-6
  7. 7. Value of GroupsWhy doindividuals joingroups?Why doorganizationsform groups? 10-7
  8. 8. Formal Groups Fulfill Organizational Functions1) Accomplish complex, independent tasks beyond the capabilities of individuals2) Generate new or creative ideas or solutions3) Coordinate interdependent efforts4) Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems5) Implement complex decisions6) Socialize and train newcomers 10-8
  9. 9. Formal Groups Fulfill Individual Functions1) Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation2) Develop, enhance and confirm individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity3) Give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality4) Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerlessness5) Provide a problem-solving mechanism for social and interpersonal problems 10-9
  10. 10. Social Networking Revolution What managementSocial networking challenges does thissites are: create?•Breaking down silos How can SNS’s be used•Blurring the lines to the organization’s between formal and benefit? informal groups•Enabling friendships Should managers be between managers friends with direct and subordinates reports? 10-10
  11. 11. Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development Performing Adjourning Norming Storming Return to Independence Forming Dependence/ interdependenceIndependence 10-11
  12. 12. Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development Forming Storming Norming Performing “How can I “What do theIndividual “How do I fit “What’s my best others expect Issues in?” role here?” me to do?” perform my role?” “Why are we fighting over “Can we agree “Can we do Group “Why are we who’s in on roles and the Issues here?” charge and work as a job properly?” who team?” does what?” 10-12
  13. 13. Test Your KnowledgeTrue or False?1. All groups go through the stages in this order and don’t regress to earlier stages.2. Knowledge of these stages helps members and leaders understand the group’s behavior and take appropriate action.3. Participative leadership is more important in earlier stages, while structured leadership is more important in later stages.4. Feedback becomes more general, less frequent, and more negative as teams progress through the stages.5. Unclear deadlines make work teams less efficient. 10-13
  14. 14. Roles DefinedRole expectedbehaviors for agiven positionExamples:• Team Leader• Devil’s Advocate• Business Developer 10-14
  15. 15. A Role Episode Role Sender Focal Person• Perceived organizational/ Role • Perceived role expectations group requirements Modeling • Experienced role overload,• Comparative evaluation of role conflict, role ambiguity - Role expectations for Communication • Constructive/destructive focal person of approval responses - Focal person’s behavior or need for change Feedback 10-15
  16. 16. Roles DefinedRole Conflict: others have conflicting orinconsistent expectationsRole Ambiguity: Confusion arising from notknowing what one is expected to do as the holder of arole.Role Overload: others’ expectations exceed one’sabilityWhat is the impact of these outcomes?What can managers do about it? 10-16
  17. 17. Norms Norm shared attitudes, opinions, feelings, or actions that guide social behavior In what four ways are norms formed? 10-17
  18. 18. Four Reasons Norms are Enforced Group/organization survival Clarification of behavioral expectations Avoidance of embarrassment Clarification of central values/unique identity 10-18
  19. 19. Task RolesInitiator suggests new goals or ideasInformation seeker/giver clarifies key issuesOpinion seeker/giver clarifies pertinent valuesElaborator promotes greater understandingthrough examples or exploration of implicationsCoordinator pulls together ideas and suggestions 10-19
  20. 20. Task RolesOrienter keeps group headed toward its statedgoal(s)Evaluator tests group’s accomplishments withvarious criteria such as logic and practicalityEnergizer prods groupProcedural technician performs routine dutiesRecorder performs a “group memory” function bydocumenting discussion and outcomes 10-20
  21. 21. Maintenance RolesEncourager fosters group solidarity by accepting andpraising various points of viewHarmonizer mediates conflict through reconciliation orhumorCompromiser helps resolve conflict by meeting others“half way”Gatekeeper encourages all group members toparticipateStandard setter evaluates the quality of group processesCommentator records and comments on groupprocesses/dynamicsFollower serves as a passive audience 10-21
  22. 22. Test Your KnowledgeKaren, a manager, would like to assemble agroup to make a difficult, complex decision.Ken, wants to form a group to brainstormnew product ideas. The optimal size forKaren’s and Ken’s groups, respectively, is:a. 20-25, 4-5b. 10-15, 10-15c. 3-5, 8-12d. 8-12, 3-5 10-22
  23. 23. Categories of Sexual HarassmentCategory Behavioral ExamplesDerogatory attitudes--impersonal  Obscene gestures not directed at target  Sex-stereotyped jokesDerogatory attitudes--personal  Obscene phone calls  Belittling the target’s competenceUnwanted dating pressure  Repeated requests to go out after work or schoolSexual propositions  Proposition for an affair 10-23
  24. 24. Categories of Sexual Harassment Category Behavioral ExamplesPhysical sexual contact  Embracing the target  Kissing the targetPhysical nonsexual contact  Congratulatory hugSexual coercion  Threatening punishment unless sexual favors are given  Sexual bribery 10-24
  25. 25. Threats to Group EffectivenessAsch EffectGroupthinkSocial Loafing 10-25
  26. 26. The Asch EffectAsch Effect: the distortion of individualjudgment by a unanimous but incorrectopposition. Standard Line Card Comparison Lines Card ? 1 2 3 10-26
  27. 27. Asch EffectSince the 1950’s this effect has declined in theUSIndividualist cultures resist pressures toconform more than collectivistic culturesWhat are the implications of the Asch effectfor managers? 10-27
  28. 28. GroupthinkGroupthink: When youfeel a high pressure toconform and agree andare unwilling torealistically viewalternativesWhat are some of thereasons or factors thatpromote groupthink?What can be done toprevent groupthink? 10-28
  29. 29. Symptoms of Groupthink Lead to Defective Decision MakingSymptoms of Groupthink Decision-making Defects Invulnerability 1) Few alternatives Inherent morality 2) No reexamination of Rationalization preferred alternatives Stereotyped views of 3) No reexamination of opposition rejected alternatives Self-censorship 4) Rejection of expert opinions Illusion of unanimity 5) Selective bias of new information Peer pressure 6) No contingency plans Mindguards 10-29
  30. 30. Social Loafing Social Loafing: decrease in individual effort as group size increasesWhat factors contribute to social loafing?What actions could you take to prevent social loafing? 10-30
  31. 31. Test Your Knowledge A group of employees with accounting expertiseneeds to adapt their procedures in response tochanges within the organization. The group decidesto 1) hold each member accountable for ameaningful task and 2) to establish a process so thateveryone openly expresses their opinion. The groupwas trying to prevent ____ and _____, respectively.a. Social loafing; Groupthinkb. Role overload; social loafingc. Asch Effect; role ambiguityd. Groupthink; role overload 10-31