Pacific cultures


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  • Portrait of Maori Bones- likewestern relics
  • Tiki is fearsome, composition revolves around ctrl figure Flaring nostrils and open mouth with protruding toungue add to terrifying aspec Tongue is defiant and aggressive Red color part of creation myth
  • Building + symbolism Smal pic + carved lintel
  • The patterns may represent tatoos Decoration on every surface Building is more than lineage: connection to god Rafters symbolize passage through time of the chief with the sky father
  • Wrinkled brow and hair seem to vibrate Open, toothy mouth seemed to be yelling
  • Abstract curvilinear design suggests wind turbulence Ra, the sun, energizes scene complemented by Marama the moon Spiral koru motifs symbolize growth and energy flowing Blue waves and green fronds suggest his brother tangaroa and Tane, gods of the sea and forest
  • Pacific cultures

    1. 1. ART OF PACIFIC CULTURES By: Ara Cho Ian Ting Chris Woodington
    2. 2. MAIN SOURCES FOR ART <ul><li>Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Melanesia </li></ul><ul><li>Micronesia </li></ul><ul><li>Polynesia </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Art </li></ul>
    3. 3. BACKGROUND <ul><li>Land of Oceana settled around 50,000 years ago, after people began to move from Southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Life did not change until as early as 7000 BCE when the people of Melanesia began to raise animals and cultivate crops </li></ul><ul><li>These aborigines continued this way of life well into the 20th century </li></ul>
    4. 4. THE LAPITAS <ul><li>People of Melanesia and western Polynesia </li></ul><ul><li>Named for a site in New Caledonia </li></ul><ul><li>Began to settle around 1500 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Farming and fishing culture </li></ul><ul><li>Made distinct ceramics: dishes, platters. Bowls, jars </li></ul>
    5. 5. FRAGMENTS OF A LARGE LAPITA JAR <ul><li>Venumbo Reef, Solomon Islands, Melanesia. Circa 1150 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Clay, Height of human face </li></ul><ul><li>Bands of incised and stamped patterns- dots, lines and hatching- heightened with white lime </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts one of earliest representations of human from Oceanic art </li></ul><ul><li>Usually art was entirely geometric with few figurative aspects </li></ul>
    6. 6. POLYNESIA <ul><li>Emerged from Lapita on islands of Samoa and Tonga around 1st century CE </li></ul><ul><li>Sailed and settled around region, reaching Hawaii around 500 CE and New Zealand around 1000 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread region meant varied materials for art </li></ul>
    7. 7. AUSTRALIA <ul><li>Original inhabitants life was intimately connected with a concept known as Dreamtime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Period before humans, Earth starts out flat and spirit beings shape it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirits grew old and departed but their presence is still felt (climate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each person has two souls: one mortal and one immortal, associated with a particular ancestral spirit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a focus point for art, goal of many paintings is to restore contact with Dreamtime </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. ARNHEM LAND <ul><li>Earliest remains found in North </li></ul><ul><li>People continued Paleolithic lifestyle well into 20 century </li></ul><ul><li>Ceremonial life included ritual body painting as well as ornamentation of implements and interiors of bark houses </li></ul><ul><li>Rock paintings famous for association with Dreamtime </li></ul>
    9. 9. ROCK PAINTING <ul><li>X-ray style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones, internal organs, spinal column, heart, stomach </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. MIMIS AND KANGAROO <ul><li>Oenpelli, Arnhem Land, Australia </li></ul><ul><li>18,000-7,000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Red and yellow ocher and white pipe clay </li></ul><ul><li>Four legs showing </li></ul><ul><li>Both ears </li></ul><ul><li>Same time roughly as cave painting in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Painting on top of earlier, sticklike figures paintings </li></ul>
    11. 11. BARK PAINTING <ul><li>Origin myths, rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Continued X-ray style in western, in eastern developed new style based on ritual body painting </li></ul><ul><li>Yolungu rarely reveal full meaning of art </li></ul><ul><li>Used styles like dotting and cross-hatching, known as rarrk </li></ul><ul><li>Still very geometric in style </li></ul>
    12. 12. MELANESIA <ul><li>Same purpose as art in Australia </li></ul><ul><li>More agricultural, places set aside for ritual worship </li></ul><ul><li>Woman barred from ritual arts, but still produced goods such as bark cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual objects not made to last </li></ul>
    13. 13. NEW GUINEA <ul><li>Two main countries, Papua New Guinea, Irian Jaya </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity of both people and climate: leads to different art forms </li></ul><ul><li>Over 700 languages identified </li></ul>
    14. 14. BOATS IN OCEANIA <ul><li>From fishing vessels to war canoes, varied in size greatly </li></ul><ul><li>Materials make building different for each culture </li></ul><ul><li>Sails or paddles </li></ul><ul><li>Most purely functional, not much ornamentation </li></ul><ul><li>Only war canoes had decoration, political and martial face of culture, intimidation factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly on prow and stern, depicted animals, humans, spirals and other geometric designs. Some inlaid with shells and others painted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most elaborate came from New Zealand </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. CANOE PROW <ul><li>Trobriand Islands, </li></ul><ul><li>Milne Bay Province, </li></ul><ul><li>Papua New Guinea </li></ul><ul><li>Modern </li></ul>
    16. 16. IRIAN JAYA <ul><li>Asmat live in grasslands on southwest coast </li></ul><ul><li>Known as warriors and headhunters </li></ul><ul><li>Identified trees with humans, fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Birds and Praying mantis headhunters in war and mortuary art </li></ul><ul><li>Honor dead, memorial poles erected, known as mbis </li></ul><ul><li>Ceremonies reestablish balance between life and death </li></ul><ul><li>Contain souls of deceased </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still same upkeep as other ritual art </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. ASMAT ANCESTRAL SPIRIT POLES <ul><li>Irian Jaya, Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Wood, paint, palm leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Height 18’ </li></ul><ul><li>Enemy head placed in cavity at base </li></ul><ul><li>Figures representing tribal ancestors support recent dead </li></ul><ul><li>Bent pose like praying mantis </li></ul><ul><li>Birds are shown breaking open nuts </li></ul><ul><li>Top represents male fertility </li></ul>
    18. 18. NEW IRELAND <ul><li>Large eastern islands of Papua New Guinea </li></ul><ul><li>Practice ceremonies for family known as malanggan </li></ul><ul><li>Also honor dead, masks are made to go along with funeral rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Involve whole community, strengthen social relations and property claims </li></ul><ul><li>Works displayed before ceremony include masks, ritual dance equipment, freestanding sculpture and figures on poles representing dead </li></ul>
    19. 19. TATANUA DANCE MASKS <ul><li>One of dances in malanggan is called tatanua </li></ul><ul><ul><li>References dance itself or masks that participators wear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masks represent one of three souls of dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carved and painted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employ simple geometric designs, ladders, zigzags, and sometimes feathers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paint applied in ritual order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First lime white- magic spells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red- recall spirits of dead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black Charcoal- warfare </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lastly yellow and blue for decoration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colors and symbols different for each side- allow dancers to represent different appearances with a turn </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. MICRONESIA <ul><li>Four major island groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Pohnpei, Chuuk, Yap and Kosrae </li></ul><ul><li>Micronesia’s islands are small, low-lying coral islands </li></ul><ul><li>Basalt cliffs of island of Pohnpei provide material for stone architectural complexes in Oceania </li></ul><ul><li>The ancestors of Micronesia settled Caroline Islands over 4000 years ago </li></ul>
    21. 21. GABLE FIGURE (DILUKÁI) <ul><li>19th–early 20th century </li></ul><ul><li>Wood, Paint </li></ul><ul><li>Caroline Islands </li></ul><ul><li>The significance is really uncertain </li></ul><ul><li>In some traditions there was a troublesome man who fled to meeting house (bai) with his sister and they were later expelled </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent his return the residence put a this over the entrance </li></ul><ul><li>This meaning the brother was forbidden to see his sister naked </li></ul>
    22. 22. WEATHER CHARM (HOS) <ul><li>late 19th–early 20th century </li></ul><ul><li>Caroline Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Wood, stingray spines, fiber, lime </li></ul><ul><li>The navigator would bring this charm and would blow into this to invoke the sprits a recites a chant to drive away the on coming storm </li></ul>
    23. 23. SEATED FIGURE <ul><li>late 19th–early 20th century </li></ul><ul><li>Caroline Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Wood, shell, traces of paint and resin </li></ul><ul><li>The seated figures gender is undetermined </li></ul><ul><li>These were commonly found around the Caroline Islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which indicates that this seated figure common origin and function </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. NAN MADOL <ul><li>On the southeast coast </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 92 artificial islands </li></ul><ul><li>It is built on top of coral reef </li></ul><ul><li>Largest and most impressive, reflecting the importance of the kings who ruled from the site </li></ul><ul><li>Some may call it the lost city of Nan Madol </li></ul>
    25. 25. NAN MADOL (CONTINUED) <ul><li>The site was abandoned by the time the Europeans came in, in the 19th century </li></ul><ul><li>No one knows who built these ruins and how the columns were built </li></ul><ul><li>Besides the ruins there are no carvings or art left behind </li></ul><ul><li>The Saudeleur were the ones that ruled the island for more than a millennium </li></ul>
    26. 26. POLYNESIA <ul><li>It was the last area of the Pacific to be settled by humans </li></ul><ul><li>Also the last area to be mapped and colonized by the Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>Polynesian art served as indicators of rank and status </li></ul><ul><li>Their art were often handed down to generation to generation as heirlooms </li></ul>
    27. 27. MALE FIGURE (MOAI TANGATA) <ul><li>early 19th century </li></ul><ul><li>Easter Island </li></ul><ul><li>Wood, obsidian, bone </li></ul><ul><li>Little is known about the nature and the use of this figure </li></ul><ul><li>This figure may represent a family ancestor </li></ul><ul><li>It also may have been intended to portray specific individual </li></ul>
    28. 29. BREASTPLATE (CIVANOVONOVO) <ul><li>early 19th century </li></ul><ul><li>Fiji (created by Tongan artists) </li></ul><ul><li>Whale ivory, pearl shell, fiber </li></ul><ul><li>These were worn exclusively by male chiefs </li></ul><ul><li>In the Fiji islands these were very precious and powerful </li></ul><ul><li>These were used in battles or other dangerous activities </li></ul>
    29. 30. EASTER ISLAND <ul><li>Easter Island is one of the most famous places but the least visited </li></ul><ul><li>It has three volcano's on each end making the island a triangular shape </li></ul><ul><li>The island was named by a Dutch captain Jacob Roggeveen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He named because he visited the island on Easter Sunday in 1722 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He became the first European to visit </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. MONUMENTAL SCULPTURES <ul><li>These sculptures are scattered across the island </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly all of them are carved out of hard stone </li></ul><ul><li>No one really knows how they got there </li></ul><ul><li>The average statue is about 14 feet long and weigh up to 14 tons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are 33 feet and weigh more then 80 pounds </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. MARQUESAS ISLANDS <ul><li>The first inhabitants of Easter Island were probably voyagers from the Marquesas Islands </li></ul><ul><li>They are made up of several volcanic islands </li></ul><ul><li>The natives were known for their warfare </li></ul><ul><li>The natives were also noted for cannibalism </li></ul>
    32. 33. WAR CLUB <ul><li>The fighting in Marquesas Islands were usually hand to hand </li></ul><ul><li>The warriors used elaborate ceremonial dress to convey their rank and status </li></ul><ul><li>They also had highly developed art in which they would tattoo their faces with different patterns </li></ul>
    33. 34. NEW ZEALAND <ul><li>Last part of of Polynesia to be settled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometime 10 th century CE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geographically isolated </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Contact in 1769 by Captain Cook </li></ul><ul><li>Early Polynesian settlers became known as the Maori </li></ul>
    34. 35. CHRONOLOGY <ul><li>Maori Scholars established these periods (translated): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Seeds (900-1200) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Growth (1200-1500) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Flowering (1500-1800) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Turning (1800-present) </li></ul></ul>
    35. 36. MAORI PEOPLE <ul><li>Share many cultural practices with other Polynesian societies </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into different clans sometimes at war </li></ul>
    36. 37. ART AND RELIGION <ul><li>In Maori legend, the first artists were gods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ tohunga” means expert (artist) but also priest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The artist, the artwork, and the tools are all holy </li></ul><ul><li>Art is judged on spiritual connection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A prized artwork must have a history of contact with mana </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tapu prevents artworks from being repaired </li></ul>
    37. 38. TATTOO <ul><li>The Maori had facial tattoos called moku </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men wore them all over their face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women had them on their lips and chins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They were complex patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Each pattern is original; could be used as a signature </li></ul><ul><li>Tattoos show authority </li></ul>
    38. 39. MAORI WOOD CARVING <ul><li>Distinctive of Maorie </li></ul><ul><li>Combined massive form with delicate ornament </li></ul><ul><li>Depict tiki figure with ocean inspired imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Finished with red clay and shark-liver oil </li></ul>Carved Lintel 18 th C Totara wood and haliotis shell 40x16x2”
    39. 40. MEETINGHOUSE <ul><li>Demonstrate primacy of ancestral connections </li></ul><ul><li>The building is the body of an ancestor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central beam=spine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rafters=ribs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barge boards=arms </li></ul></ul>
    40. 41. TE HAU-KI-TURANGA MEETING HOUSE <ul><li>Built 1842-5 by Raharuhi Rukupo and assistants </li></ul><ul><li>Preserved in a museum 1935 </li></ul><ul><li>Built with metal tools </li></ul><ul><li>Includes a self portrait </li></ul>
    41. 42. <ul><li>Meeting House </li></ul>Stave Church
    42. 43. HAWAII <ul><li>Settled 300CE and again 900CE </li></ul><ul><li>Developed high stratified social structure </li></ul><ul><li>Unified under Kamehameha I </li></ul>
    43. 44. RELIGIOUS SCULPTURE <ul><li>Kamehameha I was dedicated to the war god Kukailimoku </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genealogical links reinforced right to rule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Originally situated in a temple enclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic expression of fury </li></ul>Kukailimoku Late 18 th or early 19 th century Wood Height 7’7”
    44. 45. FEATHER CLOAKS <ul><li>Art to visualize and reinforce hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Color red-high status and rank </li></ul><ul><li>Labor intensive to make </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires from 50,000 to 500,000 feathers </li></ul></ul>Kearny Cloak c. 1843 Red, yellow, and black feathers, olona cordage, and netting Length 56”
    45. 46. MUSIC <ul><li>Pacific cultures use oral tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments were used to accompany vocal recitations and songs </li></ul><ul><li>Sisyphean theme present in music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggle against fate/existence </li></ul></ul>Maori Flute Hawaiian Gourd Drum Rotinese Tube Zither (Sasandu)
    46. 47. MODERN PACIFIC ART <ul><li>Oceanic cultures abandoned many traditional practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly due to colonial and missionary pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now Reintegration is occurring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural renewal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapting modern tools and medium to traditional topics </li></ul></ul>
    47. 48. TAWHIRI-MATEA (GOD OF THE WINDS) <ul><li>Made 1984 by Cliff Whiting </li></ul><ul><li>Reemergence of Maori wood carving </li></ul><ul><li>New Colors; oil on wood and fiberboard </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts events from Maori creation myth </li></ul>
    48. 49. UKULELES
    49. 50. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Kleiner, Fred S. Gardner’s Art through the Ages: Non-Western Perpectives. 13th Edition. Boston, Massachusetts: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Riley, Michael Kampen. Art Beyond the West. 2nd Edition. Upper Sadde, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. 3rd Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Sounding the Pacific: Musical Instruments of Oceania.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: 9 Nov. 2009. Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Art History Textbook </li></ul>