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Modern Art in Europe and the Americas 1900-1945


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Modern Art in Europe and the Americas 1900-1945

  1. 1. Modern Art in Europe and the Americas 1900-1945
  2. 2. There are many art movements during this period. We will cover the most notable ones. Here is a list of some main ones. This is one of the most creative periods of art history! Aren’t you excited?! • Fauvism • Expressionism • Cubism • Futurism • Dada • DeStijl • International Style • Surrealism • Art Deco • Bauhaus
  3. 3. What’s happening? • Europeans and Americans were optimistic that society would advance through the spread of democracy, capitalism, and technology • Modern artists eagerly embraced new technologies in the creation of their work • New products and innovation = new art styles • Political unrest and social upheaval didn’t prevent modern art from flourishing (WWI, WWII, Great Depression) • Modern art was still mostly controversial and much criticized for being either a publicity stunt, childish, untrained, or politically subversive (most of these criticisms were false)
  4. 4. • Extremely cultured and intellectual avant-garde patrons support cutting-edge artists and help them flourish (Gertrude Stein) • New – patronage of museums: museums hire fine architectural firms for expansion projects, museums become works of art, museums commission art from contemporary artists to be showcased in their public spaces • Armory Show introduces modern art to America (not received well! Americans were horrified!) • Gallery 291 displays photos w/ art (photos = art!) • Modern art becomes even more international (Mexico, Russia, etc.) • Artists are outspoken – publish manifestos on their artistic beliefs
  5. 5. Painting, sculpture, and architecture are blended into multiple movements in this time period, so let’s learn about their changes now (and see them scattered around this chapter)
  6. 6. Painting: • Color is used to evoke a feeling and challenge the viewer • Perspective generally discarded/ purposely altered for dramatic effect • Compositions forcefully altered in dynamic ways • ABSTRACTION featured in modern art – abstraction and pure form have a meaning independent of realistically conveyed representations • FROTTAGE (like a rubbing) and COLLAGE techniques introduced (previously thought of as child’s techniques) • Paintings inspired by African cultures – geometric, abstract, unconventional reality, freedom of expression (primitive) • Freedom of expression – rethink traditional representations
  7. 7. Sculpture: • Adventurous exploration of form • Artists use new materials (plastic) and new formats (collages) to create dynamic compositions • Create MOBILES: sculptures made of several different items that dangle from a ceiling – moved by air currents • Artists use found objects and turn them into works of art – called READY-MADES – “became” works of art simply because the artist said they were (we see this in the art movement called DADA)
  8. 8. Architecture: • Embraced new technological advances • FERROCONCRETE construction (steel reinforced concrete) allows for new designs with skeleton frameworks and glass walls – resists building stress • CANTILEVER helps push building elements beyond the solid structure of the skeletal framework (a projecting beam that is attached to a building at one end, but suspended in the air at the other end) • Avoid historical associations (we won’t see many columns, buttresses, etc.) • Like sleek, clean lines that stress the building’s underlying structure • Architecture emphasizes the impact of new machines and technology
  9. 9. Let’s dive into the movements of the early 20th century!
  10. 10. FAUVISM • Started around 1905 in Paris (only lasted 3 years) • French for “the wild beasts” – critics thought it looked like paintings were created by wild beasts • Inspired by post- impressionists like Gauguin and Van Gogh • Painterly surface with broad flat areas of violently contrasting colors • Figure modeling and color harmonies suppressed so the focus could be on expressiveness
  11. 11. Woman With a Hat Henri Matisse, 1905 oil on canvas • Conventional composition/pose • Violent contrast of colors • Energetic painterly brushwork • Exhibited in the 1905 Salon d’Automne in Paris • Matisse’s wife
  12. 12. Le Bonheur de Vivre (The Joy of Life) Henri Matisse, 1905-1906 oil on canvas
  13. 13. Mountains at Collioure Andre Derain, 1905, oil on canvas
  14. 14. Expressionism Groups within Expressionism: -The Bridge (including Primitivism) -Independent expressionists -The Blue Rider
  15. 15. THE BRIDGE (“Die Bruke) 1905-1913 • An exhibiting group inspired by Fauvism • Included Ernst Kirchner and fellow artists from Germany and other areas in Europe • Saw themselves as a bridge from traditional to modern painting • Emphasized the same Fauve ideals (violent juxtaposition of color) – roused the public • Hoped “The Bridge” would be a gathering place for “all revolutionary and surging elements” in opposition to the dominant culture – which they saw was “pale, overbred, and decadent” • Liked nudes and nature • Simple and direct style, includes PRIMITIVISM, which drew inspiration from non-Western arts of Africa, Pre-Columbian America, and Oceania – bold stylization was in contrast to the sophisticated illusionism that Modern artists rejected • Believe that non-Western art gave them access to a more authentic state of being – uncorrupted by civilization
  16. 16. Masks Emil Nolde, 1911, oil on canvas • Garish colors • Fevered brushwork • Masks he sketched in an ethnographic museum • VERY non- traditional take on still life painting • Grotesque
  17. 17. Street, Berlin Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 1913, oil on canvas • Two prostitutes (feather hats and fur coats) strut past well-dressed bourgeois men (potential clients) • Figures appear artificial and dehumanized • Masklike faces and stiff gestures • Bodies crowd together, but are psychologically distant – urban alienation • Harsh colors, tilted perspective, angular lines
  18. 18. Street, Dresden Ernst Kirchner, 1908, oil on canvas • Uncomfortably close encounter with women on street in Dresden, Germany • Nonrepresentati onal colors – chosen to make jarring impact • Horrific facial features, grim surroundings • Tilted perspective
  19. 19. Self-Portrait with an Amber Necklace Paula Modersohn-Becker 1906, oil on canvas • An independent expressionist (not part of The Bridge or Blue Rider) • Unusual self-portrait – nude! • Presents two flowers, has three more in her hair, symbolic of fertility and beauty • Looks at viewer with confidence, tenderness, h umanity, and femininity • Thick paint, primitive feeling
  20. 20. Self-Portrait Nude EgonSchiele, 1911 gouache and pencil on paper • Independent Expressionist from Austria • Conveys physical and psychological torment • Hard life (negative influences of sex, suffering, and death at a young age) • Emphasized the animal nature of the human body • Ambivilance toward sexual content in his art and life • Stares at viewer with anguished expression • Emaciated body in stretched, uncomfortable pose • No right hand – suggests amputation • Unarticulated genitals – suggest castration • Missing body parts interpreted as his self-punishment for indulgence in masturbation, then commonly believed to lead to insantiy (his father died insane of untreated syphilis when Egon was 14)
  21. 21. THE BLUE RIDER (“DerBlaue Reiter”) • Formed in Munich, Germany, in 1911 • Called “The Blue Rider” because of an affection the founders had for horses and the color blue, of course! • Began to forsake representational art and move toward abstraction • Highly intellectual, full of theories of artistic representation • Saw abstraction as the way of conceiving the natural world in terms that went beyond representation
  22. 22. Large Blue Horses Franz Marc, 1911, oil on canvas
  23. 23. • Swirling shapes and dynamic composition – sweeping movement, shapes of horses harmonize with landscape • Emotional impact of blue color for horses – color draws horses together as if in a common experience – homogenous unit • Thought animals had a purer, more spiritual relationship to nature than humans did • Pure, strong colors = horses have an uncomplicated yet intense experience of the world as Marc enviously imagined it Marc was co- founder of The Blue Rider Blue AND Horses here!
  24. 24. The Blue Mountain (DerBlaue Berg) Vasily Kandinsky 1908-1909 oil on canvas •References to “primitive” society in Russian folk culture •Two horsemen in the style of Russian folk art before a looking peak of blue mountain •Kandinsky often painted riders – had the horsemen of the Apocalypse in mind
  25. 25. Improvisation 28 Vasily Kandinsky, 1912, oil on canvas
  26. 26. • Movement toward abstraction, representational objects suggested rather than depicted • Title derived from musical compositions • Strong use of black lines- vortex of color, line, and shape • Colors seem to shade around line forms • Painting is a response to his inner state rather than external stimulus • Kandinsky wants us to look at the painting as if we are hearing a symphony
  27. 27. Improvisation 30 Vasily Kandinsky, 1913, oil on canvas • A spiritual response to the world • Nonrepresentationa l • Emphasis of color relationships, allove r composition, and formal elements of design
  28. 28. CUBISM – 1907-1930’s • Born in Pablo Picasso’s studio • Picasso was inspired by African masks- wanted to break down the human form into angles and shapes and achieve a new way of looking at things from many sides at once • Multiple views from multiple angles all at once! • Dominated by wedge facets that are sometimes shaded to simulate depth • Three phases: Analytical, Synthetic, Curvilinear • Analytical: highly experimental, shows jagged edges and sharp multifaceted lines • Synthetic: inspired by collages and found objects, flattened forms • Curvilinear: 1930’s – more flowing and rounded response to flattened and firm edges of Synthetic
  29. 29. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon Pablo Picasso, 1907, oil on canvas • FIRST cubist painting ever! • Influenced by Cezanne and African masks • Represents five prostitutes in a bordello on Avignon Street in Barcelona, each posing for a customer • Poses aren’t very alluring – awkward, expressionless , uninviting • Three figures on left are more conservatively painted, two on right are more radical – Picasso isn’t known for his consistency • Multiple views expressed at the same time • No real depth
  30. 30. Analytical Cubism Example • Subject matter AND style are controversial – very rebellious of Picasso • Women and their space are flattened and fractured into sharp angles • Even the fruit (symbol of female sexuality) is hard and dangerous looking • Women are not the gentle and passive creatures men would like them to be, suggests Picasso • Complete contradiction of traditional erotic imagery • Even his friend Matisse was horrified by this piece – threatened to break off the friendship
  31. 31. Houses at L’Estaque and Violin and Palette Georges Braque, 1908-1910, oil on canvas
  32. 32. •Inspired by Picasso (a peer) and Cezanne •Reduced nature’s many colors to basic browns and greens •Eliminated detail to emphasize basic geometric foms •Pushed distant houses closer to the foreground – forces the viewer to look UP rather than IN the canvas •Rejected by the Salon in 1908 •Matisse dismissed it as “little cubes” – where the name CUBISM was born •Braque became pals with Picasso Analytic Cubism
  33. 33. (Example of Analytic Cubism) • Gradual abstraction of deep space, recognizable subject matter • Items pushed close to picture plane in a shallow space • Shifting surface of forms and colors • Some things retain their identity, but he fractured them to integrate them into the whole composition Violin and Palette by Braque
  34. 34. Glass and Bottle of Suze Pablo Picasso, 1912 paper, gouache, charcoal • Example of SYNTHETIC CUBISM • Collage –separate elements pasted together • Tray or table supporting a glass and bottle of liquor with an actual label • Jagged shapes, shallow space • Newspaper clippings are about First Balkan War (led to WWI) – comparing the disorder in his art to the disorder building in the world
  35. 35. Mandolin and Clarinet Pablo Picasso, 1913 wood, paint, pencil • Introduced revolutionary technique called ASSEMBLAGE –sculptors can carve and model as they did before, but can also construct their workd out of found objects and unconventional materials • Gaps and holes between forms • Reversed the traditional concept of sculpture as a solid form surrounded by a void • Volume through contained space rather than mass alone Synthetic cubism
  36. 36. Guernica Pablo Picasso, 1937, oil on canvas • Painted for the Spanish pavilion of the 1937 Parisian World’s Fair • A reaction to the Fascist bombing of the militarily insignificant town of Guernica in northern Spain during the Spanish Civil War • Killed more than 1600 innocent people and shocked the world • Became a powerful symbol of the brutality of war
  37. 37. • Focus is on the victims • Restricted colors – black, gray, and white – tones of newspaper photographs that publicized the event • Includes symbols (unusual of Picasso: • Pieta on left with stigmata on child’s hands (Christ’s crucifixion wounds) • Bull symbolizes brutality and darkness, but could also symbolize Spain itself • Fallen warrior at bottom left holds a broken sword • Woman with torch is an allegory of liberty – lantern reveals the event in all its horror
  38. 38. • Horse in panic (symbol of betrayed innocence) tramples on everything and everyone • Women trapped in burning house, screaming at desolation and carnage • Wounded figures on right rush in seeking shelter • Figures in perspective on bottom recall dead figures in Ucello’sBattle of San Romano • Widely admired painting – Picasso used the language of Modern art to comment in a heartfelt manner on what seemed an international scandal • However, bombing civilians became a common strategy that all sides adopted when WWII broke out 
  39. 39. FUTURISM (1909-1914) • Italian artists celebrate the scientific and technological progress of the modern world • Glory of the machine and fascination with speed • Influenced by Cubism – enjoyed prismatic effects of representation – their work has a “shattered” look • FilippoTommaso Marinetti published a manifesto that advocated an artistic revolution – “Foundation and Manifesto of Futurism” – in a Paris newspaper – an outspoken attack against everything old, dull, feminine, and safe – promoted exhilarating “masculine” experiences of warfare and reckless speed • Futurism’s goals: Free Italy from its pas and promote a new taste for thrilling speed, energy, and power of new technology and modern urban life
  40. 40. Unique Forms of Continuity in Space Umberto Boccioni 1913, bronze Nike of Samothrace?
  41. 41. • Powerfully strides forward through atmosphere • Illusion of movement • Abstract forms fly around armless figure • Muscular body • Velocity and vitality as it rushes forward • A symbol of the brave new Futurist world (includes WWI, which the futurists enthusiastically supported • Boccioni lost his life in combat in WWI
  42. 42. Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 Marcel Duchamp 1912, oil on canvas • Part of an exhibit at THE ARMORY SHOW in New York in 1913 (held in the Armory building) – a show to introduce Americans to the current trends in European art
  43. 43. • The “succes de scandale” at the Armory Show • Futurist/Cubist painting depicting an assumed nude figure going down a flight of stairs • Influenced by motion pictures, multiple- exposure photography • Limited color range • Emphasis on movement, forward/down ward motion
  44. 44. PRECISIONISM • Small movement loosely organized in 1920’s • Stressed the flat precision of Synthetic Cubism and interest in the sharp edges of machinery
  45. 45. Light Iris Georgia O’Keefee 1924, oil on canvas • Simplified monumental shapes, organic forms • Minimal details, monumentality of delicate flower • Broad planes of unchanging color • Tilted perspective • Erotic overtones – female sexuality, naturally beautiful flower blossoming
  46. 46. PHOTO-SECESSION • An early 20th century movement • Promoted photography as a fine art in general • Controversial viewpoint – what is significant about a photograph is not what is in front of the camera but what the manipulation of the image by the photographer achieves through his or her subjective vision • Movement helped raise standards and awareness of art photography
  47. 47. Gallery 291 – most progressive gallery in the U.S. – showcased photographs as works of art beside avant-garde European paintings and modern American works (owned by photographer Alfred Stieglitz) – on 5th Avenue in NYC, major role in Photo-Secession Photo from 1906
  48. 48. The Steerage Alfred Stieglitz, 1907, photo graph • Stieglitz photographed the world as he saw it – arranged little and allowed people and events to make their own compositions • Interested in compositional possibilities of diagonals and lines acting as framing elements
  49. 49. • Diagonals and framing effects of ladders, sails, steam pipes, etc. • Shows the poorest passengers on a ship from the U.S. to Europe in 1907 • Mostly rejected immigrants to the U.S. on the return journey • Allowed out for air for a limited time
  50. 50. DADA (1916-1925) • Europeans shocked by the length and brutality of WWI, far worse than they imagined it would be • New technologies used for massive casualties – machine guns, flame throwers, fighter aircraft, poison gas • Propaganda campaigns, war profiteering disguised as patriotism, and food rationing • People are disgusted! • DADA movement is a reaction against the WWI slaughter and its moral injustices • DADA questions art itself
  51. 51. • DADA = “hobby horse” (child’s toy) • In Zurich, Cologne, Berlin, Paris, and NY • Rejected conventional methods of representation and the conventional manner in which they were exhibited • Oil paint and canvas abandoned • Presented READY-MADES as an art form • Did work on glass • Challenged the relationship between words and images, incorporated words into their works • Meaning behind a DADA work can change depending on location or accident – Did it shatter? That is an enhancement! – leaves art to chance • Accepts the dominance of the artistic concept over the execution……ok…….get ready for some DADA……..
  52. 52. Fountain Marcel Duchamp 1917, porcelain plumbing fixture and enamel paint What is this?
  53. 53. •Duchamp created the most shocking DADA works •Brought DADA to U.S. after moving to NY to escape the war in Europe •Tried painting and gave up (considered it mindless) •Believed art should appeal to the intellect rather than the senses •Used READY-MADES: manufactured objects transformed into artworks simply through the decision of the artist
  54. 54. •“Fountain” was entered in an unjuried show, but the work was refused for being indecent •Signed by Duchamp as “R. Mutt” – a pun on the Mutt and Jeff comic strip and Mott Iron Works (the fixture’s manufacturer) •Title “Fountain” is a pun –fountains spout liquid, and a urinal is meant to collect it
  55. 55. •“Fountain” is a masterpiece of philosophical investigation •If a work of art is supposed to be hand-made and signed by the artist, this work is neither •Art is supposed to have meaning? This is supposed to catch urine •Art is supposed to reflect an artist’s training? This reflects a trip to the hardware store •Duchamp’s radical gesture was one of the most important advances of Modern art. •Curious what else he “made”?
  56. 56. Bicycle Wheel and In Advance of the Broken Arm
  57. 57. L.H.O.O.Q Marcel Duchamp Pencil on reproduction of Leonardo’s Mona Lisa •Drew a mustache and beard on this postcard and signed it with his name •Called it an “assisted ready-made” – artist takes a common object and “assist” it with some alteration •Challenges preconceived notions with heavy irreverence •Duchamp’s contribution to civilization is to ridicule its hypocrisies (How can artists make works of beauty during the brutality of war?!) •DADA was “born of disgust”
  58. 58. Magritte 1960 Warhol 1963 Botero 1963Basquiat 1983 Banksy 2008 Duchamp wasn’t the last artist to do this!
  59. 59. METAPHYSICAL PAINTING •Italian movement 1910- 1920 •Humans (shown as shadows or dummies) cast in open and mysterious plazas of infinite space •Foreshadowed Surrealist painting •Viewer must interpret the meaning based on symbols, suggestions, and impressions
  60. 60. Melancholy and Mystery of a Street Giorgio DeChirico, 1914 oil on canvas •Deep pull into desolate space •Shadowy, eerie forms that create mystery and foreboding •Juxtaposition of large dark spaces and open light vistas •Empty van with nothing in it •Long shadows accentuate every texture and movement
  61. 61. SURREALISM (1924-1930’s) • Inspired by psychological studies by Freud and Jung • Wanted to represent an unseen world of dreams, subconscious thoughts, and unspoken communication • Started with the theories of writer Andre Breton – attacked the rational emphasis of Western culture • Just as grumpy as the Dadaists before them (some had been part of Dada) • Argued that modern values (science, progress, comfort, and success) were pursued at the expense of other values (fantasy, imagination, and play)
  62. 62. • Thought that coming face-to-face with one’s inner demons in an art context might prevent us from letting them loose in the real world • Developed techniques for liberating the unconscious (dream analysis, free association, automatic writing, word games, hypnotic trances….and I’m sure some drugs were involved) • Goal: help people discover the more intense reality (“surreality”) that lay beyond the narrow rational notions of what is real • Surrealism went in two directions…
  63. 63. Surrealism direction #1: abstract tradition of biomorphic (organic) and suggestive forms Surrealism direction #2: veristic tradition of using reality-based subjects put together in unusual ways Titles are puzzling – Surrealism is meant to puzzle, challenge, and fascinate the viewer Sources: mysticism, psychology, and the symbolic (not meant to be clearly understood, so don’t panic)
  64. 64. Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale Max Ernst 1924 Oil on wood Sooooo many questions to ask
  65. 65. •Why is a nightingale out in the daytime? •How could such a lovely bird firghten children, one of whom has collapsed? •What is the size relationship between the fence and the children? •Who is the shadowy figure in the house and what is it holding? •What will happen if the figure presses the button? •What does the level on the house do? •Good questions!!! ?????
  66. 66. The Persistence of Memory Salvador Dali 1931, oil on canvas
  67. 67. •Huge empty spaces in this vast landscape •Drooping watches set to different times •Only life is the fly on the watch and ants on closed watch •Hallucinatory •Barren and uninhabited landscape
  68. 68. •Visual ironies: Tree grows from a firm block, clock hangs from a dead tree branch (time’s impact?) •Dali said inspiration came from observing cheese melt under the sun •Melting clocks in a disjointed landscape – based on a dream he had (face in the middle is the dreamer himself) •Rejection of time as a solid and deterministic influence •Dali was fascinated with decay •Contrast between hard and soft objects •Cliffs in background are inspired by Catalonia, Dali’s home
  69. 69. Birth of Liquid Desires Salvador Dali 1931- 1932 oil on canvas
  70. 70. •Woman in white gown embraces a hermaphroditic figure (Dali’s works often deal w/ sexual urges) •Figure half-kneels on classical pedistal •Foot in a bowl that is being filled by partially hidden figure •Long loaf of French bread on head •Thick black cloud emerges from head, cabinet above it •Nonsense phrase inscribed – “Consign: to waste the total slate?” •Carefully wrote down his nightmares and painted them •Read more on PAGE 1120-1121
  71. 71. Painting Joan Miro, 1933 oil on canvas
  72. 72. •Biomorphic shapes set on a series of simple background colors •Color harmonies softly modeled •Shapes suggest realistic objects •Shapes delineated by solid black outlines •Some shapes are filled, some empty •Amoeba-like shapes •Playful, childish forms interact in a free- flowing pattern
  73. 73. The Two Fridas Frida Kahlo 1939 oil on canvas
  74. 74. •Juxtaposition of two self- portraits •Left: dressed as a Spanish lady in white lace •Right: dressed as a Mexican peasant •Inspired by stiffness and provincial quality of Mexican folk art •Two hearts connected by veins that are cut by scissors at one end and lead to a portrait of her husband (artist Diego Rivera) at the other end •Painted at the time of their divorce •Barren landscape, wildly active sky •Kahlo rejected the label of Surrealism
  75. 75. Lobster Tail and Fish Trap Alexander Calder, 1939, steel wire and aluminum •Mobile, hung from ceiling •Perfectly balanced •Changes shape at every breeze •Primary and neutral colors •Biomorphic, flat forms – suggest but don’t directly depict reality •Delicate wires suggest thin fish bones •Commissioned by the MOMA in NYC
  76. 76. Object Meret Oppenheim, 1936, fur-covered cup
  77. 77. •Assemblage of china, spoon, and Chinese gazelle fur •Said to have been done in response to Picasso’s claim that anything looks good in fur •Juxtaposition of very unlike objects: tea cup, saucer, and spoon covered in fur •Simultaneously attracts and repels the viewer •Erotic overtones (supposedly…..but I’m just grossed out)
  78. 78. SUPREMATISM (1913-1920’) •Thought nonobjective reality was greater than anything that could be achieved by representation •Artists like Malevich produced work that shows the “supremacy of pure feelings” •Forms float on white background, suspended in thoughtful arrangements •Limited use of color, geometric shapes, diagonals •Communist Russia eventually ignored abstract art, so the movement died
  79. 79. Suprematist Composition: Airplane Flying Kazimir Malevich, 1915, oil on canvas •Simple rectangles on white •Contemplate relationship of shapes •Pure idealism •Malevich said he wanted to “free art from the burden of the object” •Eliminated objects so we can focus on the formal issues – “liberate” the essential beauty in art
  80. 80. Suprematist Painting (Eight Red Rectangles) Kazimir Malevich 1915, oil on canvas
  81. 81. ORGANIC ART (late 1920’s – 1930’s) •Uses basic shapes to symbolize, rather than depict •Believe in honesty of simple shapes •Sleekness and roundness of forms •Simple, but show a great understanding of the nature of the materials used
  82. 82. Bird in Space Constantin Brancusi 1928, bronze•Figure soars upward from marble base it is anchored to •Not the IMAGE of a bird, but the IMPRESSION of a bird sweeping into the sky •Shiny bronze surface, streamlined and aerodynamic like a bird •Famous trial over the importation of this object – customs said it was a tool (requires import duty), defendants argue it’s a work of art (exempt from import duty) •Judge had to determine if it was a work of art
  83. 83. Recumbent Figure Henry Moore, 1938, stone
  84. 84. •Moore did many sculptures with a similar theme/look •Simplified forms with emphasis on areas of negative space •Smooth stone •Biomorphic forms •Influenced by ancient Mayan chacmool figures •Made choices based on the location of his sculptures •This one was next to a low building with views of gently rolling hills •Saw this as a “mediator” between modern building and ageless land
  85. 85. MORE MOORE!
  86. 86. DEPRESSION ERA ART (1929-1939) •Art addressed destitution and social issues/concerns •Shows desperation of the public, especially in photos •Shows social injustices •City and country life depicted in unconventional ways •Rejected Euopean abstract art •“Harlem Renaissance” – part of this movement, named after Harlem, NY, where many African-Americans moved in the early 20th century – full artistic expression in painting, music, writing, photoraphy
  87. 87. American Gothic Grant Wood, 1930 oil on beaverboard (a fiberboard building material) •Subject: Midwestern people in rural Iowa •Wood’s sister and dentist posed in conventional Midwestern costumes in front of a “carpenter Gothic” style house (meant to represent father and daughter)
  88. 88. •Long oval heads •Narrow chins •Sloping shoulders •Look disapproving or hostile •Pitchfork design echoed in farmer’s shirt, symbolizes hard labor •Wood refused to interpret the painting •Some say it’s an expression of pioneer stubbornness •Some say it’s a satire on farmers
  89. 89. •Wood said he painted the house and the people as a cohesive unit – “the kind of people I fancied should live in that house” •“daughter” is a spinster, wears a colonial apron (19th century style) •Flowers behind her suggest domesticity (women’s role) •Hard labor = man’s role (pitchfork)
  90. 90. Chartres Cathedral, Gothic
  91. 91. Ah, America…
  92. 92. Migrant Mother Dorothea Lange 1935, photograph•Lange photographed migrant workers in a deserted pea- pickers camp in California (ever read “The Grapes of Wrath?) •Children turned away, frame their mother’s face, cling to her •Mother is a mix of things: despair, anxiety, strength, dete rmination •Poverty (basically dressed in tattered rags) •Documentary photo
  93. 93. •Mother’s name is Florence Owens Thompson •Husband died, she worked in the fields and a restaurant to support her six children •Migrated to California, had three more children, worked at a migrant worker farm •Picked hundreds of pounds of cotton every day to make a living •Very famous photo, on a U.S. postage stamp in the 30’s (uncommon – usually you have to be dead at least 10 years to get on a stamp)
  94. 94. Nighthawks Edward Hopper, 1942, oil on canvas
  95. 95. •We are the viewer outside, looking into the big plate glass window of a luncheonette with no exterior door •Three customers, no interaction (although the counterman seems to “listen”) •City seems empty, deserted, middle of the night? – loneliness of modern life •Simple, quiet composition, but with tension •Forms are clearly painted
  96. 96. •Sharply angled street corner – allows him to display his subjects from a nearly frontal point of view AND what’s behind them (we can see through 2 panes of glass) •Dull colors, woman in red stands out •Hopper was interested in light, especially manmade light at night (it spills out onto the sidewalk)
  97. 97. Check out the movie “Pennies from Heaven” and you’ll see it come to life There are many parodies of this painting too…. Google it….
  98. 98. More Hopper (because I love him)
  99. 99. Hopper = Mrs. Smolinski’s greatest influence
  100. 100. Migration of the Negro #58 Jacob Lawrence, 1940-1941, tempera
  101. 101. •One of a series of 60 paintings that depict the migration of African- Americans from the rural south to the urban north after WWI •Overall color unity in the series (next slide) •Forms hover in large spaces •Unmodulated colors, flat, almost like cut paper •Little individuality in the figures, meant to represented the collective African-American experience rather than individual people Harlem Renaissance example
  102. 102. More images from the “Migration of the Negro” series by Jacob Lawrence
  103. 103. Aspects of Negro Life: From Slavery Through Reconstruction Aaron Douglas, oil on canvas •Figures in silhouette, profile views with Egyptian-style frontal eye •Organized colors into concentric bands – suggest musical rhythms or spiritual emanations •Intended to awaken in African-Americans a sense of their place in history •Celebrating Emancipation Proclamation, rights to vote, right to enlist in military •KKK invades from left •Heroic orator in center = focus of the composition – inspiring viewers to continue to struggle against oppression
  104. 104. MEXICAN MURALISTS (20’s and 30’s) •A sort of “renaissance” in Mexico – revival of fresco is a Mexican specialty •Artists who were trained in the old tradition of fresco painting created large murals that all could see and appreciate •Murals usually promoted a political or social message •Easy-to-read format, direct meanings •Promote the labor and struggle of the working class •Usually a socialist agenda
  105. 105. Diego Rivera was the most popular muralist. He was married to Frida Kahlo. His work on Mexican government buildings influenced the U.S. – U.S. federal government starts a program to hire American artists to decorate public buildings with murals (“Federal Patronage for American Art during the Depression” – see page 1116 in your book)
  106. 106. Detroit Industry Diego Rivera, 1932-1933, fresco
  107. 107. •Automobile industry glorified with workers at the Ford River Rouge plant going through their daily activities •Honors the workers and laborers •Highly decorative and colorful •Large, grand figures dominate the composition •Filled with anecdotal incidents •Horror vacui, right? •Didactic painting – meant to teach/describe
  108. 108. detail
  109. 109. Man, Controller of the Universe Diego Rivera, 1934, fresco •Center figure represents “man” – symbolically controls the universe through manipulation of technology (clear-eyed, young, in overalls – working clothes) •Crossing behind him – two large ellipses – represent microcosm of living organisms as seen through the microscope, and macrocosm of outer space as viewed through giant telescope (above his head) •Fruits and vegetables grow from earth below = agricultural efforts
  110. 110. Man, Controller of the Universe Diego Rivera, 1934, fresco •Right: Lenin joins hands with workers of different races •Left: decadent capitalists in a nightclub (below disease- causing cells in the ellipse) •Upper right: workers of the world embracing socialism •Upper left: the capitalist world, which is cursed by militarism and labor unrest
  111. 111. LENIN
  112. 112. Nightclub
  113. 113. Miserable-looking Darwin is standing on the “Capitalism” side, pointing to animals and a baby at his feet
  114. 114. Let’s conclude with movements in Architecture (with a little art sprinkled in)
  115. 115. CONSTRUCTIVISM (1914-1920’s) •Experimented with new architectural materials and assembled them in a way devoid of historical reference •Saw Russia as an idealistic center removed from historical reference and decoration •Influenced by Cubists and Futurists •Designed buildings with no precise facades •Emphasis on dramatic use of materials
  116. 116. Monument to the Third International VladmirTatlin 1919-1920 wood, iron, glass •Commemorates 1917 Russian Revolution •Talin believed abstract art represented a new society built free of past associations •Existed only as a model (now destroyed) - would have been made of glass and iron
  117. 117. •If built, it would have been the world’s tallest building at that time •Was going to be built in Moscow as the headquarters for propaganda for Soviet Union •Axis intended to point to star Polaris: symbol of universal humanity •Three chambers were going to rotate around center axis inside a tilted spiral cage – each chamber housed a facility for a different govt. activity and rotated at a different speed (very “ministry of magic”)
  118. 118. •Bottom: glass structure for lectures and meetings, rotated once a year •Middle: for administration, rotated monthly •Top: information center, rotated daily •Seems to burrow into the earth like a drill •Lacks main facade
  119. 119. DeStijl(1917-1930’s) “The Style” •Greatest artist: Piet Mondrian •Completely abstract (even the titles make no reference to nature). Nature encourages “primitive animal instincts” •Representational elements are too subjective. No curved lines because they are sensual •Thought that there were two kinds of beauty: sensual/subjective and rational/objective •Mondrian likes rational/objective – says that’s the higher “universal” kind •White background, black lines, angular spaces (squares and rectangles), three primary colors: red, blue, and yellow (painted solid, no shading) •NO diagonals. Only perpendicular lines.
  120. 120. Composition in Black, White, and Red Piet Mondrian 1936 oil on canvas •Primary colors, black, white •Severe geometry, only right angles •Grid-like arrangement •No shading of colors
  121. 121. Composition with Yellow, Red, and Blue Piet Mondrian 1927 oil on canvas •Primary colors and neutrals •Horizontal/vertical lines – two directions meant to symbolize the harmony of opposites (male vs. female, individual vs. society, spiritual vs. material) •Beauty = resolved conflict (“dynamic equilibrium” according to Mondrian) •Equilibrium achieved through precise arrangement of color areas of different size, shape, and visual “weight” •Asymmetrically grouped
  122. 122. Composition with Yellow, Blue, and Red Piet Mondrian, 1937, oil on canvas •Wanted art to create an environment designed according to the rules of “universal beauty” •Balanced, pure •Thought he provided humanity with something we were lacking •Thought that if beauty were in every aspect of our lives, we wouldn’t need art (he hoped he would be the last artist after launching this style)
  123. 123. So who’s making this for our post-AP exam party?
  124. 124. Schroder House GerritRietveld, 1924 in Utrecht, Netherlands
  125. 125. SMO CAM
  126. 126. •Only building in complete DeStijl style •Mrs. Schroder wanted a smaller house w/ her 3 kids after the husband died •Flexibility of space = no hierarchical arrangement of rooms in the floor plan •Collapsable walls, partitions – allowed kids to create an open play space, or close walls to create private bedrooms •Bedroom standards: bed must fit in two positions, each room needs a water supply and drainage, each room needs access to the outdoors directly
  127. 127. •Coolest house EVER!!!! •Looks like DeStijl paintings •Geometric, grid-like façade, asymmetrical interlocking planes •Private rooms (bedrooms) on bottom floor, public rooms on top floor •Interior can be modified – walls move, partitions open, things convert….so cool!!! •You can create new spaces in seconds! •EVERY element has a purpose, even a tiny shelf for the owner to place her watch on before bed
  128. 128. BAUHAUS (1919-1933) • A school of architecture and interior design • Taught that all artforms should be designed as a unit (architecture, objects, etc.) • Embraced technology, taught students to understand design as a coherent whole • Influenced by DeStijl and Constructivism • Simple, elegant designs based on geometric harmony and expressive forms • Marriage of art and technology in a creative and experimental way • BAUHAUS = “house of building”
  129. 129. The Bauhaus Walter Gropius, 1925-1926, Germany
  130. 130. The Bauhaus, another view
  131. 131. •Building seems to float, as if it’s lifted off the ground •Framed by long white panels on top and bottom •Glass walls (curtain walls) reveal 2nd layer beyond them (classrooms for architecture students) •No embellishments or architectural motifs
  132. 132. Fagus Shoe Factory Walter Gropius and Adolph Meyer, 1911-1916, Germany •Represents the evolution of modern architecture – conceived to function as a building, not demonstrate advances of the 19th century
  133. 133. •Good engineering = good architecture •Purely functional building, no elaboration, windows flood interior with light •Steel frame, slender brick piers along outer walls •Curtain wall of windows, no corner piers needed because of the steel frame skeleton
  134. 134. International Style (1920’s- 1950’s) • Belief that a house should be a “machine for living” • Influenced by clean lines of Bauhaus style • Clean, spacious white lines in façade • Strong skeleton structure holds building up from within – allows for great planes of glass to wrap around the walls using FERROCONCRETE construction (steel reinforced concrete) • No ornamentation, sculptures, or paint on exterior
  135. 135. Villa Savoye Le Corbusier, 1929, France
  136. 136. •Three-bedroom villa (home) with servant’s quarters •Boxlike horizontal design, an abstraction of a house •All space utilized, roof is a patio (nice!) •Main part of house lifted off the ground by “pilotis” (thin freestanding posts) – pronounced “pEE-oh-tee” •Bottom floor with circular - enter house directly from the car!
  137. 137. Spiral staircase inside Ramp to rooftop garden
  138. 138. Swanky! Check out “Real-time Walkthrough -Villa Savoye” on YouTube!!!
  139. 139. PRAIRIE STYLE (1900-1917) • Architects working mainly in Chicago • Frank Lloyd Wright is the most famous of them • Most structures built in prairie state and inspired by horizontal character of the prairie itself • Historic styles? No way! • Architecture should be in harmony with the site it’s built on • Irregular plans, layouts mimic abstract shapes of contemporary paintings (circles, squares, rectangles, triangles) • Stylized botanical shapes • CANTILEVER construction so porches and terraces can extend out from the main section of a structure – give the impression of forms hovering in space • Organic qualities of materials considered beautiful – concrete w/ pebbles mixed in, sand-finished stucco, lumber, natural woods • Horizontal emphasis, sprawling
  140. 140. The Robie House Frank Lloyd Wright, 1907-1909, Chicago
  141. 141. •Horizontal emphasis (mimics flat expanses of the American prairie) •Long ground-hugging lines •Cantilever construction, porches covered by long balconies
  142. 142. •Windows meet at corners w/ no piers to support them •Roof angled to allow low winter sun to enter, keep out hot summer sun •Not intended to have blinds or curtains – would ruin the effect of the seamless windows •Entrance hidden from view, not on our near the sidewalk (fortress-like)
  143. 143. •Organized around a central chimney (typical Prairie) – hearth = physical and psychological center of the home •Wright was inspired by Japanese domestic space- used partitions to separate space rather than heavy walls
  144. 144. •Lighting and heating integrated into ceiling and floor, added built-in bookcases, shelves, and storage drawers (all an effort to achieve unity) •Wright designed the furniture too – modern, machine-cut designs, high backs
  145. 145. Lighting at the corners to create an uninterrupted intimate space
  146. 146. Falling Water Frank Lloyd Wright 1936-1939, Pennsylvania
  147. 147. •Built after Prairie movement, but same style •IN the landscape •Built for a business man as a family summer cottage, waterfall flows into pool where kids played
  148. 148. •Built the house INTO the cliff over the pool •Waterfall flows down and under the house •Cantilevered terraces echo slabs of rock of cliff •Wood and stone – harmony in nature
  149. 149. •Living room has glass curtain walls on three sides- views of the woods (OMG!) •Floor and walls built from local stone •Hearth = center of the house •Architecture dominates the interior design •Irregular and complex ground plan and design
  150. 150. ART DECO (20’s and 30’s) • Refined appearance • Focus on industry, the machine, and aerodynamics • A sort of blend between Art Nouveau and machine stylization • Stylized automobile wheels and grills, cruise- ship portholes and railings, parallel lines contrasting with zig-zags
  151. 151. The Chrysler Building William Van Alen 1928-1930, NY •Tallest building in the world when built (bigger than Eiffel Tower) •Streamlined metalwork on façade •Stainless steel on top – shiny and beautiful, and low maintenance!
  152. 152. •Lobby has rich mix of marble, onyx, and amber, ooooo •Car motifs dominate: symbols of metal hubcaps, gargoyles in the form of radiator caps, car fenders, hood ornaments
  153. 153. Chrysler Airflow, 1934
  154. 154. VOCABULARY: • ABSTRACT: works of art that may have form, but have little or no attempt at pictorial representation • BIOMORPHISM: a movement stressing organic shapes that hint at natural forms • CANTILEVER: a projecting beam that is attached to a building at one end, but suspended in the air at the other end • COLLAGE: a composition made by pasting together different items onto a flat surface • DOCUMENTARY PHOTOGRAPHY: a type of photography that seeks social and political redress for current issues by using photographs as a way of exposing society’s faults
  155. 155. • FERROCONCRETE: steel reinforced concrete – the two materials act together to resist building stress • FROTTAGE: a composition made by rubbing a crayon or a pencil over paper placed over a surface with a raised desing • HARLEM RENAISSANCE: a particularly rich artistic period in the 1920’s and 1930’s that is named after the African- American neighborhood in NYC where it emerged – marked by a cultural resurgence by African-Americans in the fields of painting, writing, music, and photography • MOBILE: a sculpture made of several different items that dangle from a ceiling and can be set in motion by air curents • READY-MADE: a commonplace object selected and exhibited as a work of art (the artist’s choice) • REGIONALISM: an American art movement form the early 20th century that emphasized Midwestern rural life in a direct style
  156. 156. FIN (one more chapter to go!)