Greece Part 3


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  • ATHENA ATTACKING THE GIANTSDetail of the frieze from the east front of the altar from Pergamon. c. 175-150 BCE. Marble, frieze height 7'7" (2.3 m). Staatliche Museen, Berlin. [Fig. 05-63]
  • NIKE (VICTORY) OF SAMOTHRACESanctuary of the Great Gods, Samothrace. c. 180 BCE (?). Marble, height 8'1" (2.45 m). Musée du Louvre, Paris. [Fig. 05-65]
  • Alexandros from Antioch-on-the-Orontes APHRODITE OF MELOS (ALSO CALLED VENUS DE MILO)c. 150-100 BCE. Marble, height 6'8" (2.04 m). Musée du Louvre, Paris. [Fig. 05-67]
  • OLD WOMANRoman 1st century CE copy of a Greek work of the 2nd century BCE.Marble, height 49-1/2" (1.25 m).Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Rogers Fund, 1909. (09.39) [Fig. 05-66]
  • Hagesandros, Polydoros, and Athenodoros of Rhodes LAOCOÖN AND HIS SONSOriginal of 1st century BCE, or a Roman copy, adaptation, or original of the 1st century CE. Marble, height 8' (2.44 m).Musei Vaticani, Museo Pio Clementino, Cortile Ottagono, Rome. [Fig. 05-64]
  • Epigonos (?) DYING GALLIC TRUMPETERRoman copy (found in Julius Caesar's garden in Rome) after the original bronze ofc. 220 BCE. Marble, height 36-1/2" (93 cm). Museo Capitolino, Rome. [Fig. 05-60]
  • Greece Part 3

    1. 1. Ancient Greece Classical and Hellenic Sculpture “The Nude Dudes”
    2. 2. Characteristics of Greek Classical Sculpture: •Different from Archaic in the use of CONTRAPPOSTO: fluid body movement, relaxed stance, unknown in freestanding sculpture until this point •Forms highly idealized- even old people have heroic bodies! •Heroic form defined by POLYKLEITOS, a sculptor whose CANON of proportions of the human figure had far-reaching effects- wrote that the head should be 1/7 of the body- favored heavy musculature with a body expressing alternating stances of relaxed and stressed muscles •Peloponnesian war impacts the arts- human form stopped being so idealized •gods started being sculpted in a more humanized way •PRAXITELES carved figures with a sensuous appeal, favored a lanky look •Sculptures from 300’s BCE have heads that are 1/8 of the body and sensuous S-curve to the frame
    3. 3. Let’s take a look at some Greek Classical Sculpture (and mosaics, and a few other Classical things)
    4. 4. Discus Thrower (Diskobolos), Myron, 450 BCE • Thrower Diskobolos • Don’t know the exact location, the Roman’s made their own copy • Originally found in Greece, placed at the entrance of the Panathinaikon Stadium in Athens, where the first modern Olympic Games were held in 1896 AD. • This piece is made out of pure marble • Created 450 BCE which rests in the classical Greek period • Made to represent the perfect athletic form of Diskobolos • Achieved this by flexing his muscles(to show his strength) and Having a stern look(to show his concentration) • Unique features include the vigorous movement which is Portrayed, The top half of the statue is smooth and open; the Bottom is curved and angular, has no symmetry • Similar to this piece is “Achilles” used same material of pure Similar in size, muscles are also shown to flex • Aspects of Greek culture represented-shows how Greeks strived For peak performance and also liked to be very fit, shows how Greeks Appreciated the ideal figure
    5. 5. East Pediment of the Temple of Aphaia
    6. 6. Information • • • • • • • • • • • Marble 490 BCE - 480 BCE in the Classical Period of Ancient Greece narrates the birth of Athena from the head of her father, Zeus sun actually rising, and the god of the sun actually bringing the sun on his chariot, into the new day, representing the birth of Athena very lifelike and filled with movement, even though still sculptures also, bodies extremely expressive even though no head and no hands the kouros and korai stand stall and are usually expressionless, unless they have the archaic smile in contrast, the people depicted in this photo have twisted bodies and, their heads are turned in various ways, as Dionysys head is turned and has an interesting expression, we can assume that each of them had varied expressions Dionysus, God of wine, has a very relaxed composure like many Greek sculptures, this God displays nobility
    7. 7. Spear Bearer (Doryphoros) a.k.a. Achilles By: Guillermo Lopez-Vila
    8. 8. Artist: - Polykleitos Location: -Originally in Greece -Now in Naples National Archaeological Museum Medium: -Originally Bronze -Roman Copy (shown) is Marble Chronology: -450-440 BCE (Classical Era) Purpose: - Thought to represent Achilles -Illustrates theory of “The Canon” (ideal human) -Achieved by using proportional limbs and stance Unique Features: -Left leg set in motion, balanced by right arm in motion -“Contrapposto” -Head turned to show awareness -“Spear Bearer”, but missing spear Similar Works: -Compared to “Kritian Boy”, who lacks in dynamic appearance Represented Culture: -Shows how Greeks appreciated the ideal figure through the use of the Canon and contrapposto
    9. 9. Apollo with Battling Lapiths and Centaurs 470-460BCE, Marble, Temple of Zeus, Olympia Early Classical Period • Celebrates triumph of reason over passion, symbolized in Apollo overtaking the raving, drunk Lapiths • Decorate western pediment of the Temple of Zeus • Symbolized Greek ruling over Persia by demonstrating the power of the Greek gods • Lapith – children of Apollo and nymph Stilbe • Depicts common Greek myth • Centaur men carrying off lapith women at wedding • Apollo quells riot by raising his arm • Displays ideal, glorified human body in Apollo • Calm features on human faces, emotional non-humans On Temple In Museum
    10. 10. Athena, Herakles, and Atlas 460 BCE -made of marble -metope relief from frieze of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia -c. 460 BCE- The Classical period -one of 12 labors imposed by King Eurystheus of Tiryns -Herakles enlisted the aid of Titan Atlas to steal gold apples from the garden of Hesperides -Titan Atlas’s job was to hold up the heavens -Herakles held up the heavens while Titan Atlas stole the apples -Artist has balanced the erect, frontal view of heavily clothed Athena -High relief -Figures reflect a strong interest in realism
    11. 11. Kritian Boy (480 BCE) • • • • • • • • Found in the remains of the Athenian Acropolis in Greece Marble sculpture Created around 480 BCE - beginning of the Early Classical Period Purpose: represent the human body accurately, though in a glorified light -realistic features -nudity -contrapposto/shifted weight = more accurate representation of human body’s pose First Greek sculpture found with a more relaxed, natural pose Unlike upright, rigid kouroi sculptures of past Face unsmiling and more realistic as well Start of more natural-looking human figure sculptures, first sculpture of Early Classical Period, innovativeness signifies the start of a new era in Greek art
    12. 12. Charioteer of Delphi Heniokhos – “Rein Holder” • • • • • • • • • • First erected around 474 BCE Originally located in the Sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi Casted in bronze (lost wax method) Made in honor of the victory of a chariot team in the Pythian Games Part of a much larger statuary group probably including groomsmen, a chariot, and up to six horses Commissioned by Polyzalus, the tyrant of a Greek colony in Sicily called Gela Dedicated to Apollo as a tribute for the god’s help during the race Artist included an inscription around the base Name of sculptor is unknown Has glass eyes and copper detailing like other Greek statues – • Details have survived until today Example of “Early Classical” or “Severe” style – – More naturalistic pose than the preceding Archaic period of Greek art Stance is still rigid when compared to later works
    13. 13. Riace Bronze Warrior A (−460–−450) • One of two full-size hollow-cast bronze sculptures found in Riace, Italy in 1972 by a snorkeling chemist • Bone and glass eyes, silver teeth, copper lips and nipples, 6’9” (2 m) • Original site of creation uncertain. • Transitional between archaic, Classical periods of Greek Csulputer • Balance between ideal anatomical forms and gratuitous “naturalistic”/realistic detail, e.g. weight on back leg • Apparently part of a larger group in a sanctuary—probably some kind of monument • No testimony in literature to identify the depicted • Speculation: represents Tydeus of the Seven Against Thebes; or Athenian warriors from Delphi, part of monument to Battle of Marathon; or from Olympia • Show a shift between idealization of form of the heroes or athletes (it’s hard to tell) and more naturalistic detail • Not a very distinct “archaic smile” • Neither fully idealized, nor entirely realistic (impossible anatomy) “Warrior A” (460–−450 BCE): Zuo Michael
    14. 14. Zeus or Poseidon, 460-450 BCE, bronze • This could be Zeus (holding a thunder bolt) • This could be Poseidon holding a trident • Graceful turn of body with uplifted back foot • Idealized expression of the body • Embodies beauty, control, and strength • Head looks older than body • Found in two pieces at bottom of sea off the coast of Greece • Mastery of anatomy- probably rendered from a human model • Body of a true god- superhuman – gods are immortal and powerful, but subject to personality flaws and unpredictable emotions of mortal beings • Probably created for a temple dedicated to Zeus (or Poseidon)
    15. 15. East Pediment of the Parthenon (447-432 BCE) • • • Where: The Acropolis, Athens, Greece – The Parthenon and the pediment as a whole was made of low-relief pentelic marble – The skeletal of the structure still resides there today, the pediments serves as decoration on the top of the Parthenon – The center piece of the Pediment was destroyed, so all reconstructions are subject to conjecture and speculation What: Pediments are the triangular spaces formed by the pitch of the roof of a Greek temple, one at either end of the building. – Like the pediments of most temples, those of the Parthenon were filled with sculpture in the round, set on the deep shelf of the cornice and secured to the wall metal pins. – Much of which have been damaged or worn over the past centuries. Story: The east pediment narrates the birth of Athena, fully grown in clad armor, from the brow on the head of her father, Zeus. – The east pediment is preserved better than the west – The myth was not often depicted in classical times, although it had been popular in the Archaic period, on vases Predicted full view of both pediments View of only East Pediment
    16. 16. Greek Artwork The Horsemen, Marshals and Young Women 447-432 BCE Aliyah Oestreicher
    17. 17. The Processional Frieze • • • • • • • The Frieze, found in the Parthenon of Greece, was 525 feet long, made entirely of marble, and is a relief sculpture. The Frieze’s subject was a procession celebrating the festival that took place in Athens every four years. The Frieze belongs to the High Classical Period (450-400 BCE). The purpose of this massive piece was to depict various scenes of both everyday life and of godly activities. At one end, sculptors carved Athena’s birth and the women who paid homage to her. The sculptors of the piece took into the spectator’s view point, carving the top band in higher relief than the lower band, thus they would catch the reflected light and give viewers a clearer view of the action. The sculpture has amazing subtleties that are revealed in present day. They were originally made to be covered in paint and so held all the details a secret. Compared to other Greek art, many similarities jump out. Perhaps the most notable is the material, many of the Greek sculptors used marble exclusively. In addition, much of the robes and curvature of arms and legs are similar to other works of the era. The human form was so important, that comes out in this relief. This sculpture represents a lot of cultural and religion from Greece. The clothing, the gods, and the people’s actions are depicted so that they tell a story. The nobility, honor, and pride show through the sculpted people and their gods.
    18. 18. Marshals and Young Women
    19. 19. The Horsemen
    20. 20. Three Goddesses, from the Parthenon, 438-432 BCE, marble • • • • • Figures are related to one another in their poses, positions, and interconnected meaning Clinging, wet drapery reveals the voluptuous bodies beneath; deeply carved drapery Figures sit naturally within the framework of the pediment Used to be on the right side of the East Pediment (next to Athena’s birth scene) Posture varies in order to accommodate the slope of the pediment that framed them Hestia (goddess of hearth and home (about to stand up- tucked feet Dione (cradles daughter, Aphrodite)
    21. 21. Nike (Victory) Adjusting Her Sandal 410-405 BCE. Marble. 3’6”. Acropolis Museum, Athens. • Relief sculpture • Part of parapet (low wall) in Temple of Athena Nike (reduced to rubble in Turkish occupation of Greece) • From the High Classical Period • Most discreetly erotic image in ancient art • Bends gracefully forward, causing garments to slip off shoulder. • Wings create balance unstable pose • Fluid movements, cloth clings to body like wet silk • Emphasis on realistic, detailed body figures • Fluid movement, asymmetrical pose
    22. 22. Grave Stele of Hegeso 410-400 BCE , Kerameikos Athens, Pentelic marble • • • • Free standing monument width: 0,97 m, height: 5’2” (1.58m) Classical Period 410-400 BCE Found in Athens, cemetery of Kerameikos • It shows a beautiful women seating (Hegeso) in a elegant chair with her feet on a foot stool : represented ideal women of that time • She is selecting jewels from a box presented by her maid • It is a relief sculpture • Although their faces and bodies are idealized, the two women take some individuality through details in costume and hair • The maid’s hair is caught in a net, while Hegeso’s hair is flowing • Purpose: It is a freestanding monument that used in cemeteries
    23. 23. Hermes and The Infant Dionysus Artist: Praxiteles or His Followers 4th Century BCE • • • • • • • • Late Classical Period, c. 350-330 BCE From the temple of Hera, Olympia Height 2.15 meter, marble statue When Zeus, king of the gods, revealed himself to his mortal lover Semele, she died. Zeus, was able to rescue their unborn child by sewing him to his thigh. Following the birth of the child, Zeus ordered Hermes, to hide the baby from his wife Hera, who sought to destroy the baby. Hermes took the baby to mountains for hiding, where nymphs raised the child. The purpose of this artwork was to show the devotion Hermes had to Zeus, he would do anything to help him and his family, this can compare to most other Greek sculptures and there significances. Negative space, the detail of the cloth and on the baby are extremely specific and strongly detailed Greek culture can be seen through this by the fact that it’s purpose was to protect Zeus's son. Since Zeus is a Greek God, he was strongly admired and therefore his child is characterized in this piece Unique features; the off-balanced stance of the god’s body forms a new pose known as the "Praxitelean curve."
    24. 24. Aphrodite of Knidos Artist: Praxiteles • • • • Found near the ancient Roman harbour of Portus Sculpture (1.52 m), made of marble Constructed in 350 BCE – Late Classical Period (400-300 BCE) Depicted the goddess as she prepared for the ritual bath that restored her purity (not virginity), discarding her drapery in her left hand, while modestly shielding herself with her right hand. – Her hands are placed in a motion that simultaneously shields her womanhood and draws attention to her nudity. • One of the first nude female statues – At Knidos the statue stood in the center of Aphrodite's round temple  statue could be viewed from all sides. – Aphrodite not ashamed of nudity -- demonstrates that the nudity of the goddess signifies her divine birth from the sea – Pudica gesture is not indicative of her shame, but her fertility – Her eternal youth through ritual cleansing and renewal – Use of contrappso, like many other works (ex. Doryphoros) – Praise of the deities, respect for them
    25. 25. Panel from the Amazon Frieze -found in the tomb of Maussollos at Halikarnassos -marble -mid-4th century under the late Classical Period -depicted the adventure of Herakles and Theseus to Themiskyra, where they battled with Amazonian women -at top of a podium, met at corners of building (Castle of St. Peter at Bodrum) -rich colours: blue background, flesh of men was red -unique features: bronze added for some weapons and bits of the horses -battles with Amazonian women was a common subject in Greek sculpture and culture -dynamic and nude features of the men very common in other pieces
    26. 26. Man Scraping Himself • • • • • • • • • • • • Apoxyomenos (the "Scraper") by Lysippos Marble copy made by the Romans Original Bronze copy was lost Created c. 350-325 BCE, Late Classical Period Greek Athlete lost in thought while scraping sweat and dirt from his body Deep-set eyes, tousled hair, heavy forehead, dreamy stare create look of deep thinking Weight evenly distributed between engaged and free legs Arm is outstretched; viewers must circle for full view Use of contrapposto pose Typical Classical subject: nude male athlete Canon of Proportions: Ideal Human Figure Importance of Athletics to Greeks (Olympics)
    27. 27. Alexander the Great -Found in Alexandria, Egypt -Created around 330 BCE, Honoring Alexander the Great, the new leader of Egypt -Made out of Marble; over the top, gold-studded -Coin created in about 300 BCE -Made out of silver -Great amount of detail, especially in hair -Shows wealth and class
    28. 28. Alexander The Great Confronts Darius III at the Battle of Issos • Floor mosaic • Originally found in The House of Faun in Pompeii, Italy • 1st century CE • Roman copy of Greek wall painting (Fresco) from 310 BCE (The Hellenistic Period) • 8’10” x 17’ • The original is believed to be created by either Philoxenos of Eretria or Helen of Egypt • Depicts Alexander the Great (left) defeating Darius III (right) • Created to praise Alexander the Great • The artist uses shadow to create a mass of volume effect
    29. 29. THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD 323-30 BCE • Greek empire started to break apart when Alexander the Great died unexpectedly in 323 BCE • Battle of Acticum in 31 BCE and death of Cleopatra in 30 BCE ended Hellenistic period
    30. 30. Characteristics of Greek Hellenistic Sculpture: • • • • Wider range of realistic modeling Show more movement than Classical Figures have variety of expressions- sad to joy Themes unused before: childhood, old age, despair, anger, drunkenness • Accent on range of human emotion • Sculptors carve with greater flexibility- use negative space more freely • Viewer is meant to walk around sculpture and see it from all angles (not up against a wall)
    31. 31. Greek Before Hellenistic Hellenistic Idealized, general figures Showed individuals and specifics Heroic figures Everyday figures gods Mortals Aloof serenity Individual emotion Drama Melodramatic pathos Mild drama Intense drama, appeal to the senses
    32. 32. Gallic Chieftain Killing His Wife and Himself (Roman copy after the original Greek bronze of 220 BCE) •Greek original was bronze •Pity for subjects •Chieftain supports dead wife and plunges sword into his chest •Deliberate attempt to elicit a specific emotional response in the viewer = EXPRESSIONISMcharacteristic of Hellenistic art
    33. 33. ATHENA ATTACKING THE GIANTS Detail of the frieze from the east front of the altar from Pergamon. c. 175-150 BCE. Marble, frieze height 7'7” Remember this? This is Hellenistic! Look at the emotion!
    34. 34. NIKE (VICTORY) OF SAMOTHRACE Sanctuary of the Great Gods, Samothrace. c. 190 BCE . Marble, height 8'1”. Musée du Louvre, Paris •Meant to stand in or above a fountain representing a figurehead (prow) of a boat •Wet drapery look imitates the water playing on the wet body •Invisible wind on her body 100x more beautiful in person! Check it out in Paris! •Probably built to commemorate a naval victory in 191 BCE •Dramatic twist •Contrapposto torso •Monumentality of figure •Missing right arm may have raised a victory crown or held an open hand in greeting •Boat at base is battleship
    35. 35. Views from the Smolinski Cam
    36. 36. Boxer at Rest, late 4th-2nd century BCE, bronze with inlaid copper • Captures a specific moment • Found in Rome • Boxer – sitting on a boulder just after a match – resting after tension of the fight • Something catches his eye and makes him turn his head – applause for next opponent? • Athletic nakedness, just boxing gloves and athletic suspender • Many wounds on head- just finished match • Blood = inlaid copper- drips from wounds
    37. 37. Alexandros (artist) APHRODITE OF MELOS (ALSO CALLED VENUS DE MILO), c. 150-100 BCE. Marble, height 6'8”, Musée du Louvre, Paris. •Elegance of pose •Long, S-shaped curve •Sensuous and erotic •One hand perhaps held an apple, her symbol •Maybe held a mirror to admire herself •Other hand might have held up her robes •Softly modeled forms •Light and shadow softly play on surface
    38. 38. Smolinski Cam
    39. 39. OLD MARKET WOMAN Roman 1st century CE copy of a Greek original from 150-100 BCE Marble, height 49-1/2”, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York •Extreme realism, interest in old age •Unknown function •Woman presenting gift of birds and fruit as offering for a festival? •Dress is surprisingly elegant- in contrast to nonelegant way it is worn •May have been an elderly worshipper of the god of wine, Dionysos •Another interpretation- she is an old market woman – poor, crippled with infirmities, returning from market with what she bought
    40. 40. Rhodes Sculptors, LAOCOÖN AND HIS SONS 1st century CE. Marble, height 8’ Vatican Museum, Rome. •Story of Trojan priest who tried to warn his people of the dangers lurking inside the horse given to Troy by the Greeks- snakes were sent by the gods to prevent him from speaking •High drama, emotional •Twisting, curving forms- the eye can’t rest- wanders around composition- view it from all angles •Exaggerated muscles- increases pathos of moment •Negative space!
    41. 41. Epigonos (?) DYING GALLIC TRUMPETER Roman copy (found in Julius Caesar's garden in Rome) after the original bronze of c. 220 BCE. Marble, height 36-1/2”, Museo Capitolino, Rome.
    42. 42. •Trumpeter from Gaul collapsing on his instrument •Blood oozing from his wounds- shows defeat of Gauls •Seen as hero by the Greeks- glorifies their conquest- victory over the Gauls •Represents barbarian foe: hair unkept •Meant to be seen in the round- all angles •Negative space •Emotion on face