Oblivion (noteno back of Time (note wingshead, no brain, o and hourglass)memory) Jest or Folly (with roses and bells on his ankle. Has stepped on Jealousy a thorn – the pleasure and pain of love)The GoldenApple of Venus Fraud (serpent’sgiven by Paris in tail, honeycomb andthe fateful string)contest withMinerva andJuno(Hera, Athena &Aphrodite). Hisreward wasHelen and the DeceitTrojan War.
Allegory with Venus and Cupid c. 1455• Agnolo Bronzino• A “puzzle painting” –alludes to different qualities of Love.• Jest – compared to Fraud, Jealousy and Deceit.• Note Time and Oblivion struggling with the blue cloth in an attempt to reveal (or forget) the Truth• Venus disarms her own son (Cupid)
Allegories• An allegory that takes time to unravel and understand• Greater effort = greater reward• Some allegories more universal – David & Goliath. Some more elite. Requires specific education.• May have been a gift of Cosimode’Medici to Francis I. ( a gift of flattery – implies – 1. that Francis will understand all the references – 2. that Cosimo is intelligent as well – 3. caters to the taste of Francis: elegant, refined, erotic
MannerismBronzino, Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time• Given to Francis I of France as a gift from the Medici in Florence• Extremely learned allegories that defy easy interpretation• Venus fondled by Cupid, her son, and uncovered by Father Time• Venus holds the apple she won in a beauty contest• Cupid has his eyes on the apple, but does not suspect that Venus has removed an arrow from his quiver• Folly throws roses• Vanity is beautiful girl on the outside, but an animal under her skirt• Vanity’s hands are oddly arranged• Masks symbolize falseness; doves symbolize love• Envy is green• Strong contours• High key color, flesh smooth as porcelain
Women Artists• Women’s roles in Florence, Sienna and Venice very limited• More relaxed guild system outside of these cities
Prosperzia de’Rossi (1490 – 1530)•First woman sculptor to leave works ofsuch high quality•Knowledge of male anatomy that wasunusual for the time in women
SofonisbaAnguissola, 1532 – 1625•1ST woman painter not the daughter of another painter•Specialized in portraits•Received high praise from Michelangelo•Enjoyed the Patronage of the Spanish Royal family
Mannerist Painting• emphasized complexity and virtuosity over naturalistic representation.• While the formal vocabulary of Mannerism takes much from the later works of Michelangelo (1475–1564) and Raphael (1483–1520), its adherents generally favored compositional tension and instability rather than the balance and clarity of earlier Renaissance painting.• Some characteristics common to many Mannerist works include distortion of the human figure,• a flattening of pictorial space, and a cultivated intellectual sophistication
Mannerism• Figures often seek out toward the frame rather than the center of the composition• Heavy Intertwining of Figures• Distortion and elongation of frms• Often a lack of mathematical space• Many religious and mythological subjects, portraits
Correggio (1494-1534•Begins a school ofpainting taken up byParmigiano in Parma•Breaks up the symmetryog High Renaissance usingbouyant naturalism ratherthan deliberate chaos•Specializes in softvoluptuous flesh•Reminiscent of Mantegnawith POV•Huge influence onBaroque ceiling painting
MannerismParmigianino, Madonna of the Long Neck• Exaggerated elegance, long delicate hands and neck• Ambiguous columns: one column or many? This part of painting left unfinished, as is the hair of the Christ Child• Self-portrait of artist gazes out at us at left• Mary’s small head: standards of beauty of the time• Christ’s pose inspired by Michelangelo’s Pietà• Vanishing point is low• Oddly proportioned figures, some parts of the painting are crowded others relatively empty
Mannerism Bologna, Rape of the Sabine Women • Uncommissioned, done to silence critics who doubted his ability to carve monumental marble works • To be seen from all sides • Spiraling movement, figura serpentinata • Arms and legs spiral in space • Nude figures • Reference to Laocoön in the crouching old man • Three bodies interlock • Ancient sources said that sculptures were made from a single block. The Renaissance discovered this was untrue. Bologna wanted to surpass the ancients.