English GothicMore horizontal layout generally (less stress on height)More expansive sculptural program on facadesSpires located over the crossingOften a double transeptHigh use of square transept rather than roundUse of fan vaultingLarge transept windows rather than rose windows on WestworkIntegral rather than flying buttresses often usedOften located on the periphery or outside urban areaOften built on Norman church sites which held monasteries
“the holy city, new Jerusalemcoming down from God out ofheaven…having the glory ofGod, and her light like a mostprecious stone, even like a jasperclear as crystal…and the city waspure gold, like clear glass…whosefoundations were garnished withall manner of gems:jasper, sapphire, chalcedony, emerald, sardonyx, sardius, chrysolite,beryl, topaz, chrysoprase, jacinth,amethyst…” – Abbott Suger
Gothic Stained Glass Windows• Intricate pieces of colored glass joined bylead caning• Illustrated biblical stories, Saint’s lives, and occasionally contemporary scenes of workers• Jewel like colors and brilliance• Painted surfaces• Later Gothic windows allow more clarity and light into cathedral through lighter colors
The Abbey of Saint-DenisAbout four miles north of Paris lies the Abbey of Saint-Denis.Originally founded in 630 by King Dagobert, it sits at the site ofSaint Denis martyrdom. The abbey underwent a reconstructionin the 12th century under Abbot Suger and became one of theearliest instances of Gothic architecture.The church grew in fame. Joan of Arc blessed her weaponshere, and many French rulers and aristocrats were buried in itscrypt, including Louis XII, Catherine de Medicis, Louis XVI, andMarie Antoinette. During the French Revolution, many royaltombs were desecrated and many sacred objects were lost. Andin the years following, the church fell further into disrepair. Itwas, however, repaired under the rule of Napoleon.Among its treasures are a number of elaborate 12th Centurystained-glass windows, carved tombs, mosaics, and the FrenchRegalia, which were objects used during the coronation ofFrench kings.
As you walk through the nave tothe east end of the church, youcome to the transept, which is thehorizontal area that intersectswith the nave. This particulartransept is stubby; its arms areshorter than most other transepts.Most of the transepts from theGothic time period are shorterthan those from the Romanesqueera. Cathedrals such as Amiensand Reims have transepts witharms similar in length to that atSaint Denis. One thing that isunique about the transept at SaintDenis is that it is the mausoleumfor all of the kings and queens ofFrance. If you go to either thenorth or south sides of thetransept at Saint Denis you cansee the tombs of the many kingsand queens that are here.
Melchizedek, Abraham with Isaac, Moses, Samuel, and David
Jamb figures ofConfessors with St.Theodore on the right.South Transept ofChartres Cathedral.
Gothic SculptureRoyal Portals, Chartres Cathedral• Dominant columnar shape of jamb figures• Robes almost hypnotic in concentric concentration, no nervous excitement as in Romanesque• Far more rounded in volume than Romanesque, more 3d• Rippling sense of surface• Heads: serene, slightly heavy eyes, benevolent• Salvation stressed rather than the terror of judgment as in Romanesque• Bands of pockets of light and shadow• Each piece of stone is united with column behind Jamb statues stand attached to wall, but also in front of it Greater than life size Hanging long robes Architecture dominates Christ in tympanum: tranquil ease, delicate, strong
Gothic SculptureVisitation, Reims Cathedral• Classical look, i.e. Greek contrapposto imitated• Heads look like ancient Roman portraits• Figures start to converse through gesture and expression• Emerge more from the wall
Annunciation and Visitation from Reims Cathedral
Naumburg Cathedral, 13th centuryEkkehard and Uta
GOTHIC •More emphasis on naturalism •More classical treatment of Figures more drapery volumetric, naturallyelongated, erect posed (contrappostofigures that found – just not here – •More emphasis on spatialemphasize the vertical note Visitation at Reims). and psychologicaland appear as part of interactivitythe structure Figures interact with •Development of guilds and space and each otherDrapery falls in (note position of high craft standards*patterned, vertical arms, heads)pleats Individualization inEmphasize prophetic figurestradition (features, hair, jewelry, et c.)Symbolic figures More freestanding from
Gothic SculptureEkkehard and Uta• Stately, quiet, regal• Almost portrait statues• Attached to wall behind• Ekkehard: blunt, heavy- set, pouting, hand on sword as protector of the family• Uta: graceful, aloof, gown is so long that she must pick it up to walk• Body revealed beneath clothes Naumburg Cathedral, 13th century