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Late northern Renaissance 16th century


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Late northern Renaissance 16th century

  1. 1. 16th Century Art (Late Renaissance) in Northern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula (aka: NOT Italy) 1500-1600
  2. 2. What’s up with 16th century in Northern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula? • The Reformation brings on iconoclasm, lots of great artwork is thus destroyed, new work is prohibited from being made • However, the 16th century is still pretty darn creative and dynamic • Artists figure out how to represent figures without appearing to create pagan idols • Northern European artists very inspired by Italian Renaissance, but created their own traditions • Albrecht Durer – combines Northern Renaissance realism and interest in detail with Italian concern for size and monumentality
  3. 3. A little history… • Reformation began in 1517 when Martin Luther (monk and scholar) caused a split in the Christian faith – created political turmoil that lasted for centuries (He had a lot of complaints about the church in Germany) • Countries with a short Christian history (Germany, Scandinavia, and the Netherlands) became Protestant • Countries with a long Christian history (Spain, Italy, Portugal, and Poland) remain Catholic
  4. 4. • Protestants spread anti-Catholic feelings around – starts iconoclastic movement – attack paintings and sculptures of holy figures (they were considered sacred just a second ago, what the heck?!) • Calvinists were leaders of the iconoclastic movement. They were horrified by the “blasphemous and idolatrous” images of the Christians
  5. 5. Artists and Patrons are conflicted… • Artists caught in the middle of the iconoclasm argument – the Church was a great employer, but what if the Protestants are right? • Artists try to avoid the issue by doing other types of painting, like portraits. They play down religious themes. • Protestants thought they could reach God through their own human intercession, so paintings of Jesus (when allowed) were direct and forceful • Catholics liked saints, Mary, priests, etc. to act as “in betweens” between themselves and God (so images of holy people were more accepted) – But idolatry was not allowed by either Catholics or Protestants
  6. 6. and a word about trade… • Northern European economy was flourishing – constant flow of trade across the Atlantic • With trade came the buying/selling of art • Printmaking and other new technologies make artists popular internationally (prints travel well and are relatively cheap!)
  7. 7. Let’s look at architecture! • Gothic style was appreciated at first, but then became “old fashioned”. However, the verticality of Gothic stuck around. • Italian High Renaissance elements (columns, pilasters, pediments, etc.) were used a lot. Let’s see some examples…
  8. 8. THE ESCORIAL, by: Juan de Herrera and Juan Bautista del Toledo, 1563-1584, Madrid
  9. 9. Here’s a view of THE ESCORIAL from a different angle
  10. 10. Another angle
  11. 11. •It’s a palace, monastery, royal mausoleum, and church. It’s everything! •Dedicated to St. Lawrence (Philip II won the Battle of San Quintin on his feast day. •Ground plan is in the shape of a gridiron (St. Lawrence was tied to a gridiron and burned to death)
  12. 12. Plan of THE ESCORIA (and poor St. Lawrence with his gridiron)
  13. 13. •Philip II’s personality is reflected in the design – severe, restrained, massive, yet understanted •Entrance flanked by engaged Doric columns, pediment up top
  14. 14. • Four towers dominate the corners • Designed with the intent on showing that Spain is the center of the Christian world • Most of Spain’s kings (over the past 500 years) have been buried here
  15. 15. THE LOUVRE, by: Pierre Lescot 1546, Paris, France
  16. 16. Your art history education is NOT complete until you go here. GO!!! It’s one of the world’s largest museums and a historic monument! It has about 35,000 art objects. It’s the most visited museum in the world!
  17. 17. It wasn’t always a museum! – built as a royal palace for French kings (a blend of a French chateau and ann Italian palazzo) –opened as a museum in 1793
  18. 18. It’s pretty at night
  19. 19. SMO CAM (I kid you not)
  20. 20. -Lots of horizontal emphasis (goodbye Gothic!) -Roman style arcade on bottom floor -Tympana over the projecting bays
  21. 21. • There’s the arcade • Pitched roof, large window spaces, double columns (all French influences) • Pediments and pilasters (Italian Renaissance influence)
  22. 22. • Double columns surround a niche w/ sculpture
  23. 23. Check out its cool restoration workshop
  24. 24. There’s cool stuff here! Go!
  25. 25. PAINTING and SCULPTURE TIME! • We’ll see an Italian Renaissance influence, but the Northern European artists put their own spin on it (added minute details and painstaking realism) • Michelangelo was really popular in Northern Europe (even though he never went there!). Italian artists went north to study there (and the spread the style) • Northern European painters influenced by Mannerism and High Renaissance trend of massiveness and size • Fondness for nature not seen in Italian art (landscapes, animals, tiny people in vast outdoor settings)
  26. 26. • High horizon lines allow artists to show as much “earth” as possible • Use atmospheric perspective, not a ton of linear perspective • After reformation, portraits and scenes of everyday life are favored over religious themes (except for El Greco, he was passionate about Mannerism and religious stuff) • The Reformation makes things tough for sculptors (their work might be seen as pagan idols, oh no!) – many sculptures destroyed by religious nuts • Religious sculptures continue in Catholic countries, like Italy, but not in Protestant Northern Europe
  27. 27. Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch 1505-1510, oil on wood (go to Madrid’s Prado Museum to see it)
  28. 28. When you close it up, it looks like this (shows the world during Creation, probably the 3rd day -no animals or people yet)
  29. 29. Center Panel
  30. 30. LEFT RIGHT
  31. 31. Contrast!
  32. 32. • Let’s start with the left side: • Shows the Garden of Eden – humans in an ideal world, but… • Some signs of evil to come -animals being violent and eating each other -Adam and Eve look thin – insubstantial nudes, no backbone, act only on impulses
  33. 33. •Center panel is truly the Garden of Earthly Delights – the result of Adam and Eve’s sin •Sexual play of primitive humans •Eating sexually suggestive fruits and berries •idleness
  34. 34. Nothing suggestive about this, right?
  35. 35. •Sexually suggestive towers and wading pools •Animals suggest sexual perversity •Water-bound globe is a hybrid of stone and organic matter, adorned by nude figures cavorting both with each other and with various creatures, some of whom are realistic, others are fantastic or hybrid
  36. 36. •The head of one female is adorned with two cherries— a symbol of pride. •A man drinks lustfully from an organic vessel •A man carries a couple encased in a mussel shell
  37. 37. •Ordinary fruit is gigantic •Males and females in couples and in groups doing all sorts of amorous tings – behaving without shame – sexual curiosity •Self-absorbed joy, life without consequences (no kids or old people)
  38. 38. Now let’s look at the right side: •HELL! Souls are tormented by demons and made to pay for their sins •THIS is what happens when you do all the things the people in the central panel are doing •Musical instruments are used for torture (music arouses passions, look out!) •High horizon line (in all panels) allows Bosch to pack in a lot of details
  39. 39. •The "Tree-Man” •A pair of human ears brandishing a blade •A cavity in the torso with three naked people at a table, seated on an animal, and a fully clothed woman pouring drink from a barrel.
  40. 40. •The city in the background is burning down. The light from the fire pours out in beams •People fleeing
  41. 41. •The figures are light and minimally modeled •They lack individuality and minds of their own •The hell scene is set at night, no natural beauty •Cruel torture and retribution •War, torture, demons, mutated animals feeding on human flesh •Nakedness of human figures, try to cover themselves
  42. 42. A man is approached by a pig wearing the veil of a nun. The pig is shown trying to seduce the man to sign legal documents – symbolizes penalty for lustful thoughts
  43. 43. •All symbolizes stages of alchemy: •LEFT: opposite elements brought together •CENTER: mixing of elements •RIGHT: purification process by fire
  44. 44. ISENHEIM ALTARPIECE by Matthias Grunewald, 1510-1515, oil on panel
  45. 45. •Originally in a hospital where people were treated for “St. Anthony’s Fire” (ergotism) – disease caused by eating a fungus that grows on rye flour – causes convulsions and gangrene, yikes
  46. 46. It’s in a museum in France
  47. 47. •This view shows the Crucifixion •Dark background, dead, decomposing body •Arms detached from sockets, brutalized body, agony of the body shown = agony of ergotism
  48. 48. •Mary is dressed like a hospital nun and is swooning in grief •John the Baptist with a lamb (symbol of Christ’s sacrifice) •Notice how the seam of the panels would ‘amputate’ Christ’s arm when opened – patients w/ ergotism would be as well
  49. 49. •St. Sebastian on left (martyred by arrows) •St. Anthony the Great (keeping calm even though there’s a monster outside the window) •Both saints protect and heal the sick
  50. 50. •This is the second view •Christ rising from the dead, rags are now beautiful robes, no more wounds or suffering (message to patients – your disease will vanish when you go to heaven)
  51. 51. •Left shows the ANNUNCIATION (angel Gabriel tells Mary she will give birth to the son of God, no pressure) – depicted in a chapel because it’s a sacred event
  52. 52. •Center – concert of angles and the Nativity •Lots of symbols: enclosed garden = Mary’s womb and perpetual virginity, rose bush w/o thorns = Mary is free from sin, •fig tree = mother’s milk
  53. 53. •This is the third (and final!) view •Symbols of ergotism- oozing boils, withered arm, distended stomach
  54. 54. •St. Anthony in center •Who else is here? – St. Augustine and Guy Guers (the patron), bearers of offerings, St. Gerome, Christ, 12 Apostles
  55. 55. Visit of Saint Anthony to Saint Paul the Hermit Saint Anthony tormented by demons sent by Satan. God sends angels to help combat the demons
  56. 56. Let’s meet Albrecht Durer! SELF-PORTRAIT By Albrecht Durer 1500 Oil on wood
  57. 57. This is his house in Nurnberg, Germany (Smo cam) It’s cool inside! How did I NOT take a selfie here?
  58. 58. •Who does he remind you of (appearance, pose, etc.)?
  59. 59. •Christ-like pose, but not blasphemous! •God’s creativity is reflected in humans’ creativity •Frontal, symmetrical pose •Directly looking at the viewer, engaging •Triangular form
  60. 60. •Christ-like pose, but not blasphemous! •God’s creativity is reflected in humans’ creativity •Frontal, symmetrical pose •Directly looking at the viewer, engaging •Triangular form
  61. 61. •Durer is considered the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance •He did it all! – altarpieces, religious works, portraits, self- portraits, engravings, etc.
  62. 62. Self-Portrait at 26 By Durer 1498 Oil on panel
  63. 63. ADAM AND EVE By Albrecht Durer 1504 engraving
  64. 64. How would you describe their physique? Remind you of anything else from the past?
  65. 65. •Influenced by classical sculpture •Italian influence •Contrapposto •Northern Europe twist – super detailed •Adam tries to reason with Eve – he grabs a branch of mountain ash (which snakes don’t like)
  66. 66. APOLLO BELVEDERE Roman copy of a Greek original
  67. 67. MEDICI VENUS (Greek)
  68. 68. •Humans look ideal (before the fall of man!) •Lots of symbolism: •Mouse = Satan •Parrot = cleverness •Four humors are represented by animals (cat = angry, rabbit = energetic, elk = sad, ox = lethargic) – four humors kept in balance before the fall of man
  69. 69. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse By: Albrecht Durer 1498 woodcut
  70. 70. •In the Bible’s “Book of Revelations”, four horsemen come at the end of the world to destroy life. How uplifting! •They have weapons: famine (scales), war (sword), death (pitchfork) and pestilence (bow)
  71. 71. •Where is the line between earth and heaven? There isn’t one! •Crowded composition •Four horsemen ride swiftly over the dead
  72. 72. A Young Hare By Durer 1502 Watercolor on paper Awwwwww…
  73. 73. •Masterpiece of observational painting, nearly photographic accuracy, almost scientific study •Warm golden light •Layers of paint build up density of fur
  74. 74. Window reflects in eye = Durer probably worked from a live hare in his studio
  75. 75. Four Apostles By: Albrecht Durer 1526 Oil on wood panel
  76. 76. •John and Peter are on the left •Peter represented the pope in Rome, so Durer placed him behind John (Durer was a Lutheran, and thus did not believe in the pope’s importance in the church)
  77. 77. •Mark and Paul are on the right •Protestants like Paul (in white, in front)
  78. 78. •Four humors represented: •John is sanguine (optimistic, cheerful) •Paul is melancholic (sad, depressed) •Mark is choleric (angry, irritated) •Peter is phlegmatic (lethargic) JOHN Peter Paul Mark
  79. 79. •Would you believe this was painted for a city hall and not a church?! I kid you not! •Figures are in Italian style, but with Northern European attention to detail JOHN Peter Paul Mark
  80. 80. Battle of Issus By: Albrecht Altdorfer 1529 Oil on wood panel
  81. 81. •A scene that shows the victory of Greek Alexander the Great over Persian King Darius in 333 BCE •In reference to the battle against the Turks fought by William IV of Bavaria (the patron of this painting) •People are in Medieval outfits, though (?) in the Alpine landscape
  82. 82. •Sun is setting over the Greeks, moon is rising over the Persians •Background includes references to the Nile delta, Cyprus, and the isthmus of Suez. Nile empties into
  83. 83. Cyprus (Greek island in the Mediterranean Sea)
  84. 84. •This is Altdorfer’s #1 masterpiece •This is what we call a WORLD LANDSCAPE (shows an imaginary panoramic landscape from an elevated viewpoint; includes mountains and lowlands, water, and buildings; usually a Biblical or historical narrative, but figures are dwarfed by their surroundings.
  85. 85. •Commissioned by Duke William IV of Bavaria to hang in his home in Munich (part of a set of historical paintings) •The sky has a religious undertone (inspired by Church’s beliefs about the apocalypse)
  86. 86. •Thousands of soldiers and horses with weapons •Armies separated by dress- Alexander’s men in suits of armor, Persian wear turbans (look just like 16th century Turks!) •Bodies of fallen soldiers on ground •Soldiers continue across the battlefield to the campsite and cityscape by the water – moving toward the mountains in the center
  87. 87. •Microscopic details •Rich colors
  88. 88. Translation: “Alexander the Great defeating the last Darius, after 100,000 infantry and more than 10,000 cavalrymen had been killed amongst the ranks of the Persians. Whilst King Darius was able to flee with no more than 1,000 horsemen, his mother, wife, and children were taken prisoner.”
  89. 89. The French Ambassadors By: Hans Holbein 1533 Oil and tempera on wood panel
  90. 90. •Double portrait with a still life of carefully rendered objects •Objects are a reference to their educated background
  91. 91. •The skull is an ANAMORPHIC image (done in distorted perspective, must be seen from a particular angle or in a cylindrical mirror to look “correct”
  92. 92. Ah, that’s better
  93. 93. What the heck is this?
  94. 94. •Skull is meant to be a visual puzzle – forces the viewer to approach the painting from the side to see the skull become accurate (the painting may have been hung to encourage this angle)
  95. 95. •Skull may be used as a symbol of death •What else is in this painting?
  96. 96. Polyhedral sundial Shepard Universal dial equinoctial dial Arithmetic book
  97. 97. Nice globe too
  98. 98. LEFT figure: an ambassador to the court of Henry VIII (massive, worldly, extroverted, looking directly at viewer) RIGHT figure: a bishop (introverted, ecclesiastical-ie: relating to the church, dark clothing, eyes slightly averted from viewer)
  99. 99. Concealed crucifix in upper left – Christ is presiding over the destinies of these men…who inevitably will die (no one can escape death, even the most successful/good people)
  100. 100. Lute with a broken string (death symbol as well?)
  101. 101. Click here for a short movie about this piece Hey, show a movie about us!
  102. 102. And speaking of Henry VIII… Henry VIII By Hans Holbein 1540 Oil on wood panel
  103. 103. •Henry is looking VERY massive, confrontational, and confident •Frontal pose •Anything “mannerist” about this piece?
  104. 104. •Blue background was a Holbein trademark •Fancy clothes- dressed for his wedding to 4th wife, Anne of Cleves
  105. 105. Click here to watch a movie about me!
  106. 106. Return of the Hunters By: Pieter Brugel 1565, oil on wood panel
  107. 107. •A series of six paintings that represent different times of year •This one is November/December •Alpine landscape, winter scene
  108. 108. •Strong diagonals lead eye into the painting •High horizon line = Northern European tradition •Endless details
  109. 109. •Hunt isn’t going so well in the winter, poor little dogs are skinny and hanging their heads, hunters trudging along wearily •All they got is a little fox (pathetic)
  110. 110. •Calm, cold, overcast day •Muted whites and grays, bare trees, smoke from fires in the air •People prepare food at an outdoor fire (be thankful for ovens)
  111. 111. •People are peasants, not anyone in particular •Nothing is static, movement throughout the painting •People ice skate, play hockey on frozen lake
  112. 112. I hate winter. Click here to watch a movie about our pathetic hunt.
  113. 113. Burial of Count Orgaz By: El Greco 1586 Oil on canvas
  114. 114. •Count Orgaz died 300 years before this painting was commissioned •This painting hangs above his tomb in Santo Tome (a church) •Painting shows Orgaz being placed directly in
  115. 115. His tomb in Santo Tome, in Spain
  116. 116. •Count Orgaz was a great philanthropist, supported the church of Santo Tome (painting commissioned by the priest) •Saints come down from heaven to bury him – this painting shows that miracle
  117. 117. Bottom of painting: somber earth
  118. 118. Top of painting: ecstatic heaven
  119. 119. The cross bridges the gap between earth and heaven
  120. 120. •Catholics believe that doing good works (philanthropy) is essential for leading a good Christian life (remember, this is a SPANISH painting, where Catholicism is strong)
  121. 121. Legend of Orgaz’s burial: Saint Stephen and Saint Augustine descended in person from the heavens and buried him by their own hands in front of the dazzled eyes of those present
  122. 122. •Venetian color •Spanish mysticism •Mannerist style: elongated figures, twisting of figures, disembodied hands, crowded space •What a combo of styles!
  123. 123. •Venetian color •Spanish mysticism •Mannerist style: elongated figures, twisting of figures, disembodied hands, crowded space •What a combo of styles!
  124. 124. •Priest is conducting the funeral, but the crowd isn’t really paying attention to him – paying attention to Orgaz instead, focused on the action
  125. 125. Soul transported to heaven by angels Mary John the Baptist Jesus
  126. 126. Child is El Greco’s son, Jorge Manuel. Is he pointing to Orgaz or the flower on the sleeve of the saint?
  127. 127. •Anachronistic scene (out of chronological order) – Christian saints from early days of Church bury a 14th century man (Orgaz) with 16th century dignitaries in attendance (???)
  128. 128. •El Greco painted himself in there!
  129. 129. VOCABULARY: •ANAMORPHIC IMAGE: an image that must be viewed by a special means, such as a mirror, in order to be recognized •ENGRAVING: a printmaking process in which a toll called a burin is used to carve into a metal plate, causing impressions to be made in the surface. Ink passes into the crevices of the plate, and paper is applied. The result is a print with remarkable details and finely shaded contours •POLYPTYCH: a many-paneled altarpiece
  130. 130. •WOODCUT: a printmaking process in which a wooden tablet is gouged into with a tool, leaving the design raised and the background cut away (like a rubber stamp). Ink is rolled onto the raised portions, and an impression is made when paper is applied to the surface. – have strong angular surfaces with sharply delineated lines. FIN