Ancient Rome Part 3: Updated


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Ancient Rome Part 3: Updated

  1. 1. Roman Sculpture
  2. 2. INNOVATIONS IN ROMAN SCULPTURE •Sculpture applied to architecture (like arches) to animate the architecture and highlight Roman victories (ie: Arch of Constantine) •Designed hollowed-out column with banded narrative relief sculptures spiraling around exterior (ie: Column of Trajan- 1st one). •Evolution of sculptural styles that follow the eras of Roman history •ERAS: Republican, Early and High Imperial, Late Imperial
  3. 3. REPUBLICAN SCULPTURE •Busts of noblemen (VERISTIC sculptures) are strikingly and unflatteringly realistic –age of man looks enhanced - may have been “idealized”: Republicans valued wisdom, determination, and experience, which these works seem to possess •Republican full-length statues concentrate on the heads •Bodies occasionally classically idealized, symbolizing valor and strength •Romans had great respect for ancestors: Figures sometimes seen holding busts of their ancestors in their hands as a sign of their heritage
  4. 4. VERISTIC Roman Busts •Realism in the portrayal shows influence of Hellenistic Greek and late Etruscan---Extremely realistic face •Bulldog-like features, overhanging flesh, deep crevices in face •Full of experience, morality, courage, responsibility, and wisdomtraits Roman patricians would have desired •Features may have been exaggerated by artist to enhance these virtues Bust of a Roman Bust of a Roman Senator, 100 BCE Senator, 100 BCE Portrait Bust of a Portrait Bust of a Man, 100 BCE Man, 100 BCE
  5. 5. •Unmistakable purely Roman style of portraits •Detailed record of “facial topography” •Designed not to bring out emotion like Hellenic sculpture, but to show a Roman personality-rugged, stern, iron-willed, authoritative •Roman custom- at death, a waxen image was taken of the head of the family, this was then preserved in a special shrine in the house- none remain •Towards the 1st century BC, as the Republican era came to a close, people felt the need to record these images in stone, to prove their ancient lineage
  6. 6. •Shows the tradition of Roman figure with busts •The wax images weren’t works of art- they were just copies of the face-when they were put into marble, the faces took on a spiritual quality •The waxes were often copied in marble many timesuniqueness was not an important Roman goal •Unknown Roman holding the heads of his ancestors (probably his father and grand father) •Somber faces and grave demeanor project a spirit of patriarchal dignity •Sculptor was interested in documentary-style realism and accentuating rugged, stern, “Roman”qualities Roman Patrician with Bust of his Ancestors 100 BCE (1st century BCE), marble, life-size
  7. 7. Pompey the Great Roman Sculpture
  8. 8. • • • • • • • • Portrait of Pompey the Great was originally located in Rome. The sculpture is made of marble. This sculpture is a copy of the Roman original, made in the verism style (meticulous realism). This sculpture was made to commemorate the general, and one of three rulers of Rome. The artist achieved this purpose because it’s a realistic piece, bringing immortality to the man’s image. The extreme realism is a unique feature for this piece. Not to mention his detailed locks of hair and forehead wrinkles. This sculpture compares to other Roman works of art mostly with its realism and attention to detail. The human face is calm, but beautiful. Part of Roman culture was to make important figures look grand and noble, and the sculptor certainly succeeded with this piece. The idealized hair was also common, but the warts and small eyes of Pompey were indiviual details that were included for importance.
  9. 9. EARLY AND HIGH IMPERIAL SCULPTURE •Emperors portrayed differently than gruff Republican busts •Emperors divinity descended from gods! •Inspiration from classical Greece •Roman sculptors adopt contrapposto, ideal proportions, and heroic poses of Greek statuary •Forms became less individualized, references to the divine Augustus of Primaporta, 20 CE, marble Copy of a bronze original
  10. 10. Augustus of Primaporta • • • • • • Early Empire 6’8”, marble Perhaps a copy of a bronze statue of 20 BCE Idealization of Augustus, illustrates the use of imperial portraiture for propaganda and perfect physique (influenced by Greeks). Different from individualized portrait style that was popular Copies Aulus Metellous gesture and pose and ideal proportions developed by Greek Polykleitos Cupid, son of the goddess Venus, rides dolphin next to emperor's right leg, a reference to the claim of the emperor’s family to descent from the goddess Venus. Discovered in Livia’s villa at Primaporta, near Rome. Early 1st century CE. Musei Vaticani, Braccio Nuovo, Rome.
  11. 11. • Wears a cuirass (torso armor)- may have held a commander’s baton or the Parthian standard, his feet are bare, suggesting his elevation to divine status after death. • All sculptures of him in his youth • Show him governing by reason and persuasion, not autocratic power. Promoting peace. Copy at Vatican Museum, Rome
  12. 12. The Arch of Titus ●Originally located in Rome ●The arch is now located on a prominant hill in Rome called the Velian Hill ●The arch is made out of Pentelic marble ●Was built in 81-85 A.D. during the Augustine era ●Was built right after the god Titus had died to represent his achievements and in memory of him and to commemorate the victory of the jewish war ●Portrays this by having At the inside of the arch are two panels with reliefs. One depicts the triumphal procession with the spoils taken from the Second Temple in Jerusalem - the seven-branched candelabrum or Menorah, the silver trumpets and the Table of the Shewbread. ●The other one shows Titus in a chariot accompanied by the goddess Victoria and the goddess Roma. ●Has various unique features which include the spoils taken from the second temple in Jeruselum similar to the Arc de Triomphe in Paris Aspects of the culture represented include the amount of detail put in, and how the Romans liked to rember successful people and accomplishments .
  13. 13. Spoils from the Temple of Solomon -Located in The Arch of Titus (Rome) -Relief on the inside walls -Titans capture of Jerusalem ended a fierce campaign to crush a revolt of the Jews in Palestine -shows Romans destroying the Second Temple in Jerusalem - “flaunting the booty” as they carried it through Rome The Arch of Titus -Menorah dominates the scene -Made of white marble (height: 6’8”) -sculptors of the Arch of Titus showed the spatial relationships among figures
  14. 14. A Young Flavian Woman c. 90 CE – Museo Capitolino, Rome. Marble • • Created during the Flavian dynasty as a part of Roman realism Purpose: to set an example for the ideal of the time – Sharp features, but smooth face = beauty – Hairstyle = latest fashion • Realism, but unlike other portraits at the time, shows ideals; too idealized to be completely lifelike • Chisels and drills used to sculpt perfect curls in her hair • Represents Rome’s culture of fashion (complicated hairstyle) and beauty (ideal facial features)
  15. 15. Middle-Aged Flavian Woman – 1 st Century CE, Marble, Museo Gregoriano, Profano, Rome • Veristic characteristics of the Republican period • Portraits commissioned to depict people as they were in their every day • The attention to detail in the hair and face reflects highly skilled chiseling techniques • Designed to show the commissioner “as she appeared in her own mirror” • The sagging skin and clear wrinkles, while not singularly unique to this sculpture, is indicative of Republican period sculpture and its desire for veristic depictions • Clear that the subject did not care very much about her appearance • Idealized to portray a long life of accomplishment
  16. 16. Column of Trajan (Trajan’s Column) • Erected in 113 AD in honor of Emperor Trajan • Originally located at the Forum of Trajan • Commemorates Trajan’s victories in Dacia (Romania) – Romans had a tradition of commemorating important events • Propagandist movement • Stands over 100 feet high • Decorated with a winding strip of marble relief sculpture (frieze) – Made it uniquely Roman • Serves a funerary monument to the Emperor
  17. 17. Column of Trajan Sculptural scenes on the column were adorned with paint and gilding, and a gold-covered statue of Trajan sat on top of the capital. They document the stages of the military campaigns in Dacia chronologically.
  18. 18. The Unswept Floor • • • • • • • • • • • Mosaic, 2nd century CE, attributed to Herakleitos, a Greek living in Rome From the floor of a dining room, covering almost the entire floor Copy of original painting by 2nd century BCE artist Sosos Popular type of art for centuries Mosaics of (probably other) unswept floors attested to in Pliny the Elder’s Natural History Depicts “past gourmet pleasures” Possibly conspicuous consumption—the owner can give lavish banquets (also, can afford to commission this kind of art) Displays willingness to waste food Floor art gives guests “small talk” topics Roman culture puts high value on semipublic display of wealth, taste in rooms and gardens and art collections This mouse is adorable.
  19. 19. Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius • • • • • • • The Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius is an ancient Roman statue in the Campidoglio (Rome, Italy) Made of bronze & stands 4.24 m tall; The statue was formerly clad in gold, an old local myth says that the statue will turn gold again on the Judgement Day Influenced by Roman equestrian statues, Marcus Aurelius and Represents Charlemagne or Charles the Bald The overall theme is one of power and divine grandeur The figure stresses imperial imagery of holding the orb, a symbol of the world in the rider’s hands. The rider is much larger then the actual horse that it sits on, sits up right with little attention to the natural movement of the horse Although there were many equestrian imperial statues, they rarely survived because it was practice to melt down bronze statues for reuse as coin or new sculptures in the late empire. Statues were also destroyed because medieval Christians thought that they were pagan idols. • The statue of Marcus Aurelius was not melted down because in the Middle Ages it was incorrectly thought to portray the first Christian Emperor Constantine Can now be found in the Louvre, Paris. Can now be found in the Louvre, Paris.
  20. 20. Commodus as Hercules • Recovered in an underground room of the Horti Lamiani complex (Rome) • Imperial portrait • Acted as propaganda – Commodus bad leader in real life. He was “insane” – Glorifying Commodus • Commodus compared to Hercules – Similar characteristics like the lion's skin over his head, the club in this right hand, and the golden apples of Hesperides in his left hand as a reminder of the Greek hero's feats • Shown through a wealth of symbols that impose the divine cult of the emperor • The whole bust shows him as powerful, arrogant, god-like, idealized • Realism – extreme detail, like most other busts/portraits • Idealism, praising of the leaders 180-193 AD, Marble
  21. 21. The Family of Septimius Severus Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, and their sons; Geta & Caracalla From Egypt; c. 200 BCE • Tempura paint on wood – Made with egg whites natural pigments • Severan Dynasty, third century; – Fayum region in NW Egypt – Imperial genre • Family portrait; – Shows distinctive family – High authority • Emphasizes wealth and power; – Jewels, crowns, beards, direct forceful expressions • Reflects the changes in imperial rule, contrast • Son Geta’s face has been scratched out • Shows royal family in distinctive high class form with strict expressions
  22. 22. -in Rome, 2nd largest Roman public bath: covered 33 acres -built between 212-216 AD, functional for over 300 years -planned by Septimius Severus -built as political propaganda for Emperor Caracalla -sense of unity: all social classes enjoyed it, furthered love for Emperor -originally decorated with statues: Farnese Bull and Farnese Hercules -library, pools, gyms, brothels=multifunctional rec center -like other Roman libraries, one room for Roman text and one for Latin text -Pozzolana, Quick lime, Tuff, Basalt for foundations, Brick pieces for facing, Large Bricks, Marble columns in Central block, Marble for columns and decorations, granite columns -functional until Goths destroyed aqueducts, cutting off water supply -inspiration for St George's Hall in Liverpool and Pennsylvania Station in New York City Baths of Caracalla
  23. 23. Philip the Arab, Marble, height 26” (71.1 cm). Musei Vaticani, Braccio Nuovo, Rome • • • • • • Free standing sculpture Imperial Portrait From the 3rd century It is of the emperor Philip who ruled from 244-49 CE Philip depicted as a soldier-emperor This free standing sculpture is used to commemorate Emperor Philip • Philip seems tense and worried, suggesting that this is portraying him as a troubled man at troubled times – he murdered his predecessor • Guile, deceit, and fear are shown through Philip’s twisted brow, sidelong upward glance, quizzical lips, and tightened jaw muscles ( shows verism) • Realism/verism is continued to be shown in this piece, similar to other Roman pieces
  24. 24. Family Group
  25. 25. • may have been made in Alexandria, Egypt • • • • engraved gold leaf sealed between glass • the subjects are rendered as individuals, although the artist has emphasized their great almond eyes • most of the time were narratives and more relaxed • not a narrative, serious features contradict • Roman culture had more family oriented works 250 A.D reflect the advice of Philostratus used to mark and decorate graves in the Catacombs of Rome by pressing them into the mortar
  26. 26. LATE IMPERIAL SCULPTURE •Reflects anarchy of Roman stateslowly abandoned classical tradition •Figures lack individuality and crowded tightly together •Everything pushed forward in picture plane •Depth and recession rejected •Proportions truncated, contrapposto ignored (gasp!) •Bodies almost lifeless behind masking drapery •Emperors increasingly represented as military figures rather than civilian rulers The Tetrarchs, 305 CE -made of Porphyry (stone)
  27. 27. The Tetrarchs • Originally located in Constantinople • Sculpted from Porphyry • c. 300 CE, Imperial genre • Shows unity of the tetrarchs • Proclaims peace through concerted strength and vigilance • Simplification of natural forms to geometric shapes-blocky looking • Disregard of normal human proportions • Represents the Roman government at this time • A piece of propaganda and a summary of state of affairs • Emphasis on message 5’ 1’’ tall
  28. 28. Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus • • • • • • • • • Originally found near Rome (c. 250 CE) Carved from Marble (aprox. 5’ tall) This relief sculpture was a funerary sculpture Shows Roman power and pride (the Romans are organized on the top crushing the scraggy haired barbarians) Shows roots of Hellenistic Pergamon Romans unrealistically squeezed together Common to have complexity ranging from geometric shapes to scenes involving many figures on funerary vases. Young Roman commander (top center) recalls the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius Represents importance of a strong military to the Romans
  29. 29. Constantine The Great (Colossus of Constantine) By: Guillermo Lopez-Vila
  30. 30. Artist Speculated Michaelangelo Location Originally in Basilica of Muxentius Now in Palazzo dei Conservatori Medium White marble head, legs, and hands Wooden body Chronology 312-315 CE Purpose Decorate Basilica in commemoration of Emperor of Rome Unique Features Wooden body to make lighter and fast production; eventually burned like roofs Similar Works Augusts, Constantine is more stylized rather than typical look of mix between realistic and idealism; abstract Represented Culture Believed to symbolize changing of culture towards dawn of Christianity
  31. 31. Constantine The Great (Colossus of Constantine) By: Mrs. Smolinski, because she couldn’t find Guillermo’s slide until the last minute, sorry Guillermo. Now you’ll know a ton about Constantine
  32. 32. • • • • • • • • • • • • 8’6” head Whole statue must have been over 30’ seated! Part of an enormous figure that sat as the focal point of the Basilica Nova in Rome Commissioned by Constantine himself- imperial propaganda Parts of body that show were done in marble (head, knee cap, arms, hands, feet) Wooden elements of torso are now lost (might have been covered in bronze) Huge size Idealized, timeless Features of traditional Roman portraiture combined with abstract qualities of Late Imperial, like the Tetrarchs Hair sits on head like hat Heavy jaw, hooked nose, jutting chin- rigid, symmetrical pattern, simplified into geometric shapes and arcs. Projects imperial power and dignity- no hint of human frailty or imperfection – similar imagery on Arch of Constantine!
  33. 33. Caracalla, 211-217 CE, marble • Portrait bust renders physical likeness as well as character portrayal • Ruthless tyrant in real life • In sculpture: hard-nosed, stern, suspicious face • Brutal ruler who ordered the death of his opponents, including his brother and wife! • Downturned moustache, lines over eyes- harsh characterization
  34. 34. Priestess of Bacchus right panel of diptych, 390-401 CE, ivory, about 12x5 inches • Bacchus = Roman god of wine/intoxication • Stately, elegantly attired priestess burns incense at a decorated outdoor altar • Wreath of ivy on head – sacred to Bacchus • Assisted by small child • Carefully carved drapery and foliage (similar to reliefs of Ara Pocis) • DIPTYCH = a pair of panels attached with hinges • This diptych was a symbol of unification among two families (through marriage?) – one family’s name inscribed at top of each panel (this one- “Symmachorum)