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Spandex or Elastane Fiber

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  • 1. Prepared By : Mazadul Hasan sheshir ID: 2010000400008 13th Batch (session 2009-2013) Department : Wet Processing Technology Email: mazadulhasan@yahoo.com Blog : www. Textilelab.blogspot.com (visit) Southeast University Department Of Textile Engineering I/A 251,252 Tejgaon Dhaka Bangladesh Prepared By :
  • 2. Total Textile Process at a Glance
  • 3. Contents- • Introductory discussion- • Background- • History- • Raw materials • macro-glycol & diisocyanate • Spinning process • Polymer reactions • An important spandex fiber with its properties: Producing the fibers • Quality Control • The Future • Spandex Fiber Characteristics • spandex fiber uses • General Spandex Fiber Care Tips • Conclusion
  • 4. 1. Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fibre known for its exceptional elasticity. 2. "Spandex" is a generic name and not derived from 3. the chemical name of the fiber, as are most manufactured fibers, but an anagram of the word expands. 4. "Spandex" is the preferred name in North America; elsewhere it is referred to as "elastane". Other spandex trademarks Elaspan (Invista), ROICA (Asahi Kasei), Dorlastan (Asahi Kasei), Creora (Hyosung), Linel (Fillattice) etc .
  • 5. 1. Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. 2. It is strong, but less durable than its major non-synthetic competitor, natural Latex. 3. It is a polyurethane-polyurea copolymer that was developed in 1959 by chemists C. L. Sandquist and Joseph Shiversat DuPont's Benger Laboratory in Waynesboro, Virginia. 4. When first introduced, it revolutionized many areas of the clothing industry.
  • 6. 1. Is a synthetic polymer. 2. Made up of a long-chain polyglycol combined with a short diisocyanate, and contains at least 85% polyurethane. 3. Can be stretched to a certain degree(almost 500% ) . 4. stronger, lighter, and more versatile. 5. Are composed of two types of segments(long, amorphous segments and short, rigid segments). 6. Are easily dyed. 7. Deleterious effects of body oils, perspiration, and detergents.
  • 7. • Development of spandex was started during World War II. • In 1940, the first polyurethane elastomers were produced. • More stretchable nylons or in making lightweight garments. • Farbenfabriken Bayer, earned a German patent for his synthesis in 1952. • Du Pont used the brand name Lycra and began full scale manufacture in 1962. • They are currently the world leader in the production of spandex fibers.
  • 8. Wonderful bizarre polyurethane is spandex. Polyurethanes are called polyurethanes because in their backbones they have a urethane linkage. A Spandex: Polyurethane
  • 9. Figure : Monomer of the Elastomeric Yarn Found by DuPont.
  • 10. 1. A variety of raw materials are used to produce stretchable spandex fibers. 2. This includes prepolymers which produce the backbone of the fiber, stabilizers which protect the integrity of the polymer, and colorants.
  • 11. Two types of prepolymers are reacted to produce the spandex fiber polymer back-bone. 1. A flexible macroglycol . 2. A stiff diisocyanate.
  • 12. Macro-glycol & diisocyanate-  The macro-glycol can be a polyester, polyether, polycarbonate, polycaprolactone or some combination of these.  These are long chain polymers, which have hydroxyl groups (-OH) on both ends.  The important feature of these molecules is that they are long and flexible.  This part of the spandex fiber is responsible for its stretching characteristic.  The other prepolymer used to produce spandex is a polymeric diisocyanate.  This is a shorter chain polymer, which has an isocyanate (-NCO) group on both ends.  The principal characteristic of this molecule is its rigidity. In the fiber, this molecule provides strength.
  • 13. There are two types of spinning are available for spandex, these are- Dry-spinning process. Wet-spinning process.
  • 14. Spinning techniques- Groups (-OH) on the macroglycols react with the isocyanates. Each molecule gets added on to the end of another molecule, and a long chain polymer is formed. A catalyst such as diazobicyclo[2.2.2]octane & low molecular weight amines must be used. Stabilizers are added to protect the fibers. Antioxidants Additives must also be added.
  • 15. 1. Melt spinning 2. Dry spinning 3. Wet spinning 4. Reaction Spinning
  • 16. Figure : Photographs of Spandex Fibre Production Methods.
  • 17. Polymer reactions-  1 The first step in the production of spandex is the production of the prepolymer. This is done by mixing a macroglycol with a diisocyanate monomer. The compounds are mixed in a reaction vessel and under the right conditions they react to form a prepolymer. Since the ratio of the component materials produces fibers with varying characteristics, it is strictly controlled. A typical ratio of glycol to diisocyanate may be 1:2.  2 In dry spinning fiber production, the prepolymer is further reacted with an equal amount of diamine. This is known as a chain extension reaction. The resulting solution is diluted with a solvent to produce the spinning solution. The solvent helps make the solution thinner and more easily handled. It can then be pumped into the fiber production cell.
  • 18. An important spandex fiber with its properties- The above diagram is an example of the molecular structure of 'Lycra-Spandex' type molecules n = a very large number of repeating double 'molecular segments' in the polymer chain. x is the variable number of units in the 'elastic' molecular segment, this gives differing degrees of 'stretchiness'. Therefore its molecules have a stretchy section that make it soft and rubbery, and a rigid section that makes it tougher than rubber. Lycra is an artificial fiber that readily stretches but is still a strong material overall. Parts of the long polymer molecules stretch easily i.e. elastic at the molecular level, but other sections of the polymer chain are more rigid to increase strength. Lycra fibers can be stretched upto 500% (i.e. 5x) of their original length.
  • 19. Figure : Photographs of Elastomeric Fiber to Yarn.
  • 20. Producing the fibers-  The spinning solution is pumped into a cylindrical spinning cell where it is cured and converted into fibers. In this cell, the polymer solution is forced through a metal plate, called a spinneret, which has small holes throughout. This causes the solution to be aligned in strands of liquid polymer. As the strands pass through the cell, they are heated in the presence of a nitrogen and solvent gas. These conditions cause the liquid polymer to chemically react and form solid strands.  As the fibers exit the cell, a specific amount of the solid strands are bundled together to produce the desired thickness. This is done with a compressed air device that twists the fibers together. In reality, each fiber of spandex is made up of many smaller individual fibers that adhere to one another due to the natural stickiness of their surface.
  • 21. Quality Control- 1. To ensure the quality of the spandex fibers, manufacturers monitor the product during each phase of production. 2. Inspections begin with the evaluation of the incoming raw materials. Various chemical and physical characteristics are tested. For example, the pH, specific gravity, and viscosity of the diisocyanate may be checked. Additionally, appearance, color, and odor can also be evaluated. Only by having strict quality control checks on the starting materials can the manufacturer be sure that they will produce a consistent end product. After production, the spandex fibers are also tested. These tests may include those that evaluate fiber elasticity, resilience and absorbency.
  • 22. The Future- 1. The quality of spandex fibers has continually improved since they were first developed. 2. Various areas of research will help continue their improvement. For example, 1. scientists have found that by changing the starting prepolymers they can develop fibers which have even better stretching characteristics. 2. 3. Other characteristics can be improved by using different prepolymer ratios, better catalysts, and various fillers. 4. In addition to spandex fiber improvements, it is likely that advanced fabrics will be produced which incorporate spandex fibers with conventional fibers. 5. Currently, nylon/spandex fiber blends are available. Finally, improvements in manufacturing will also be discovered. 6. These will focus on producing fibers faster and more efficiently.
  • 23. Spandex Fiber Characteristics- 1. Can be stretched repeatedly and still recover to very near its original length and shape 2. Generally, can be stretched more than 500% without breaking 3. Stronger, more durable and higher retractive force than rubber 4. Lightweight, soft, smooth, supple 5. In garments, provides a combination of comfort and fit, prevents bagging and sagging 6. Heat-settable — facilitates transforming puckered fabrics into flat fabrics, or flat fabrics into permanent rounded shapes 7. Dyeable 8. Resistant to deterioration by body oils, perspiration, lotions or detergents 9. Abrasion resistant 10. When fabrics containing spandex are sewn, the needle causes little or no damage from “needle cutting” compared to the older types of elastic materials 11. Available in fiber diameters ranging from 10 denier to 2500 denier 12. Available in clear and opaque lusters
  • 24. 1. Can be stretched to almost 500% of its length. 2. Lightweight, soft, smooth, supple and more durable 3. Can be easily dyed and they also resist damage by body oils, perspiration, lotions or detergents 4. No damage from "needle cutting“ 5. Abrasion resistant 6. Can be found in both, clear and opaque lusters. Characteristics
  • 25. Spandex fiber uses- belts bra strap s dance belts gloves hosiery leggings netball b odysuits orthopae dic brace ski pants skinny jeans slacks miniskirt s socks swimsuit s underwe ar wetsuits zentai cycling shorts foundati on garments support hose surgical hose wrestling singlet zentai bathing suits
  • 26. General Spandex Fiber Care Tips- – Do not use chlorine bleach on any fabric containing spandex. Use oxygen or sodium perborate type bleach – Rise thoroughly – Drip dry. If machine dried, use low temperature – Hand or machine wash in lukewarm water – Ironing, if required, should be done rapidly. Do not leave the iron too long in one position. Use low temperatures setting. (For specific instructions, refer to garment's sewn-in care label)
  • 27. LYCRA® fiber brand creates value with 63% worldwide consumer preference versus spandex/elastane.
  • 28. Competitor Country Trade Name Acelon Chemicals & Fiber Corp. Spandex Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Roica Baoding Swan Chemical Fiber Co. Ltd. Spandex Bayer AG Dorlastan Bayer Corp. Dorlastan E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Lycra Far Eastern Textile Ltd. Spandex Fillattice, Inc. Linel Formosa Asahi Spandex Co. Spandex Fuji Spinning Co., Ltd. Fujibo Spandex Soflas Fujian Changle Urethane Fibre Co. Ltd. Spandex Haishan Urethane Elastic Fibre Industry Co., Ltd. Spandex Hua Feng Industry Co. Ltd. QianXi Hyosung Corporation Creora Toplon Israel Spandex Co., Ltd. Filabell JiangSu Changshu Sai Lenshi Fiber Co. Spandex JiangSu Nan Huanghai Co. Ltd Spandex Jilin Liaoyuan Deheng Fibre Co. Ltd. Spandex Kanebo Goshen, Ltd. Lubell Kolon Industries, Inc. Spandex Lianyungang Zhongshan Urethane Fiber Co. Ltd. Aoshen Different Types of Trade Name of Spandex Yarn Usable in Various Countries.
  • 29. Competitor Country Trade Name RadiciSpandex Corp. Glospan Clerspan Saehan Industries Spandex Shandong Zibo Urethane Elastic Fibre Co., Ltd. Wanli Shaoxing Polyester Spandex Shei Heng Sheiflex Co. Sheiflex Sibur-Volzhsky Spandex Taekwang Ind. Co., Ltd. Acelan Teijin Ltd. Rexe Tong Hwa Synthetic Fiber Co., Ltd. Townspun Tongkook Synthetic Fibres Co., Ltd. Texlon Toyobo Co. Espa Unitika Ltd. Success Yantai Urethane Elastic Fibre Co. Ltd. Spandex NinBao Synthetic Fiber Manufactory Spandex Zhong Yuan Enterprise Group Zylon Viyellatex and overall Lycra/Spandex Different Types of Trade Name of Spandex Yarn Usable in Various Countries.
  • 30. Product of Spandex Goods and Their Use Product Use Apparel and clothing articles where stretch is desired, generally for comfort and fit Athletic, aerobic, and exercise apparel, Wetsuits, Swimsuits/bathing suits, Competitive swimwear, Netball bodysuits, Brassiere straps and bra side panels, Ski pants, Disco jeans, Slacks, Hosiery, Leggings, Socks, Diapers, Skinny jeans, Belts, Underwear, Dance belts worn by male ballet dancers and others. Compression garments Surgical hose, Support hose, Cycling shorts, Wrestling singlet, Rowing unisuit, Foundation garments, Motion capture suits. Shaped garments Bra cups. Home furnishings Microbead pillows.
  • 31. Ladies-Lycra-Pants
  • 32. • athletic, aerobic • exercise apparel • swimsuits • ski pants • disco jean • hosiery • socks • underwear • surgical hose • support hose • motion capture suits • Home furnishings
  • 33. The fibers discussed in this slide which resemble rubber in that they have high extensibility and highly reactive forces which derive from their chemical nature. Natural polymers are usually better than we make ourselves and the development of spandex yarns may well spurs to rubber technologist to new achivement;in the past they have not had very much competition from other snap back fibers.
  • 34. 1. Yarn Manufacturing Technology Link : http://www.facebook.com/pages/Yarn-Manufacturing-Technology/485014954866808 2. Fabric Manufacturing Technology Link : http://www.facebook.com/pages/Fabric-Manufacturing-Technology/459520217425605 3. Garments Manufacturing Technology Link : http://www.facebook.com/pages/Garments-Manufacturing- Technology/472364799463126 3. Wet processing Technology Link : http://www.facebook.com/pages/Wet-Processing-Technology-Dyeing-/468645219825404 4. Fashion-Design-and-Technology Link : http://www.facebook.com/pages/Fashion-Design-and- Technology/587655294583875?ref=ts&fref=ts My Facebook Textile related Pages http://www.textilelab.blogspot.com (Visit My Blog for more Info )