Italian Renaissance:

th
15

Century	


1400-­‐1500	
  
In	
  Italian	
  city-­‐states:	
  Ferrara,	
  Florence,	
  Mantua...
Culture	
  
•  The	
  fine	
  arts	
  influenced	
  by	
  CLASSICAL	
  styles	
  	
  
•  HUMANISM	
  emerges	
  –	
  stresse...
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 
	
  

MathemaKcs	
  important	
  in	
  engineering	
  these	
  buildings!	
  	
  
Geometric	
  designs	
  s...
•  Ceiling	
  	
  
•  Similar	
  to	
  Early	
  ChrisKan	
  wooden	
  
type	
  
•  Rectangular	
  floor	
  grids	
  define	
...
DOME OF FLORENCE CATHEDRAL
Filippo Brunelleschi, 1420-1436
Lantern completed 1471
Brunelleschi’s	
  Dome	
  
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

Older	
  domes	
  didn’t	
  have	
  as	
  much	
  verKcal	
  thrust	
  	
  
•  ...
PAZZI	
  CHAPEL	
  
Filippo	
  Brunelleschi,	
  1423,	
  Florence	
  

Rectangular	
  chapel	
  afached	
  to	
  a	
  chur...
PALAZZO	
  RUCELLAI	
  
Leon	
  Badsta,	
  1452-­‐1470,	
  Florence	
  

•  Three	
  separate	
  floors	
  
•  Separated	
 ...
SANT’	
  ANDREA	
  
Leon	
  Badsta	
  AlberK,	
  1470,	
  Mantua	
  
•  Roman	
  triumphal	
  arch	
  
•  Huge	
  pilaster...
•  PALACES	
  in	
  Florence	
  –	
  dominaKng	
  facades	
  –	
  three	
  stories	
  high,	
  austere	
  looking	
  
•  F...
Pain0ng	
  
•  LINEAR	
  PERSPECTIVE	
  
•  Afributed	
  to	
  Filippo	
  Brunelleschi	
  
•  Developed	
  while	
  drawin...
The	
  First	
  Signs	
  of	
  One	
  Point	
  PerspecLve	
  
• 

Brunelleschi	
  was	
  the	
  first	
  architect	
  to	
 ...
BEFORE	
  PERSPECTIVE	
  

AFTER	
  PERSPECTIVE	
  
AdoraLon	
  of	
  the	
  Magi	
  
GenKle	
  da	
  Fabriano,	
  1423,	
  Florence	
  
Tempera	
  on	
  panel	
  
•  Patrons...
AdoraLon	
  of	
  the	
  Magi	
  
	
  
Holy	
  Trinity	
  
Masaccio,	
  1427,	
  Florence	
  
Fresco	
  in	
  Santa	
  Maria	
  Novella	
  
	
  
•  Patrons	
  
•...
Holy	
  Trinity	
  
•  Vanishing	
  point	
  at	
  the	
  foot	
  of	
  the	
  cross	
  
•  Skeleton	
  below	
  painKng	
...
Mary	
  

Saint	
  John	
  

Christ	
  

• 

Holy	
  Spirit	
  
•  As	
  a	
  dove	
  
T	
  he	
  tradiKonal	
  symbol	
  ...
Tribute	
  Money	
  
Masaccio,	
  1425,	
  Florence	
  
Fresco	
  in	
  Santa	
  Maria	
  del	
  Carmine	
  
Tribute	
  Money	
  
•  Scene	
  from	
  New	
  Testament	
  
•  Jesus	
  is	
  asked	
  if	
  he	
  should	
  pay	
  trib...
Expulsion	
  from	
  the	
  Garden	
  of	
  Eden	
  
Masaccio,	
  1425,	
  Carmine,	
  Florence	
  
Fresco	
  in	
  Santa	...
BaSle	
  of	
  San	
  Romano	
  
Paolo	
  Uccello,	
  1455	
  
Tempera	
  on	
  wood	
  
BaSle	
  of	
  San	
  Romano	
  	
  
•  Bafle	
  between	
  Florence	
  and	
  Siena	
  (1432)	
  
•  Looks	
  more	
  lik...
AnnunciaLon	
  
Fra	
  Angelico,	
  1438-­‐1447	
  	
  
Fresco	
  
AnnunciaLon	
  
•  Architecture	
  of	
  painKng	
  reflects	
  
architecture	
  of	
  monastery	
  
•  Serene	
  and	
  re...
The	
  Last	
  Supper	
  
Andrea	
  del	
  Castagno,	
  1447,	
  Sant’	
  Apollonia,	
  Florence	
  
Fresco	
  
The	
  Last	
  Supper	
  
•  Painted	
  for	
  a	
  convent	
  of	
  cloistered	
  nuns	
  
•  Red	
  brick	
  in	
  painK...
BaSle	
  of	
  Ten	
  Naked	
  Men	
  (BaSle	
  of	
  the	
  Nudes)	
  	
  
Antonio	
  del	
  Pollaiuolo,	
  1465-­‐1470	
...
ResurrecLon	
  
Piero	
  della	
  Francesca,	
  1463,	
  San	
  Sepolcro	
  
Fresco	
  in	
  the	
  Palazzo	
  Comunale	
 ...
Room	
  of	
  the	
  Newlyweds	
  
Andrea	
  Mantegna,	
  1465-­‐1471,	
  Mantua	
  
Fresco	
  in	
  Ducal	
  Palace	
  

...
Christ	
  Delivering	
  the	
  Keys	
  of	
  the	
  Kingdom	
  to	
  Saint	
  Peter	
  
	
  Pietro	
  Perugino,	
  1482,	
...
Christ	
  Delivering	
  the	
  Keys	
  of	
  the	
  Kingdom	
  
to	
  Saint	
  Peter	
  
	
  
•  LeY	
  background	
  
•  ...
Birth	
  of	
  Venus	
  
Sandro	
  Bodcelli,	
  1485,	
  Florence	
  
Tempera	
  on	
  canvas	
  	
  
Birth	
  of	
  Venus	
  
•  Commissioned	
  by	
  MEDICI	
  family	
  
•  Venus	
  
•  Emerges	
  from	
  sea	
  foam	
  	...
Spring	
  (La	
  Primavera)	
  
Sando	
  Bodcelli,	
  1482,	
  Florence	
  
Tempera	
  on	
  wood	
  
Spring	
  (La	
  Primavera)	
  
•  LeY	
  
•  Mercury	
  holding	
  a	
  caduceus	
  up	
  
to	
  the	
  air	
  to	
  disp...
Birth	
  of	
  the	
  Virgin	
  
Domenico	
  Ghirlandaio,	
  1485-­‐1490,	
  Santa	
  Maria	
  Novella,	
  Florence	
  
Fr...
Birth	
  of	
  the	
  Virgin	
  
•  Religious	
  scene	
  in	
  FlorenKne	
  
home	
  –	
  MODERN	
  sedng	
  	
  
•  St.	...
Damned	
  Cast	
  into	
  Hell	
  
Luca	
  Signorelli,	
  1499-­‐1504,	
  Orvieto	
  Cathedral	
  
Fresco	
  
Damned	
  Cast	
  into	
  Hell	
  
•  End	
  of	
  world	
  scene	
  –	
  very	
  common	
  
•  Upper	
  right	
  
•  Heav...
Sculpture	
  
•  Interest	
  in	
  HUMANISM/Rebirth	
  of	
  Classical	
  sculpture	
  	
  
•  Peak	
  an	
  interest	
  i...
Sacrifice	
  of	
  Isaac	
  
Lorenzo	
  GhiberK,	
  1401-­‐1403,	
  Florence	
  
Gilt	
  Bronze	
  
•  Made	
  for	
  a	
  ...
Sacrifice	
  of	
  Isaac	
  
Filippo	
  Brunelleschi,	
  1401-­‐1403,	
  Florence	
  
Bronze	
  
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 
• 

Lost	
 ...
Gates	
  of	
  Paradise	
  
Lorenzo	
  GhiberK,	
  1425-­‐1452,	
  Florence	
  
Gilt	
  bronze	
  
•  GhiberK	
  gets	
  t...
Four	
  Crowned	
  Saints	
  
Nanni	
  de	
  Banco,	
  1409-­‐1417	
  
Part	
  of	
  “Or	
  San	
  Michele”	
  in	
  Flore...
David	
  
Donatello,	
  1420’s	
  –	
  60’s	
  
Bronze	
  
	
  

First	
  large-­‐scale	
  bronze	
  since	
  anKquity	
  ...
Mary	
  Magdalene	
  
Donatello,	
  1430-­‐1450,	
  Florence	
  
Wood	
  	
  
•  Mary	
  
•  Was	
  a	
  reformed	
  sinne...
GATTAMELATA	
  
Donatello,	
  1445-­‐1450,	
  Padua,	
  Italy	
  
Bronze	
  

•  Nickname	
  for	
  warrior	
  
•  “Honeye...
Madonna	
  and	
  Child	
  
Luca	
  della	
  Robbia,	
  1455-­‐1460,	
  San	
  Michele,	
  Florence	
  
Terra	
  cofa	
  
...
Hercules	
  and	
  Antaeus	
  
Antonio	
  del	
  Pollaiuolo,	
  1475,	
  Florence	
  
Bronze	
  
•  Shows	
  ancient	
  my...
Colleoni	
  
Andrea	
  del	
  Verrocchio,	
  1481-­‐1496,	
  Venice	
  
Bronze	
  
•  Military	
  leader,	
  fought	
  for...
VOCABULARY	
  
	
  

1.  BOTTEGA	
  –	
  the	
  studio	
  of	
  an	
  Italian	
  arKst	
  
2.  HUMANISM	
  –	
  an	
  inte...
Italian Renaissance by Kavita
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Italian Renaissance by Kavita

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Italian Renaissance by Kavita

  1. 1. Italian Renaissance: th 15 Century 1400-­‐1500   In  Italian  city-­‐states:  Ferrara,  Florence,  Mantua,  Naples,  Rome,  Venice,  etc.  
  2. 2. Culture   •  The  fine  arts  influenced  by  CLASSICAL  styles     •  HUMANISM  emerges  –  stresses  secular  alongside  religious     •  LINEAR  PERSPECTIVE  is  realized  –  arKsts  create  realisKc  painKngs   •  Best  understanding  of  human  anatomy,  large-­‐scale  nude  sculpture     •  Architecture  emphasizes  open  light  spaces,  symmetry,  and  balance   •  ArKsts  encouraged  to  explore  pagan  past  in  relaKon  to  modern  life.     •  European  explorers  venture  out  =  knowledge   •  Growth/appreciaKon  of  the  sciences  and  arts   History   •  City-­‐states  controlled  by  ruling  families  who  dominate  poliKcs   •  Big  spenders  in  the  arts.     •  Embellished  palaces  with  innovaKve  painKngs   •  The  ruling  families  commissioned  architecture  
  3. 3. •  •  •  •  •    MathemaKcs  important  in  engineering  these  buildings!     Geometric  designs  stressed     Harmony  achieved  by  ideal  proporKons  (Vitruvius  -­‐  architectural  treaKse)   RaKos,  proporKons,  various  elements,  etc.  express  humanisKc  ideals   OYen  have  unvaulted  naves  with  coffered  ceilings   ProporKons   •  Crossing  is  2X  the   nave   •  Nave  is  2X  the  side   aisles   •  Side  aisles  2X  the  side   chapels    
  4. 4. •  Ceiling     •  Similar  to  Early  ChrisKan  wooden   type   •  Rectangular  floor  grids  define  the  spaces   •  Use  of  raKos   •  Nave  =  two  aisles   •  Aisles  =  two  side  chapels   •  Interior     •  Cool  and  harmonious   •  Sparse  decoraKon   •  Light  and  airy   •  Not  much  stained  glass     SAN  LORENZO   Filippo  Brunelleschi,  1421-­‐1469,   Florence,  Italy  
  5. 5. DOME OF FLORENCE CATHEDRAL Filippo Brunelleschi, 1420-1436 Lantern completed 1471
  6. 6. Brunelleschi’s  Dome   •  •  •  •  •  Older  domes  didn’t  have  as  much  verKcal  thrust     •  Raised  on  a  drum  to  increase  height   Dome  is  OGIVAL  arch  shape   New  technique  –  pudng  one  dome  inside  of  another  =  strength/stability   •  Built  without  centering  devices   Lantern  at  top  anchors  dome  into  place   Architecture  –  light,  order,  clarity       •  Buildings  have  wider  window  spaces,  limited  stained  glass,  wall  painKngs  
  7. 7. PAZZI  CHAPEL   Filippo  Brunelleschi,  1423,  Florence   Rectangular  chapel  afached  to  a  church  of  Santa  Croce  in  Florence     Two  barrel  vaults  on  interior   Small  dome  over  crossing   Restrained  sense  of  color   •  Muted  tones   •  Glazed  terracofa  Kles     •  •  •  • 
  8. 8. PALAZZO  RUCELLAI   Leon  Badsta,  1452-­‐1470,  Florence   •  Three  separate  floors   •  Separated  by  clear   “stringcourse”   •  Pilasters  divide  space  in  square-­‐ish   shapes     •  Strong  cornice  at  top     •  Not  rusKc  like  Michelozzo’s  palazzo   •  Masonry  joints  are  beveled     •  Different  style  plasters     •  Friezes  have  Rucellai  family   symbols     •  Ex.  Billowing  sails    
  9. 9. SANT’  ANDREA   Leon  Badsta  AlberK,  1470,  Mantua   •  Roman  triumphal  arch   •  Huge  pilasters  on  either  side   •  Pilasters  support  pediment   •  First  to  be  used  in  ChrisKan  architecture     •  Ancient  temple  façade     •  Wanted  idenKcal  width/height   •  Piazza  in  front  of  church  is  small  =  small   façade   •  Large  barrel  vault  canopy  hangs  over  west   façade     •  Shields  nave  window  from  sun   •  Interior     •  Huge  barrel  vaults   •  No  side  aisles     •  Coffered  ceiling    
  10. 10. •  PALACES  in  Florence  –  dominaKng  facades  –  three  stories  high,  austere  looking   •  First  floor   •  Public  areas  with  business  transacKons   •  RusKcated  (rough  cut  stone),  heavily  arKculated  stone   •  Second  floor   •  Much  lighter   •  Strong  horizontal  marking  the  ceiling  of  one  story  and  floor  of  another     •  Family  l   •  Third  floor   •  Even  more  lightness   •  Less  arKculaKon  of  stone     •  Heavy  cornice  caps  off  roof     Palazzo Medici-Riccardi Michelozzo, 1444, Florence •  Interior  courtyard  allows  light   into  interior  rooms   •  Expresses  civic  pride  and  poliKcal   power  of  Medici  family     •  Very  symmetrical  
  11. 11. Pain0ng   •  LINEAR  PERSPECTIVE   •  Afributed  to  Filippo  Brunelleschi   •  Developed  while  drawing  Florence  Cathedral  Bapistry   •  ArKsts  create  different  arKsKc  effects   •  PROPORTION   •  ArKsts  start  showing  objects,  scenery,  and  people  proporKonately   •  People  no  longer  dominate  the  image     •  TROMP  L’OEIL  TECHNIQUE   •  “trick  the  eye”   •  PERSPECTIVE   •  Even  used  in  sculpture     •  Carved  at  different  depths  to  create  a  sense  of  space   •  IMAGES   •  Religious  scenes   •  Portraits   •  Mythological  scenes   •  DepicKons  of  humanist  ideals/aspiraKons     •  ExploraKon  of  the  nude  (especially  male)  
  12. 12. The  First  Signs  of  One  Point  PerspecLve   •  Brunelleschi  was  the  first  architect  to  use   mathemaKcal  perspecKve  in  creaKng  designs   for  buildings  during  the  early  Renaissance            
  13. 13. BEFORE  PERSPECTIVE   AFTER  PERSPECTIVE  
  14. 14. AdoraLon  of  the  Magi   GenKle  da  Fabriano,  1423,  Florence   Tempera  on  panel   •  Patrons   •  The  Strozzi  family   •  Figures  in  fancy  dress     •  “Courtly”  ouKng  to  see  baby  Jesus  at   the  Epiphany   •  ExoKc  animals  reflect  private  zoos  of   Renaissance  princes     •  Gold  leaf  used  in  frame  and  painKng   •  Kings  are  shown  at  various  ages   •  Symbolizes  the  ages  of  man   •   Animals  seen  at  different  angles   •  NATURALISM    
  15. 15. AdoraLon  of  the  Magi    
  16. 16. Holy  Trinity   Masaccio,  1427,  Florence   Fresco  in  Santa  Maria  Novella     •  Patrons   •  The  Lenzi  family   •  Created  as  a  tombstone  for  the  family   •  Kneel  outside  arch   •  Faces  show  realism   •  Christ  appears  in  two  roles     •  Crucified  Christ   •  Second  person  of  the  Holy  Trinity     •  God  supports  him   •  Dove  of  the  Holy  Spirit  is  between  the  two  of   them   •  Mary  and  Saint  John  flank  Christ     •  Typically  in  crucifixion  scenes     •  Triangular  figural  composiKon  dominated  by   Brunelleschi-­‐inspired  architecture    
  17. 17. Holy  Trinity   •  Vanishing  point  at  the  foot  of  the  cross   •  Skeleton  below  painKng  symbolizes  death   •  “I  once  was  what  you  are;  and  what  I   am  you  will  become.”  
  18. 18. Mary   Saint  John   Christ   •  Holy  Spirit   •  As  a  dove   T  he  tradiKonal  symbol      
  19. 19. Tribute  Money   Masaccio,  1425,  Florence   Fresco  in  Santa  Maria  del  Carmine  
  20. 20. Tribute  Money   •  Scene  from  New  Testament   •  Jesus  is  asked  if  he  should  pay  tribute  to  civil  authoriKes   •  One  big  narraKve   •  Peter  gets  money  from  the  fish  (leY)   •  Jesus  confronts  the  tax  collector   •  Peter  pays  tax  collector  (right)   •  NarraKve  moves  from  center,  to  leY,  to  right   •  Figures  are  dominant  and  cast  shadows  on  the  ground    
  21. 21. Expulsion  from  the  Garden  of  Eden   Masaccio,  1425,  Carmine,  Florence   Fresco  in  Santa  Maria  del  Carmine,     •  Bold  use  of  nude  forms   •  Intense  expressions   •  Adam   •  Hides  face  in  shame   •  Eve   •  Hides  body  in  shame   •  Bleak  background   •  DesolaKon  outside  Garden  of    Eden   •  Angel  is  foreshortened    
  22. 22. BaSle  of  San  Romano   Paolo  Uccello,  1455   Tempera  on  wood  
  23. 23. BaSle  of  San  Romano     •  Bafle  between  Florence  and  Siena  (1432)   •  Looks  more  like  a  ceremony     •  Strong  use  of  perspecKve  and  vanishing  points     •  Orthogonals  in  figures  and  weapons  
  24. 24. AnnunciaLon   Fra  Angelico,  1438-­‐1447     Fresco  
  25. 25. AnnunciaLon   •  Architecture  of  painKng  reflects   architecture  of  monastery   •  Serene  and  religious   •  Humility  of  figures   •  Solid  forms  –  like  Giofo   •  Smoothly  modeled  figures   •  Extreme  delicacy   •  Spare  environment   •  Focus  on  figures’  gestures  and   simple  sedngs   •  Corinthian  columns   •  Brunelleschi-­‐type  arches  
  26. 26. The  Last  Supper   Andrea  del  Castagno,  1447,  Sant’  Apollonia,  Florence   Fresco  
  27. 27. The  Last  Supper   •  Painted  for  a  convent  of  cloistered  nuns   •  Red  brick  in  painKng  matches  red  brick  Kles  in  the   convent   •  Figures  are  individualizes     •  Lifle  communicaKon  between  them   •  Everything  in  sharp  focus  with  precise  edges     •  Judas  is  on  the  front  side  of  the  table   •  Apart  from  others     •  Symbolic  of  his  guilt     •  Marble  pafern  behind  Judas’  head     •  Symbolizes  lightning  poinKng  to  his  head     •  Six  marble  panels  on  leY  and  back  walls  and  four  panels   and  two  windows  on  right  wall   •  Implies  the  room  is  square  –  doesn’t  appear   square   •  2:1  raKo  of  loops  on  stringcourse  on  back  wall   implies  the  room  is  rectangular  
  28. 28. BaSle  of  Ten  Naked  Men  (BaSle  of  the  Nudes)     Antonio  del  Pollaiuolo,  1465-­‐1470   Engraving   •  Dense  vegetaKon   •  Contrasts  with  figures   and  “pushes”  them   forward   •  Imprecise  anatomy     •  Expressive  flexed  muscles     •  AcKve  posses   •  Figures  seem  to  be  in   mirroring  posiKons  
  29. 29. ResurrecLon   Piero  della  Francesca,  1463,  San  Sepolcro   Fresco  in  the  Palazzo  Comunale   •  Geometric  shapes     •  Christ   •  Stepping  out  of  tomb  or  has   foot  on  lid???   •  Enormous  figure  who   conquers  all   •  Holds  a  labarum   •  Symbol  of  victory  over   death   •  Height  of  drama     •  Landscape  (flat  background)   •  Might  symbolize  death  and   new  life  (live  tree/dead  tree)     •  Morality   •  LeY  is  bare  area  with   strong  and  mature  trees     •  Hard  path   •  Right  is  prefy  with  less   mature  trees   •  Easy  path  
  30. 30. Room  of  the  Newlyweds   Andrea  Mantegna,  1465-­‐1471,  Mantua   Fresco  in  Ducal  Palace   •  Cube-­‐shaped  room  “domed”   with  painted  central  panel   •  There  is  no  real  dome     •  Oculus   •  Two  groups  of  women   leaning  over  a  balustrade   •  Some  look  down  at  viewer   •  Foreshortening   •  Angels  seen  from  front  and   back     •  Rest  their  feet  on  painted   ledges   •  Bird  and  flower  pot  are   unsefling      
  31. 31. Christ  Delivering  the  Keys  of  the  Kingdom  to  Saint  Peter    Pietro  Perugino,  1482,  SisKne  Chapel  in  Rome   Fresco  
  32. 32. Christ  Delivering  the  Keys  of  the  Kingdom   to  Saint  Peter     •  LeY  background   •  Tribute  money   •  Right  background   •  Stoning  of  Christ   •  Vast  piazza  in  one-­‐point  perspecKve     •  Arch  of  ConstanKne-­‐like  structures   •  Central  basilica  reminiscent  of   Brunelleschi  or  AlberK   •  Open  space  around  keys  =  emphasis   •  Figures  in  contrapposto   •  Many  contemporary  faces    
  33. 33. Birth  of  Venus   Sandro  Bodcelli,  1485,  Florence   Tempera  on  canvas    
  34. 34. Birth  of  Venus   •  Commissioned  by  MEDICI  family   •  Venus   •  Emerges  from  sea  foam     •  Dreamy,  far  away  look  in  her  eyes   •  Roses  scafered  before  her     •  Roses  created  at  same  Kme  as  her     •  Thorns  =  love  can  be  painful   •  Physical  beauty     •  LiYs  mind  to  God  (divine  love)   •  Plato   •  Venus  was  an  earthly  goddess  of  human   physical  love     •  Heavenly  goddess  who  inspires  intellectual   love     •  LeY   •  Zephyr  (west  wind)  &  Chloris  (nymph)   •  Right   •  Handmaiden  rushes  to  clothe  her     •  Figures     •  FloaKng,  not  anchored  to  ground   •  Crisply  drawn   •  Many  pale  colors   •  Landscape  flat  and  unrealisKc     •  Simple  v-­‐shaped  waves  
  35. 35. Spring  (La  Primavera)   Sando  Bodcelli,  1482,  Florence   Tempera  on  wood  
  36. 36. Spring  (La  Primavera)   •  LeY   •  Mercury  holding  a  caduceus  up   to  the  air  to  dispel  storm  clouds   •  Right   •  Zephyr  reaches  out  to  Chloris   •  Chloris  transforms  into  Flora,   goddess  of  Spring     •  Center   •  Venus  wears  a  bridal  wreath  on   her  head   •  Cupid,  son,  is  above  her     •  Three  Graces  dance  together   •  Embodiment  of  beauty  Venus   creates     •  Loose,  long  hair  is  a  symbol  of   virginity   •  Narrow  stage  sedng   •  Figures  closer  to  viewer     •  FERTILITY  SYMBOLS   •  Fruit,  flower,  spring,  Venus,   Cupid   •  Large  oranges  may  refer  to  Medici   coat-­‐of-­‐arms  
  37. 37. Birth  of  the  Virgin   Domenico  Ghirlandaio,  1485-­‐1490,  Santa  Maria  Novella,  Florence   Fresco  
  38. 38. Birth  of  the  Virgin   •  Religious  scene  in  FlorenKne   home  –  MODERN  sedng     •  St.  Anne  (Right)   •  Mary’s  mother   •  Reclines  in  palace  room     •  Midwives  to  St.  Anne     •  GIOVANNI  TORNABUONI   •  Daughter  of  patron   •  Center     •  High  status     •  Upper  leY  corner     •  Story  of  Mary’s  parents,   Joachim  and  Anna   meeKng    
  39. 39. Damned  Cast  into  Hell   Luca  Signorelli,  1499-­‐1504,  Orvieto  Cathedral   Fresco  
  40. 40. Damned  Cast  into  Hell   •  End  of  world  scene  –  very  common   •  Upper  right   •  Heaven  guarded  by  angels     •  Upper  leY   •  Angels  carry  off  the  damned     •  Made  to  go  against  ideas  of  some  ChrisKan   hereKcs  who  quesKoned  existence  of  hell  and   heaven  and  purgatory   •  Impenetrable  mass  of  human  bodies     •  Many  figures  die  by  strangulaKon   •  Largest  treatment  of  human  nudes  to  date     •  Devils  discolored  =  evil  
  41. 41. Sculpture   •  Interest  in  HUMANISM/Rebirth  of  Classical  sculpture     •  Peak  an  interest  in  Greek  and  Roman  sculpture   •  Medieval  arKsts  thought  nudes  were  pagan   •  15th  century  Italian  sculptures  glorified  the  nude     •  Like  the  ancients   •  Revival  of  life-­‐size  nude  sculpture   •  Increased  study  of  human  anatomy   •  Heroic  bodies  in  stone  and  bronze   ***Much  sculpture  made  for  Florence  Cathedral  BapKstry  
  42. 42. Sacrifice  of  Isaac   Lorenzo  GhiberK,  1401-­‐1403,  Florence   Gilt  Bronze   •  Made  for  a  compeKKon  to  do  a  set  of   bronze  doors  for  Florence  Cathedral   •  Brunelleschi’s  lost     •  Story   •  God  asks  Abraham  to  prove  his  love   by  sacrificing  son  Isaac   •  Abraham  is  about  to  kill  Isaac  when   an  angel  appears/reveals  it’s  a  test     •  Tells  Abraham  to  kill  a  ram   instead     •  Gothic  quatrefoil  pafern   •  Had  to  match  Gothic  doors  already  on   the  BapKstery   •  Influence  of  Gothic  style   •  Gestures  are  graceful   •  Figures  are  separated     •  Helps  with  story’s  clarity  
  43. 43. Sacrifice  of  Isaac   Filippo  Brunelleschi,  1401-­‐1403,  Florence   Bronze   •  •  •  •  •  •  Lost  the  compeKKon   Dense  group   Great  drama   DramaKc  tension  and  rigor   Figures  are  heavy  looking   Figures  spill  over  the  edges  of  the   quatrefoil  
  44. 44. Gates  of  Paradise   Lorenzo  GhiberK,  1425-­‐1452,  Florence   Gilt  bronze   •  GhiberK  gets  this  commission  aYer  winning     “Isaac  contest”   •  More  sophisKcated  spaKally  than  his  other   doors   •  Figures  have  more  convincing  volume     •  Lean,  elegant,  elongated  bodies   •  Different  facial  expressions     •  10  Old  Testament  scenes    
  45. 45. Four  Crowned  Saints   Nanni  de  Banco,  1409-­‐1417   Part  of  “Or  San  Michele”  in  Florence   Marble   •  Built  for  guild  of  wood  and  stone  carvers   •  Shows  four  ChrisKan  sculptors     •  Refused  to  carve  a  statue  of  a  pagan  god  for  the   Roman  Emperor  DiocleKan/martyred  for  that   •  Saints   •  Wear  Roman  togas   •  Heads  look  like  portraits  of  Roman  emperors   •  Seem  to  be  discussing  their  fate     •  Feet  step  outside  of  arch     •  Pedestal  carved  in  arc   •  Follows  their  posiKoning       •  Figures  are  independent  of  the  niche     •  Bofom  scene  has  view  of  sculptors  at  work  on  their   craY  
  46. 46. David   Donatello,  1420’s  –  60’s   Bronze     First  large-­‐scale  bronze  since  anKquity   Exaggerated  contrapposto  of  the  body     Probably  displayed  in  Medici  palace   David   •  Looks  androgynous   •  Stance  is  nonchalant   •  ContemplaKng  victory  over  Goliath     •  Foot  on  Goliath’s  head   •  Head  lowered  to  show  humility     •  Hat  has  laurel  leaves  on  it   •  Means  he  was  a  poet   •  Special  strength  comes  from  God     •  Story  of  triumph  of  good  over  evil   •  Story   •  Israelites  fighKng  PhilisKnes   •  PhilisKnes’  best  warrior  wants  to  fight  Israelites   best  warrior  –  David  volunteers   •  David  refused  armor,  hits  Goliath  in  the  head   with  a  stone/cuts  off  his  head     •  •  •  • 
  47. 47. Mary  Magdalene   Donatello,  1430-­‐1450,  Florence   Wood     •  Mary   •  Was  a  reformed  sinner  –  followed   Christ     •  Hair  covers  her  body   •  Wiped  Christ’s  feet  with  hair   •  Gilded  hair  indicated  spirituality   and  former  beauty     •  Emaciated  from  30  years  of  penitence   •  Hallowed  cheeks,  missing  teeth,   sunken  eyes     •  Face  shows  torture  of  a  badly  leY  life   •  Ravages  of  Kme  on  her  body   •  Gesture  of  prayer  expresses  a  world  of   spirituality     •  Eyes  focused  on  an  inner  reality  and  a   higher  form  of  beauty     •  Completely,  introspecKvely  fixated  on   Christ    
  48. 48. GATTAMELATA   Donatello,  1445-­‐1450,  Padua,  Italy   Bronze   •  Nickname  for  warrior   •  “Honeyed  Cat”   •  Gatamelata   •  CommemoraKve  monument   for  a  cemetery   •  Face  reflects  stern   expression  of  a  military   commander   •  Horse  is  spirited,  resKng  one   leg  on  a  ball   •  Rider  is  in  control  
  49. 49. Madonna  and  Child   Luca  della  Robbia,  1455-­‐1460,  San  Michele,  Florence   Terra  cofa   •  White  glazed  terra-­‐cofa  of  flesh  areas   simulates  marble     •  Ceramic  is  cheap   •  Retains  color  and  polish  even   outdoors   •  Drapery  has  rich  colored  glazes   •  Creates  luminous  ceramic  forms   •  SoY  quality  of  ceramic  adds  genKlity  to   the  arKsKc  expression  
  50. 50. Hercules  and  Antaeus   Antonio  del  Pollaiuolo,  1475,  Florence   Bronze   •  Shows  ancient  myth   •  Hercules  must  liY  Antaeus  off  the  ground   to  defeat  him   •  Antaeus  gets  his  strength  from  his  mother,   who  is  the  earth  goddess   •  AcKve  composiKon  with  limbs  judng  out  in   various  direcKons   •  Strong  angles  of  the  body   •  Sinewy,  strong  muscles  
  51. 51. Colleoni   Andrea  del  Verrocchio,  1481-­‐1496,  Venice   Bronze   •  Military  leader,  fought  for  the   VeneKans   •  Very  powerful  and  spirited   animal  tamed  by  an  animated,   victorious  leader   •  DramaKcally  alive  and  forceful   appearance     •  Bulging,  fiery  eyes     •  Erect  posiKon  in  saddle  
  52. 52. VOCABULARY     1.  BOTTEGA  –  the  studio  of  an  Italian  arKst   2.  HUMANISM  –  an  intellectual  movement  in  the  Renaissance  that  emphasized  the  secular   alongside  the  religious.  Humanists  were  afached  the  achievements  of  the  classical  past,  and   stressed  the  study  of  classical  literature,  history,  philosophy,  and  art   3.  LANTERN  –  a  small  structure  with  openings  for  light  that  crowns  a  dome   4.  OTHOGONAL  –  lines  that  appear  to  recede  toward  a  vanishing  point  in  a  painKng  with  linear   perspecKve     5.  PILASTER  –  a  flafened  column  afached  to  a  wall  with  a  capital,  a  shaY,  and  a  base   6.  QUATTROCENTO  –  the  1400s  (15th  century)  of  Italian  art   7.  RUSTICATE  –  to  deeply  and  roughly  incise  stones  to  give  a  rough  and  rusKc  texture  to  its   appearance   8.  STRINGCOURSE  –  a  horizontal  molding   9.  TROMPE  L’OEIL  –  “fools  the  eye”  –  a  form  of  painKng  that  afempts  to  represent  an  object  as   exisKng  in  three  dimensions,  and  therefore  resembles  the  real  thing    

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