Italian Renaissance by Kavita


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  • Filippo Brunelleschi DOME OF FLORENCE CATHEDRAL (SANTA MARIA DEL FIORE)1420-1436; lantern completed 1471. [Fig. 20-02]
  • Italian Renaissance by Kavita

    1. 1. Italian Renaissance: 15th Century 1400-1500 In Italian city-states: Ferrara, Florence, Mantua, Naples, Rome, Venice, etc.
    2. 2. Culture • The fine arts influenced by CLASSICAL styles • HUMANISM emerges – stresses secular alongside religious • LINEAR PERSPECTIVE is realized – artists create realistic paintings • Best understanding of human anatomy, large-scale nude sculpture • Architecture emphasizes open light spaces, symmetry, and balance • Artists encouraged to explore pagan past in relation to modern life. • European explorers venture out = knowledge • Growth/appreciation of the sciences and arts History • City-states controlled by ruling families who dominate politics • Big spenders in the arts. • Embellished palaces with innovative paintings • The ruling families commissioned architecture
    3. 3. • • • • • Mathematics important in engineering these buildings! Geometric designs stressed Harmony achieved by ideal proportions (Vitruvius - architectural treatise) Ratios, proportions, various elements, etc. express humanistic ideals Often have unvaulted naves with coffered ceilings Proportions • Crossing is 2X the nave • Nave is 2X the side aisles • Side aisles 2X the side chapels
    4. 4. • Ceiling • Similar to Early Christian wooden type • Rectangular floor grids define the spaces • Use of ratios • Nave = two aisles • Aisles = two side chapels • Interior • Cool and harmonious • Sparse decoration • Light and airy • Not much stained glass SAN LORENZO Filippo Brunelleschi, 14211469, Florence, Italy
    5. 5. DOME OF FLORENCE CATHEDRAL Filippo Brunelleschi, 1420-1436 Lantern completed 1471
    6. 6. Brunelleschi’s Dome • • • • • Older domes didn’t have as much vertical thrust • Raised on a drum to increase height Dome is OGIVAL arch shape New technique – putting one dome inside of another = strength/stability • Built without centering devices Lantern at top anchors dome into place Architecture – light, order, clarity • Buildings have wider window spaces, limited stained glass, wall paintings
    7. 7. PAZZI CHAPEL Filippo Brunelleschi, 1423, Florence • • • • Rectangular chapel attached to a church of Santa Croce in Florence Two barrel vaults on interior Small dome over crossing Restrained sense of color • Muted tones • Glazed terracotta tiles
    8. 8. PALAZZO RUCELLAI Leon Battista, 1452-1470, Florence • Three separate floors • Separated by clear “stringcourse” • Pilasters divide space in square-ish shapes • Strong cornice at top • Not rustic like Michelozzo’s palazzo • Masonry joints are beveled • Different style plasters • Friezes have Rucellai family symbols • Ex. Billowing sails
    9. 9. SANT’ ANDREA Leon Battista Alberti, 1470, Mantua • Roman triumphal arch • Huge pilasters on either side • Pilasters support pediment • First to be used in Christian architecture • Ancient temple façade • Wanted identical width/height • Piazza in front of church is small = small façade • Large barrel vault canopy hangs over west façade • Shields nave window from sun • Interior • Huge barrel vaults • No side aisles • Coffered ceiling
    10. 10. • PALACES in Florence – dominating facades – three stories high, austere looking • First floor • Public areas with business transactions • Rusticated (rough cut stone), heavily articulated stone • Second floor • Much lighter • Strong horizontal marking the ceiling of one story and floor of another • Family l • Third floor • Even more lightness • Less articulation of stone • Heavy cornice caps off roof Palazzo Medici-Riccardi Michelozzo, 1444, Florence • Interior courtyard allows light into interior rooms • Expresses civic pride and political power of Medici family • Very symmetrical
    11. 11. Painting • LINEAR PERSPECTIVE • Attributed to Filippo Brunelleschi • Developed while drawing Florence Cathedral Bapistry • Artists create different artistic effects • PROPORTION • Artists start showing objects, scenery, and people proportionately • People no longer dominate the image • TROMP L’OEIL TECHNIQUE • “trick the eye” • PERSPECTIVE • Even used in sculpture • Carved at different depths to create a sense of space • IMAGES • Religious scenes • Portraits • Mythological scenes • Depictions of humanist ideals/aspirations • Exploration of the nude (especially male)
    12. 12. The First Signs of One Point Perspective • Brunelleschi was the first architect to use mathematical perspective in creating designs for buildings during the early Renaissance
    14. 14. Adoration of the Magi Gentile da Fabriano, 1423, Florence Tempera on panel • Patrons • The Strozzi family • Figures in fancy dress • “Courtly” outing to see baby Jesus at the Epiphany • Exotic animals reflect private zoos of Renaissance princes • Gold leaf used in frame and painting • Kings are shown at various ages • Symbolizes the ages of man • Animals seen at different angles • NATURALISM
    15. 15. Adoration of the Magi
    16. 16. Holy Trinity Masaccio, 1427, Florence Fresco in Santa Maria Novella • Patrons • The Lenzi family • Created as a tombstone for the family • Kneel outside arch • Faces show realism • Christ appears in two roles • Crucified Christ • Second person of the Holy Trinity • God supports him • Dove of the Holy Spirit is between the two of them • Mary and Saint John flank Christ • Typically in crucifixion scenes • Triangular figural composition dominated by Brunelleschi-inspired architecture
    17. 17. Holy Trinity • Vanishing point at the foot of the cross • Skeleton below painting symbolizes death • “I once was what you are; and what I am you will become.”
    18. 18. Mary Saint John Christ • Holy Spirit • As a dove The traditional symbol
    19. 19. Tribute Money Masaccio, 1425, Florence Fresco in Santa Maria del Carmine
    20. 20. Tribute Money • Scene from New Testament • Jesus is asked if he should pay tribute to civil authorities • One big narrative • Peter gets money from the fish (left) • Jesus confronts the tax collector • Peter pays tax collector (right) • Narrative moves from center, to left, to right • Figures are dominant and cast shadows on the ground
    21. 21. Expulsion from the Garden of Eden Masaccio, 1425, Carmine, Florence Fresco in Santa Maria del Carmine, • Bold use of nude forms • Intense expressions • Adam • Hides face in shame • Eve • Hides body in shame • Bleak background • Desolation outside Garden of Eden • Angel is foreshortened
    22. 22. Battle of San Romano Paolo Uccello, 1455 Tempera on wood
    23. 23. Battle of San Romano • Battle between Florence and Siena (1432) • Looks more like a ceremony • Strong use of perspective and vanishing points • Orthogonals in figures and weapons
    24. 24. Annunciation Fra Angelico, 1438-1447 Fresco
    25. 25. Annunciation • Architecture of painting reflects architecture of monastery • Serene and religious • Humility of figures • Solid forms – like Giotto • Smoothly modeled figures • Extreme delicacy • Spare environment • Focus on figures’ gestures and simple settings • Corinthian columns • Brunelleschi-type arches
    26. 26. The Last Supper Andrea del Castagno, 1447, Sant’ Apollonia, Florence Fresco
    27. 27. The Last Supper • Painted for a convent of cloistered nuns • Red brick in painting matches red brick tiles in the convent • Figures are individualizes • Little communication between them • Everything in sharp focus with precise edges • Judas is on the front side of the table • Apart from others • Symbolic of his guilt • Marble pattern behind Judas’ head • Symbolizes lightning pointing to his head • Six marble panels on left and back walls and four panels and two windows on right wall • Implies the room is square – doesn’t appear square • 2:1 ratio of loops on stringcourse on back wall implies the room is rectangular
    28. 28. Battle of Ten Naked Men (Battle of the Nudes) Antonio del Pollaiuolo, 1465-1470 Engraving • Dense vegetation • Contrasts with figures and “pushes” them forward • Imprecise anatomy • Expressive flexed muscles • Active posses • Figures seem to be in mirroring positions
    29. 29. Resurrection Piero della Francesca, 1463, San Sepolcro Fresco in the Palazzo Comunale • Geometric shapes • Christ • Stepping out of tomb or has foot on lid??? • Enormous figure who conquers all • Holds a labarum • Symbol of victory over death • Height of drama • Landscape (flat background) • Might symbolize death and new life (live tree/dead tree) • Morality • Left is bare area with strong and mature trees • Hard path • Right is pretty with less mature trees • Easy path
    30. 30. Room of the Newlyweds Andrea Mantegna, 1465-1471, Mantua Fresco in Ducal Palace • Cube-shaped room “domed” with painted central panel • There is no real dome • Oculus • Two groups of women leaning over a balustrade • Some look down at viewer • Foreshortening • Angels seen from front and back • Rest their feet on painted ledges • Bird and flower pot are unsettling
    31. 31. Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter Pietro Perugino, 1482, Sistine Chapel in Rome Fresco
    32. 32. Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter • Left background • Tribute money • Right background • Stoning of Christ • Vast piazza in one-point perspective • Arch of Constantine-like structures • Central basilica reminiscent of Brunelleschi or Alberti • Open space around keys = emphasis • Figures in contrapposto • Many contemporary faces
    33. 33. Birth of Venus Sandro Botticelli, 1485, Florence Tempera on canvas
    34. 34. Birth of Venus • Commissioned by MEDICI family • Venus • Emerges from sea foam • Dreamy, far away look in her eyes • Roses scattered before her • Roses created at same time as her • Thorns = love can be painful • Physical beauty • Lifts mind to God (divine love) • Plato • Venus was an earthly goddess of human physical love • Heavenly goddess who inspires intellectual love • Left • Zephyr (west wind) & Chloris (nymph) • Right • Handmaiden rushes to clothe her • Figures • Floating, not anchored to ground • Crisply drawn • Many pale colors • Landscape flat and unrealistic • Simple v-shaped waves
    35. 35. Spring (La Primavera) Sando Botticelli, 1482, Florence Tempera on wood
    36. 36. Spring (La Primavera) • Left • Mercury holding a caduceus up to the air to dispel storm clouds • Right • Zephyr reaches out to Chloris • Chloris transforms into Flora, goddess of Spring • Center • Venus wears a bridal wreath on her head • Cupid, son, is above her • Three Graces dance together • Embodiment of beauty Venus creates • Loose, long hair is a symbol of virginity • Narrow stage setting • Figures closer to viewer • FERTILITY SYMBOLS • Fruit, flower, spring, Venus, Cupid • Large oranges may refer to Medici coat-of-arms
    37. 37. Birth of the Virgin Domenico Ghirlandaio, 1485-1490, Santa Maria Novella, Florence Fresco
    38. 38. Birth of the Virgin • Religious scene in Florentine home – MODERN setting • St. Anne (Right) • Mary’s mother • Reclines in palace room • Midwives to St. Anne • GIOVANNI TORNABUONI • Daughter of patron • Center • High status • Upper left corner • Story of Mary’s parents, Joachim and Anna meeting
    39. 39. Damned Cast into Hell Luca Signorelli, 1499-1504, Orvieto Cathedral Fresco
    40. 40. Damned Cast into Hell • End of world scene – very common • Upper right • Heaven guarded by angels • Upper left • Angels carry off the damned • Made to go against ideas of some Christian heretics who questioned existence of hell and heaven and purgatory • Impenetrable mass of human bodies • Many figures die by strangulation • Largest treatment of human nudes to date • Devils discolored = evil
    41. 41. Sculpture • Interest in HUMANISM/Rebirth of Classical sculpture • Peak an interest in Greek and Roman sculpture • Medieval artists thought nudes were pagan • 15th century Italian sculptures glorified the nude • Like the ancients • Revival of life-size nude sculpture • Increased study of human anatomy • Heroic bodies in stone and bronze ***Much sculpture made for Florence Cathedral Baptistry
    42. 42. Sacrifice of Isaac Lorenzo Ghiberti, 1401-1403, Florence Gilt Bronze • Made for a competition to do a set of bronze doors for Florence Cathedral • Brunelleschi’s lost • Story • God asks Abraham to prove his love by sacrificing son Isaac • Abraham is about to kill Isaac when an angel appears/reveals it’s a test • Tells Abraham to kill a ram instead • Gothic quatrefoil pattern • Had to match Gothic doors already on the Baptistery • Influence of Gothic style • Gestures are graceful • Figures are separated • Helps with story’s clarity
    43. 43. Sacrifice of Isaac Filippo Brunelleschi, 1401-1403, Florence Bronze • • • • • • Lost the competition Dense group Great drama Dramatic tension and rigor Figures are heavy looking Figures spill over the edges of the quatrefoil
    44. 44. Gates of Paradise Lorenzo Ghiberti, 1425-1452, Florence Gilt bronze • Ghiberti gets this commission after winning “Isaac contest” • More sophisticated spatially than his other doors • Figures have more convincing volume • Lean, elegant, elongated bodies • Different facial expressions • 10 Old Testament scenes
    45. 45. Four Crowned Saints Nanni de Banco, 1409-1417 Part of “Or San Michele” in Florence Marble • Built for guild of wood and stone carvers • Shows four Christian sculptors • Refused to carve a statue of a pagan god for the Roman Emperor Diocletian/martyred for that • Saints • Wear Roman togas • Heads look like portraits of Roman emperors • Seem to be discussing their fate • Feet step outside of arch • Pedestal carved in arc • Follows their positioning • Figures are independent of the niche • Bottom scene has view of sculptors at work on their craft
    46. 46. David Donatello, 1420’s – 60’s Bronze • • • • First large-scale bronze since antiquity Exaggerated contrapposto of the body Probably displayed in Medici palace David • Looks androgynous • Stance is nonchalant • Contemplating victory over Goliath • Foot on Goliath’s head • Head lowered to show humility • Hat has laurel leaves on it • Means he was a poet • Special strength comes from God • Story of triumph of good over evil • Story • Israelites fighting Philistines • Philistines’ best warrior wants to fight Israelites best warrior – David volunteers • David refused armor, hits Goliath in the head with a stone/cuts off his head
    47. 47. Mary Magdalene Donatello, 1430-1450, Florence Wood • Mary • Was a reformed sinner – followed Christ • Hair covers her body • Wiped Christ’s feet with hair • Gilded hair indicated spirituality and former beauty • Emaciated from 30 years of penitence • Hallowed cheeks, missing teeth, sunken eyes • Face shows torture of a badly left life • Ravages of time on her body • Gesture of prayer expresses a world of spirituality • Eyes focused on an inner reality and a higher form of beauty • Completely, introspectively fixated on Christ
    48. 48. GATTAMELATA Donatello, 1445-1450, Padua, Italy Bronze • Nickname for warrior • “Honeyed Cat” • Gatamelata • Commemorative monument for a cemetery • Face reflects stern expression of a military commander • Horse is spirited, resting one leg on a ball • Rider is in control
    49. 49. Madonna and Child Luca della Robbia, 1455-1460, San Michele, Florence Terra cotta • White glazed terra-cotta of flesh areas simulates marble • Ceramic is cheap • Retains color and polish even outdoors • Drapery has rich colored glazes • Creates luminous ceramic forms • Soft quality of ceramic adds gentility to the artistic expression
    50. 50. Hercules and Antaeus Antonio del Pollaiuolo, 1475, Florence Bronze • Shows ancient myth • Hercules must lift Antaeus off the ground to defeat him • Antaeus gets his strength from his mother, who is the earth goddess • Active composition with limbs jutting out in various directions • Strong angles of the body • Sinewy, strong muscles
    51. 51. Colleoni Andrea del Verrocchio, 1481-1496, Venice Bronze • Military leader, fought for the Venetians • Very powerful and spirited animal tamed by an animated, victorious leader • Dramatically alive and forceful appearance • Bulging, fiery eyes • Erect position in saddle
    52. 52. VOCABULARY 1. BOTTEGA – the studio of an Italian artist 2. HUMANISM – an intellectual movement in the Renaissance that emphasized the secular alongside the religious. Humanists were attached the achievements of the classical past, and stressed the study of classical literature, history, philosophy, and art 3. LANTERN – a small structure with openings for light that crowns a dome 4. OTHOGONAL – lines that appear to recede toward a vanishing point in a painting with linear perspective 5. PILASTER – a flattened column attached to a wall with a capital, a shaft, and a base 6. QUATTROCENTO – the 1400s (15th century) of Italian art 7. RUSTICATE – to deeply and roughly incise stones to give a rough and rustic texture to its appearance 8. STRINGCOURSE – a horizontal molding 9. TROMPE L’OEIL – “fools the eye” – a form of painting that attempts to represent an object as existing in three dimensions, and therefore resembles the real thing