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Etruscan Art


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Etruscan Art

  1. 1. ETRUSCAN ART Chapter 6, part I
  2. 2. When? 10th century BCE to 270 BCE Height: 7th – 6th centuries BCE
  3. 3. ETRUSCAN KEY IDEAS: •We learned about Etruscan civilizations by studying their elaborate NECROPOLI filled with tombs that resemble large rooms in a home. •Etruscan sculptures and temples are heavily influenced by Archaic Greek works •Etruscans were experts at sculpting with bronze and terra-cotta clay
  4. 4. Who were the Etruscans? •Etruscans lived in Italy before Romans arrived •Existed in the bronze age- same as archaic period in Greece •Language and customs different than Romans (used Greek alphabet) •Never formed a unified nation- city states eventually fell to the Romans in the 4th and 5th centureis BCE.
  5. 5. First let’s look at their architecture…
  6. 6. Characteristics of Etruscan Architecture: •Their tombs were tightly packed in NECROPOLI throughout Tuscany (in Italy)- named after the Etruscans •Most tombs- round with door leading to large interior chamber •Interior chamber is brightly painted to reflect interior of a house •Tombs have symbols of Etruscan lifestyle on walls •Entire families (w/ servants) are buried in one tomb •Architect Vitruvius wrote about their temples a lot •Inspired by Greeks- pediments, columns, cella •Etruscan buildings made of wood and terra-cotta, not stone •Single flight of stairs leading to main entrance (not steps surrounding whole building) •Sculptures put on rooftops to announce presence of deity within.
  7. 7. Model of an Etruscan Temple
  8. 8. Reconstruction of Etruscan Temple •No ruins because they were built of wood, unlike non-religious architecture •Design is similar to Greek temples- tall base (podium), deep porch, cella was subdivided into 3 parts- religion based on a triad of gods •No assigned space for sculptures
  9. 9. •Written descriptions by Vitruvius help us imagine it •Temples made of mud-brick and wood •Steps in front bring your attention to deep porch •Columns and capitals- Greek influence •Columns are unfluted- TUSCAN ORDER •Whole structure is raised on a PODIUM •Three doors represent three gods •We don’t know much about their religious beliefs Apollo from Veii (figure stood on top of a temple) More about him later!
  10. 10. Tuscan Order
  11. 11. Embellished with painting and terra-cotta sculpture Large statue groups on roof, not pediment
  12. 12. Etruscan Greek Differences?
  13. 13. Etruscan- divided into three rooms- housed cult statues Greek
  14. 14. Cerveteri , 7th to 6th century BCE •Tombs = homes for the dead •Didn’t preserve body (cremation instead) •Cemetery of La Banditaccia at Cerveteri- laid out like a town with “streets” running between grave mounds •Covered with dirt and stones
  15. 15. TUMULUS: artificial mound of earth and stones placed over grave
  16. 16. Remind you of anything?
  17. 17. Philip Johnson Painting Gallery (1965) Influences?
  18. 18. Philip Johnson Glass House in New Canaan, CT
  19. 19. Burial Chamber, Tomb of the Reliefs, in Cerveteri 3rd Century BCE
  20. 20. • Walls plastered and painted, fully furnished • Couches carved out of stone • Other furnishings made of STUCCO (a slow-drying type of plaster that can be molded and carved easily. Family dog in low relief
  21. 21. Tomb of the Seats and Shields, 7th – 6th centuries BCE
  22. 22. •Underground rock-cut tombs reflect domestic architecture •Ceiling cut with pretend rafters •Large armchairs frame doorway •Windows, furniture, objects- all cut out of rock •Stone objects are eternal in the afterlife •Large circular shields hang from walls
  23. 23. Port Augusta, 3rd Century BCE •Masters of architectural engineering (according to Romans) •Very ordered urban planning- streets were centered along 2 main thoroughfares to form quarters •Intersection of 2 main streets = business center •Port Augusta was a fortified city gate and a façade- semi- circular true arches-first use of the integrated arch- combining with architectural orders which highly influenced the Romans Tunnel-like passageway between two huge towers Semi-circular barrel vault over passageway
  24. 24. •Construction of wedge-shaped blocks called voussoirs, each pointing to the center •Round arch discovered by the Egyptians, but used mainly underground and never in temples •Used in Mesopotamia for city gates •Greeks confined its use to underground structures and gateways •Etruscans and Romans were the first to make widespread use of arches and vaults
  25. 25. Now let’s learn about Etruscan painting…
  26. 26. • Surviving Etruscan painting is funerary • Done on walls and ceilings of tombs • About 280 chambers still exist • Brightly painted frescoes • Cheerful celebrating, dancing, eating, playing music • Hard to draw parallels to Greek because not much Greek painting from this time period exists
  27. 27. Tomb of the Leopards, 480-470 BCE
  28. 28. details
  29. 29. • Banquet couples recline, eating in ancient manner • Men darker than women • Trees between figures, bushes grow beneath couches (rural setting?) • Maybe a funeral banquet, but emotions are of celebration! • Ceiling with checkerboard pattern • Circles may symbolize time
  30. 30. • Dancing figures play musical instruments • Festive celebration of the dead
  31. 31. Tomb of Hunting and Fishing, 520 BC •Elaborate murals in the burial chambers, perhaps to keep the spirit happy •Rhythmic quality similar to Minoan, but not weightless •Could be influenced by Egyptian tomb paintings, but its more lifelike
  32. 32. Diver tomb at Paestum (c. 475 BCE)
  33. 33. Musicians and two Dancers, 480 -470 BC Full of energy, females differ from males in color, just like Egypt
  34. 34. Remind you of anything?
  35. 35. And now it’s time for some Etruscan sculpture!
  36. 36. Characteristics of Etruscan SCULPTURE: • Terra-cotta, stucco, and bronze (sometimes stone) • Terra-cotta was modeled rather than carved • Fired large works in kilns • Shows some awareness of Greek Archaic art – but some differences: GREEK sculpture: • Kouros are stoic and proud • Occasional light smile • Broad shoulders of men • Stylized hair • Nudity ETRUSCAN sculpture: • Figures move dynamically in space • Figures aware of the world around them • Broad shoulders, stylized hair • Avoided nudity
  37. 37.  What is this object?  Where was it found?  When was it made?  What does it signify about the culture that made it?
  38. 38. • Sarcophagus of married couple- ashes inside • Full-length portraits. Can you see the influence of ancient Greece? • Both held objects in hands- egg maybe? (to symbolize life after death?) • Concentration on upper body (legs got little attention when sculpted) • Bodies make unrealistic L-turn to the legs • Tradition of reclining while eating- banquet couch • Man has protective gesture around woman • Woman is feeding the man (symbiosis) • Reflects high standing of women in society (relative equality) • Broad shoulders • Little anatomical modeling • Emaciated hands • Made in separate pieces and joined together Sarhacopgus from Cerveteri
  39. 39. Apollo from Veii, c. 510 BCE, terra-cotta, 5’ 10” •Veii had sculptures lining the ridge of the roof (including this one) •One of four large figures that once stood on the temple •Stood on roof = meant to be seen from below •Muscular, details, in motion- more expressive than archaic Greek sculptures of the time •Has spirit, moves forward quickly •Archaic smile •Made of terra cotta
  40. 40. c. 510 BCE In Italy c. 530 BCE in Greece
  41. 41. c. 490 BCE, Greece
  42. 42. • Alert, snarling, protective, aware, tense, watchful, fierce • Very thin body (bones) • No mane or curly hair • Face isn’t wolf-like • Story of Romulus and Remus suckled by the She-Wolf – later became founders of Rome • Children added later in the Renaissance • Scholars think this might be a Medieval copy of an Etruscan original
  43. 43. In 2006 the Italian art historian Anna Maria Carruba and the Etruscologist Adriano La Regina contested the traditional dating of the wolf on the basis of an analysis of the casting technique. Carruba had been given the task of restoring the sculpture in 1997, enabling her to examine how it had been made. She observed that the statue had been cast in a single piece using a variation of the lost-wax casting technique that was not used in ancient times; ancient Greek and Roman bronzes were typically constructed from multiple pieces, a method that facilitated high quality castings with less risk than would be involved in casting the entire sculpture at once. Single-piece casting was, however, widely used in medieval times to mould bronze items that needed a high level of rigidity, such as bells and cannon.
  44. 44. Romulus and Remus - 16th century addition
  45. 45. Chimera of Arezzo, 400-350 BCE, bronze
  46. 46. Chimera of Arezzo, 400-350 BCE, bronze • Composite: lion head and body, goat’s neck springing from spine, snake for a tail • Angry, snarling, wounded, posed for attack (look out!) • Richly articulated anatomy- spikelike mane, hurt defensive posture
  47. 47. Engraved mirror back, c.400 BC •Became master craftsmen in metal •Produced small mirrors and statues for domestic use and export •Probably inspired by Greeks but not Greek subject- winged person looking at a liver of a sacrificial animal •Etruscans strongly believed in omens- will of the gods manifest itself through natural occurences (thunderstorms, flights of birds) •Priests who could interpret omens were revered •Priests “read” the liver of sacrificed animals to make predictions
  48. 48. Portrait of a Boy, 3rd century BC •Portraiture showed up only after the influence of the Greeks •Worked in Bronze- sensitive and gentle expression
  49. 49. ETRUSCAN VOCABULARY: • NECROPOLIS: “city of the dead”- large burial area • STUCCO: a fine plaster used for wall decorations and moldings • TERRA-COTTA: hard ceramic clay used for buildings, pottery, sculpture, etc. • TUMULUS: an artificial mound of earth and stones placed over a grave