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Technology of denim production


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Technology of denim production

  1. 1. Technology of Denim Production: Part –– I (Yarn Manufacturing Techniques for Denim) By: Supriya Pal
  2. 2. Technology of Denim Production: Part –– I (Yarn Manufacturing Techniques for Denim) By: Supriya PalThe term "Denim" has developed from the city of Nimes in France denim wasproduced for the first time. In the nineteenth century heavy cotton fabrics wereproduced in the Rhone Valley region of France. These fabrics were known as““tissue de Nimes”” and ““Blue de Genes””. The term ““denim”” and ““jeans”” derive fromthese designations.The classical denim is a heavy fabric made from 100% cotton and woven fromcoarse indigo dyed warp and grey undyed weft yarn. The traditional denim is hard-wearing, high density fabrics with a high mass per unit area and a 3/1 or 2/1- twillweave construction.Denim is available in attractive indigo blue shades and is made for a variety ofapplications and in a wide range of qualities and shades. Classical denim is madefrom 100% cotton dyed with Indigo blue shades. Besides classic indigo blue, denimis also dyed in other fashion shades and colors, the most popular being blackdenim. Denim is comfortable, fashionable, affordable and durable and popular in all the age group. Denimis available in different weight ranges from 6 –– 16 oz/sq yd which is categories as light denim 10-12 oz/sqyd., heavy denim 14-16 oz/sq. yd. Yarn Quality In order to produce good quality denim, the yarn quality used for denim production should be optimal. In rope and slasher dyeing machine the passage of yarn is very long. Hence it is necessary to control the lapping of yarn in the passage of yarn, otherwise bands of high and low densities will be formed in the yarn, which ultimately cause shade variation in the fabric. This leads huge loss of fabric. Therefore the TM of the yarn is to be appropriate to avoid any snarling of yarn during running through the passage. The yarn should be free of weak place, to avoid any breakages during dyeing. Long slub, thick and thin places in the yarn may leads to prominent fabric defects in the fabric, as denim is a contrast fabric made of indigo blue warp and grey weft yarn. The weft yarn hairiness should be low, otherwisehigh yarn hairiness and major variation in yarn hairiness shown weftbands which is a major fabric defects. Higher yarn neps may alsocause serious fabric defects.The quality criteria of carded OE or ring spun yarns used for denimproduction are as follows: Minimum staple length: 2.7cm Short fibers proportion (less than 12 mm long) should be under 40%, Micronaire value should be 4.0 - 4.5, Twist factor : 4.5 to 5.0, for warp yarns, 4.2 for filling yarn,
  3. 3. Low yarn hairiness, low neppiness Good yarn strength and uniformity.In the early 1990s, the majority of yarns used in denim production were OE yarns. However, recently,there is a strong demand of using more carded ring spun yarns in both warp and weft, which gives thefabric a softer handle.Warp yarns for bottom weight jeans typically range from Ne 4.0 to Ne 12.5/1 or as per requirement offinished denim fabric. Finer yarns are used for lighter weight jeans, vests, dresses, and skirts and theyarns range may be from Ne 12.5 to Ne 30.0.Production of the yarn for denimThe initial stage of denim production starts from opening and blending of cotton fibers. The cotton fibersfrom the bale being separated into small tufts and a blend of cotton fibers are made in opening machines.Cotton is transferred by air stream through the opening and blending machines and fed to the Cards.The raw material for Denim yarn is mostly cotton, although lycra core yarn in warp and rayon, polyester orpolypropylene in various proportions are also used in weft. The type and quality of yarn used in denimvaries from country to country and regions to regions. Due to this variation in yarn type, it is very difficultto spinners to envisage a standard line to fulfill all the requirement of yarn quality. Manufacturers ofopening, blending and cleaning machinery should offer a blowroom line which can meet the requirementsof all the customers.The variations in colour of cotton from bale-to-bale and region to region may cause a serious shadevariation in denim fabric from lot to lot. Hence blending plays a very important role to minimize the lot tolot shade variations in denim finished fabric.The traditional blowroom is commonly practice with pre-open the bales and make a stack mixing or binblending. It is then fed to a hopper blending opener and into mixing chamber manually. However themodern blowroom line consists of opening the bales by automatic bale plucking machine. It removessmall tufts of cotton fibers from a numbers of bales in a line and pneumatically feeds to a blendingmachine. However both the systems have their own advantages and disadvantages. The hopper blending method,the manual opening of cotton fibers from the bale having the advantage of easy removal of fibrousmaterial, foreign materials such as plastic material, jute, polypropylene, stones, hard metal pieces etc.However this has the disadvantages of low productivity and even lack of optimum blending. The manualbale opening process depends more on the performance and efficacy of the worker, and has morevariation in the tuft size fed to the bale opener. Whereas the automatic bale opening offers a uniform tuftsize cotton fibers fed to the subsequent blending and cleaning machines.Opening is the first process in any blowroom line which have the aim to achieve a high degree ofopenness of material with gentle fiber treatment. The loss of fiber should be as less as possible. Openingcan be achieve in opening to flocks in the blowing room and in the opening to fibers in the card and OEspinning machine.Incorporation of fourth or fifth cleaning step in a blowroom line contributes high fiber losses, but theircontribution on the over-all cleaning efficiency is marginal and quality reduction is considerably higher.The modern cleaners offer intensive but gentle cleaning. Most of the modern blowroom lines followedshort cleaning lines with only two or three cleaning points. One pre-cleaner and one or two fine- cleanersper line are incorporated in modern blowroom line. Trützschler CVT-4 Cleaner is incorporated with 3 to 4beaters in series which gives cleaning in the same machine rather than 2 or 4 machines in tandem in line.
  4. 4. www.fibre2fashion.comDust RemovalFor rotor spinning de-dusting is very important. Cleanliness of the sliveris an important parameter for denim yarn produced from open endspinning system. Hence dust removal from the cotton fibers is an issue inany modern opening and cleaning lines. In order to remove the very finemicro dust particles from the cotton fibers, it is the usual practice of amodern blowroom line to place a dust removal machine at the end of theopening and cleaning line just before the chute feed or lap former,because better the fiber opening better the de-dusting. De-dusting ofcotton fibers normally carried out by air suctioning, either between themachines, by dust cages, dust extractors, or within the machine bynormal air separation.De-dusting normally starts with pre-cleaning of cotton fiber. However aseparate machine like DUSTEX of TRUTZSCHLER is very effective forde-dusting. Rieter de-dusting in machines like unimix, ERM, stationary de-dusting condensers can beused for this purpose. Fine openers like ERM, CVT cleaners also remove the dust.Blowroom MachineryBlowroom machines have to fulfill various functions, such as to supply small fiber tufts, clean fiber tufts,homogeneously blended tufts if more than one variety of fiber is used to carding machine withoutincreasing fiber rupture, fiber neps, and broken seed particles and without removing more good fibers. Inorder to achieve these requirements, the blowroom may vary in concept and in design. There are nouniversal machines for a blowroom line. Basically, the sequence of different machines arranged in seriesin any blowroom line depends among many other things, such as: the type of raw material; thecharacteristics of the raw material; waste content; dirt content; material throughput; the number ofdifferent origins of the material in a given blend.Basically, the above mentioned functions may be achieved in different processes in the blowroom:1. Pre- opening2. Pre- cleaning3. Mixing or blending4. Fine opening5. De-dustingTypical blowroom line is illustrated in Fig. 1.
  5. 5. www.fibre2fashion.comPre openingAn efficient preopening of cotton fiber results in smaller tuft sizes and offers a large surface area for easyand efficient removal of trash particles by the fine openers. The trend in modern spinning mills is toreplace old manual bale opener to automatic bale opener, which gives smaller tuft size, better openingand cleaning efficiency. In the latest automatic bale opening machines, the tuft size can be as small as 50to 100 grams without rupturing the fibers. The opening roller speed is around 1500 to 1800 rpm. Theautomatic bale opener helps to maintain the homogeneity of the long term blending and the cotton isopened gently without recycling as it is done in manual bale openers. Maximum number of take-off pointsis available per unit time by setting the machine parameters.Rieter Automatic Bale Opener (UNIfloc A 11)Rieter UNIfloc A 11 uses single plucking / take-off roller, which along with narrow grid results in small tuftssize (Fig. 2). . It enables up to 130 bales arranged per side with four components (different bale types)per blend to be processed. The layout length may be up to of 50 m. The UNIfloc A 11 machine canprocess one or two blends simultaneously. The production rate is up to 1400 kg/h.Trützschler Automatic Bale Opener (BLENDOMAT BO-A)Trützschlers BLENDOMAT BO-Aconsist of two plucking rollers whichrotate in opposite direction. According tothe direction of travel of the machine atany given time only one plucking roller isworking while other is raised. Theplucking roller penetrates into the balesurface and strips off the tufts. At thattime three supporting rollers give a firmgrip over the bales. This ensures gentlefiber removal and gives good opening(Fig. 3).
  6. 6. www.fibre2fashion.comCrosrol Automatic Bale Opener (ABO)The Crosrol Automatic Bale Opener (ABO) having the facility to operate up to four different bale groups ofdifferent heights together (Fig. 4). The production rates is up to 1500 kg per hour. The machines offersvirtually unrestricted track length. The users are able to lay down as many as 200 bales in four groups oneach side of the machine. The twin contra-rotating rollers and a specially developed grille spacing resultsin small tufts to be plucked.Rieter blowroom LineThe Rieter blowroom line typically consists ofautomatic bale opener UNIfloc A 11, intensive pre-cleaner UNIclean B 11, homogeneous mixer/blenderUNImix B 70 and gentle fine cleaner UNIflex B 60. Forcoarse yarn of rotor spinning, maximum production isabout 220 kg/h.Rieter UNIfloc offers gentle opening of the cotton tuftswith large surfaces which provide the basis forhomogeneous, intimate blending. The UNIcleanprovide gentle and efficient cleaning of this tuft surfaceand remove large trash particles. The VARIOsetdevice in UNIclean and CLEANfeed ensures optimumcleaning efficiency, quality, flexibility and economy byadjusting the trash removal selectively at the push of abutton.The UNImix is a unique 3-point blending processwhich ensures very intensive blending and uniformyarn quality. The fine cleaning stage consists of several CLEANfeed units which ensures gently cleaningand de-dusting of raw material.Trutzschler Blowroom Line for the production of denim yarnTrutzschler offers compact blowroom line for denim yarn production which consists of: 1. Automatic bale opener, 2. Fan TV500, 3. High Capacity Condenser LVSA , Pre mixer BOA, 4. Double roll cleaner AXI-FLO AFC, 5. Station for separating Foreign Matter SEcuromat,
  7. 7. 6. Multi Mixer, 7. Two Way distribution, 8. High Capacity Condenser LVSA, Cleaner Clenomat CVT4, 9. Dedusting Machine Dustex DX,Pre-cleaningPre-cleaning machines are normally preceded by the bale-opening machines that produce small flockswith large surface areas. As the bale-opening machines are not fitted with cleaning devices, they cannotclean the surfaces of the flocks. Even if the bale-opening machines equipped with cleaning devices, theycan remove only a fraction of the impurities owing to the high material throughput.Pre-cleaning should be gentle as possible without creating any fiber damage and more nep generation.Seeds and bigger trash particles should not be broken as removing finer trash particles is difficult. Properpreopening and pre-cleaning ensures efficient trash removal by fine openers. Dust removal should bestarted at this stage of blowroom process. Rieters Uniclean B11 and Trutzschlers Axiflow or Maxiflow aresome of the machines which ensures efficient pre-cleaning.Rieter VarioSetRieter offers unique "VARIOSET" through which selective trash removal is possible. Waste amount canbe changed in a range of 1:10.The opening and cleaning of cotton fibers depends on several parameters such as distance betweenbeater and feed roller, speed of beater and grid bars setting. The Rieter VarioSet System adjusts severalparameters during running of the machine. The cleaning intensity (0.0 to 1.0) and relative quantity ofwaste (1 to 10) can be entered to the VarioSet. These two parameters adjust the beater speed and gridbars setting on Rieter UNIclean B12 cleaner to get the required level of waste extracted. In UNIflex B 60cleaner fiber length, relative amount of waste (1 to 10) and cleaning intensity (0.0 to 1.0) are entered.BLENDING:Uneven mixing of different cottons fiber may cause barre or streakiness in denim fabric. Hence adequatemixing / blending of cotton fiber is very important. More intensive mixing is required if the cotton ofdifferent parameters such as fineness, color and staple length are process at a time. Trutzschlers tandemmixing concept guarantees a maximum homogeneous mixing and it is very useful if the mixingrequirement is very high (Fig.6).
  8. 8. www.fibre2fashion.comSeveral machinery manufacturer offers multiple mixer which gives a good long-term blending. The multi-mixer consists of several (from six to eight) chute chambers into which the material is filled from above.The material is then removed from all chutes simultaneously.Trutzschler multi mixer can have 6 or 10 trunks (Fig. 7). All the trunks are filled with material from above.The material is then removed from all trunk through the conveyor belt. Trutzschler also offer Multi-mixerMCM 6 with cleaner CLEANOMAT CXL Machines.Rieter UNImix blending machineRieter UNImix is made up of three parts: a storage section, an intermediate chamber, and a deliverysection. Flocks are fed into J- shaped chutes (2) (Fig. 8 & 9) which is arranged one behind the other inthe storage section. The conveyor belt (3) then carry the stock through the chamber to the take-off unit.The material columns are thus converted from the vertical into the horizontal.Fine CleaningFine cleaners may have single opening rollers or multiple opening rollers depending upon the amount andtype of trash in the cotton. If single opening roller cleaners are used, then the number of fine cleaningpoints can be either one or two. Trutzschler offers single opening roller machine CVT1 for roller ginnedcotton. In case of saw ginned cotton CVT3 or CVT4 machines with 3 or 4 opening rollers can be used.The CVT1, CVT3, CVT4 etc consists of opening roller, deflector blades, mote knives and suction hood
  9. 9. www.fibre2fashion.comwhich act as cleaning points (Fig. 10). The trash particles which are removed due to centrifugal forces areseparated at the mote knives and then suck away by the suction.Trutzschler first introduced usage of multiple beaters/cleaners in tandem on the same machine. Themachine has both clamped and unclamped material feeding system to the beaters. At the first beater thematerial feeding is clamped through the feed rollers which give intensive beating. In the subsequentbeaters the material is transferred in unclamped manner which gives gentle cleaning. The gradualincrease in beater speed, fineness of clothing and angle of clothing teeth from first to last beater offersprogressive cleaning of the material.CardsThe cards is plays an important role for the quality of denim yarns and for the efficiency of the production.The carding quality is influence in the area of cylinder, flats and stationary carding segments. Severalfactors, such as cylinder speed, clothing fineness, distances between cylinder and flats, distancesbetween cylinder and carding segments influence the quality of carding. The yarn quality is directlyrelated to the quality of card sliver.Rieter card C60 and Trutzschler TC 07 are equipped with unidirectional feed system which results ingentle fiber treatment because fiber feed and licker-in rotation is in the same direction. Both the abovecards are equipped with multiple licker-in for better cleaning of the feed material.Rieter C 60 Card has 50% more working width (from 1 m to 1.5 m) as compare to their previous model C51. Trutzschler TC 07 with longest carding section (2.82 m) ensures more intensive the carding andhigher production. The pre-carding area ensures better the pre-opening and optimal fiber web preparationfor better carding.Pre-carding zone of Rieter C 60 Card extract impurities and the suctions hoods transferred these tocentralized waste chamber. The post-carding zone of Rieter C 60 Card has 2 carding elements.Trutzschler TC 07 card has pre-carding zone with 3 carding elements and 3 cleaning elements. The post-carding area of this card has 6 carding segments with 3 cleaning elements.Rieter Integrated Grinding System (IGS-Classic for cylinder wire grinding and IGS-Top for flat wiregrinding) offers better quality in terms of reduction in neps and trash of card sliver.Rieter medium and long term auto leveller on C 60 card control card sliver count variations, count CV%and unevenness. The Integral Feed Tray SENSOFEED of Trutzschler TC 07 card constantly scans the
  10. 10. www.fibre2fashion.comthickness of the tuft web and adjusts the speed of the feed roll as required. In the long-term auto levelingsystem the sliver mass is measured by the sensor in the card sliver trumpet and the speed of the feedroller is adjusted accordingly.Now-a-days, the cards are integrated with 3-over-3 drafting which are able to reduce one draw framepassage particularly for rotor spinning. Trutzschler offers Integrated Draw Frame IDF with Card TC 07. Ithas 3 over 3 two-zone drafting system with a draft of 3-fold. The delivery speeds is 500 m/min(maximum).Draw framesFor OE denim yarn production, the number of drawframe passages is most important. For open endspinning line two drawframe passage is the standard. Although new spinning mills in USA and Europeuse only one auto-leveller draw frame. However, it is believed that two draw frame passage helps toachieved better results in dyeing, weaving etc. Specifications of different makes of Draw frame is given inTable 1. Table 1: Specifications of different makes of Draw frame Lakshmi TOYOTA Rieter Machine Trützschler Particular Machine Works Vouk spa Textile works Ltd GmbH & Co. Lts Machinery Model LR SB 851 RSB Unimax DX8 TD 03 Delivery speed 800 m/min 1100 m/min 1050 m/min 1000 m/min 1000 m/min (max) 3-over-3 With 4-over-3 With 3-over-4 With 3-over-3 With 4-over-3 With Drafting system pressure bar pressure bar pressure bar pressure bar pressure bar Draft range 3.05 to 11.6 4.5 to 11.6 4 to 11.6 4 to 14 4 to 11 Spring or Roller loading Pneumatic Pneumatic Spring Pneumatic hydraulic Autoleveller Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Single or twin Single or twin Single or twin No of deliveries Single or twin Single (LD0/6) (SB) (Duomax) Auto doffing Auto doffing Can system Auto doffing (round or Auto doffing Auto doffing (round or (delivery) (round cans) rectangulatr (round cans) (round cans) rectangulatr cans) cans)Riter offers RSB-D 40 autoleveler drawframe and the SB-D 40 drawframe in which quality can besignificantly improved (Fig. 11). The delivery speeds of up to 1100 m/min. Superior yarn regularity (UsterCV%) can be achieve with this drawframe. The drawframe has self-adjusting auto leveling functionAUTOset, precise fiber guidance in the drafting system. The novel suction system with periodically liftingcleaning lips on the top rollers enhanced the yarn cleanliness.
  11. 11. www.fibre2fashion.comIn the case of processing carded cotton in ring spinning, the RSB-D 40 delivery speeds of 850 m/min areachieved in mill operations. However in rotor spinning even higher delivery speeds can be achieved.AUTO DRAFT of Trutzschler TD 03 draw frame estimates the values of the break draft merely in oneminute. It takes into consideration several important parameters such as, fiber-fiber friction, fiber to metalfriction, etc, while calculating the break draft. Trutzschler draw frame TD03 can be equipped with round orrectangular cans. Rectangular cans are particularly efficient.Rotor Spinning MachineModern Open-end rotor spinning are high productive, cost efficient and consume less energy are verysuccessful in denim yarn production. The rotor speed in latest machine exceeds 150,000 rpm and thetake-up speed 300 m/min. Package weights up-to 5 to 6 kg can be made in latest machine whichsubsequently helpful to increase the productivity in subsequent process in denim production.Predetermined length of yarns are wound on to the packages with great accuracy which reduce thewastage in ball warping in case of rope dyeing and direct warping in case of slasher rope dyeing in denimprocess. The anti-patterning systems, electronic yarn monitoring system, foreign fiber separation systemreduce the fabric defects and end breakages in denim weaving. The fancy yarn preparation systemincorporated in latest open-end spinning machine offers variety of fashionable denim production, whichgives a value added products.Open-End yarn Denim FabricRieter’’s rotor spinning machine R40 is the result of the co-operation between Suessen and Rieter. TheR40 rotor spinning machine can spun yarns in count of Ne 3-60 / 200-10 tex. The newest R 40 offersmaximum productivity with a maximum length of up to 500 spinning positions per machine, up to 350
  12. 12. www.fibre2fashion.comm/min delivery, rotor speed of up to 160 000 rpm, up to 4 robots (Fig. 13). With the maximum machinelength, the delivery speeds of up to 270 m/min can be achieved. However with fewer spinning positions,350 m/min can be obtained. Slub yarn, Multicount and Multitwist yarn can be made, as an additionalfeature, at full machine length.Slub denim fabric is a current fashions trend. Hence the demand for slub yarn is also very high. By usinga special opening roller, an effect in the yarn can be created. The R 40 can be equipped with a Caipodevice for slub yarn, multi-count and multi-twist. Fig. 13: Rieter rotor spinning machineRieter BT rotor spinning machine is equipped with an attachment of slub yarn production from CaipoAutomazione, Italy. The motorised variable sliver feeding system can produce slub yarn (coarse and fine),multicount with twist variation, multitwist etc.The Schlafhorst Autocoro 480 offers higher productivity with up to 480 spinning positions and theCorobox SE12. The Twin Disc bearing of the Corobox SE 12 offers high rotor speeds of 150,000 rpm at480 spinning positions. Coarse yarns are spun at take-up speeds of up to 300 m/min ensures highestproductivity. The Autocoro 480 is equipped with up to 4 Coromat unit per machine. The Corobox SE12- auniversal SpinBox for all types of fibres and yarns, offers maximum productivity and optimum quality.Yarns counts from Ne 4 to Ne 60 can be made with a draft range of 20 to 450 fold. The Corobox SE12equipped with individual motor controlled SDSI Single Drive Sliver Intake which guarantee an exactlydefined sliver intake. Fancy yarns can be produced in Autocoro 480.Schlafhorst Autocoro 480 The Corobox SE 12
  13. 13. www.fibre2fashion.comThe Belcoro spinning components used in spinbox and offers an outstanding yarn quality and ensureslong service life and high, reproducible yarn quality. The Autocoro 480 is equipped with the new CorolabXF which ensures optimum yarn clearing with 100% foreign material detection. The new Corolab XFwhich not only ensures good yarn quality, but also 100% digitally controlled piecing.FancynationModern ring-spinning and open-end spinning machines can be incorporated with certain attachment thatcan make predetermined yarn effects. These yarn effects are multicounty, slubs of different lengths anddifferent spacing between slubs.The rotor machine offers tremendous flexibility in term of fancy yarn production. Various devices can beincluded in the rotor machine to produce fancy/slub yarn. Schlafhorst Autocoro 480 rotor spinningmachine is incorporated with fancy yarn device, known as ‘‘FancyNation’’. A small stepper motor is used toproduce fancy/slub effect through the Single Drive Sliver Intake (SDSI). It ensures a precisely meteredfiber feed at every spinning position. The fancy yarn software ‘‘FancyPilot’’ forms the basis of Fancynation. It can produce and simulate effects of different fancy yarn in fabric stage without actual production of theyarn. The software tool FancyPilot generates the production data for the Autocoro 480 directly from thedesign. It can simply transfer the data to the Informator-and fancy yarn production may startsimmediately.The fancy yarn effect in 3D simulations of woven and knitted fabrics can be seen. The digital Corolabtechnology monitors the fancy yarns reliably at every spinning position. Effects in existing yarns can alsobe reproduced quickly and simply. Fancynation analyses the effect style and generates a data record for
  14. 14. www.fibre2fashion.comthe Autocoro 480. Fancynation acts as the ““memory”” of the fancy yarn production. It can be access allspinning and piecing settings for fancy yarns already produced in a database which enables toreproduce any yarn quickly at any time.Ring denimRing spinning is the original former standard method of denim fabric production. In the early 1970s, denimis normally made with ring yarn, rather than open-end yarn. The ring denim then gradually replaced byOE denim for reasons of productivity.With the course of popularity of vintage-look blue jeans and retro denim wave, ring denim wasreintroduced. The soft feel and unique surface characteristics of Ring denim, it gradually becamepopular. The retro look of ring denim can again be increased through different finishing and washing. Inthe world of ring denim, some other type of denims is also getting very popular. One of which is stretchdenim.Saurer offers the denim ring spinning machines and components especially developed for denimproduction.Zinser offers different spinning machines for denim production with a new potential for cost reductions aswell as increased productivity.Fig. 14: Zinser 670 BigPac coarse yarnroving frame, ideal for denim applicationsZinser 670 BigPac roving frame was speciallydeveloped for coarse yarn production (Fig. 14).The bobbin size of 20 by 7 inches increases theproductivity and the bobbins weight of up to 4 kgcan be made which drastically reduced theoperating and set-up times. The longer running times of the bobbin at the roving frame and at the ringspinning machine reduce the number of bobbin changes. This is very beneficial during producing coarseyarns, particularly in the field of denim.Zinser 351-cotton ring spinning machineZinser 351, which is ideal for denim applications, are equipped with ServoDraft (electronic drafting systemdrive), New CoWeMat (automatic doffer) and OptiSuction (electronic suction low pressure regulation).Cop weights of up to 200 grams are possible in this machines for economic production of denim yarns.Zinser FancyDraftZinser offers the fancy yarn system FancyDraft which produced fancy ring yarns in Zinser 351/ 451 ringspinning machine from both short-staple and long-staple fibers. With the electronically controlled draftingsystem drive ServoDraft equipped in the Zinser 351, FancyDraft can produce different types of fancyyarns. The draft as well as the twist can be varied in FancyDraft in a controlled manner. Differentparameter can be set via the new graphic machine user interface EasySpin. Fancy effects with differentthickness, length and twist are incorporated in the yarn. Slubs of different length, diameter can beproduced with this attachment. The twist can also be varied for multitwist yarns production.
  15. 15. www.fibre2fashion.comMulti-Count Effect in DenimCount is the thickness of the yarn used in fabric. Multicount fabric is built from yarns of varying thicknessor variation in count along the length which gives a unique luxurious look to denim fabric. However thewashing gives superior on multicount.Multi-count yarn is becoming very popular in denim which is produced by a special device. The multi-count effect is made by having controlled count changes in length (as short as 2 meters) whilemaintaining a constant twist level. Multicount denimMulticount yarn production follows the basic principles of slub yarns production. In the production ofmulticount the speed of the production roller are varied by means of additional servomotors to adapt thetwist coefficient to each type of count combined along the same yarn.A mass variation in the yarn is made by varying the drafts (main draft). The main draft is reduced tocreate fancy effects in the yarn. In order to achieve this, the speed of the middle and the rear bottomrollers is temporarily increased.Multi-Twist EffectThe multi-twist effect in yarn is produced by applying different twist coefficients to the same yarn count.The multi-twist yarn is produced by means of the controlled, accurate acceleration of the production roller.These variations in twist create variations in the yarns dye intake which offers a special fabricappearance. Fig. 15: Multi-twist denim
  16. 16. www.fibre2fashion.comTwist variations in the yarn is incorporated by varying the delivery speed to the spinning machine. In orderto obtain the twist variation in the yarn, the ratio of the front bottom roller speed compared to the constantspinning speed (SynchroDrive) is varied whereas the draft remains constant. Fig. 16: Multi-twist principleAmsler SlubAMSLER-TEX AG is a Swiss company offering equipments and associated software for fancy and elasticyarn production. AMSLER control devices can be attached with almost all types of spinning machines. Itis a microprocessor-controlled servomotor system, which controls the spinning process to produce thedesire effect in the yarn.The Amsler Slub yarn devices can produce ground slub and multi-twist effect in Open-End spinning.Whereas in case of ring spinning, it may produce ground slub, multi-count and multi-twist-effect. Slub denimAmsler slub yarn can be produced on open end or on a ring spinning. Normally Amsler slub effect indenim is made on open end. This is an attachment to open end spinning that allows slub and multi-twisteffects in the yarn. In ring spinning, the slub yarn is made by varying the speed of the feed andintermediate roller and at constant speed the production roller.In ring spinning machine, a servo drive system is connected to the back and middle roller via a specialgear box. The servo motor starts only at the time of slub formation and additional speed is given to thedrafting system, which disturb the normal yarn formation.In case of open end spinning, the slub yarn is produced in the same principle which is explained with theFig. 17:
  17. 17. Fig. 17: Principle of slub production in open end spinningStretch denimStretch denim is a full fashion fabric and wildly popular in ladies and kids garments due to its stretch-to-fitcharacter. The stretchable character of stretch denim fit closely with the body rather than restricting themovement. Due to longitudinal elasticity of stretch denim, it is more comfortable when sitting or bendingdown, it fits well due to its cross elasticity. The stretch denim fabric is made with Spandex core spun yarn.Core-spun yarns can also be produced in ring spinning, open-end and air-jet spinning machines. Thecore spandex filament yarn is fed through the rotor shaft of open-end spinning or the spindle of the air-jetframe, and the cotton fiber wraps around the spandex filament to produce the core spun yarn. Theproperties of this yarn is almost similar to the ring core-spun yarns, however the open-end and air-jetcore-spun yarns have less knots and splices as compared to ring core-spun yarns. Spandex Core spun Denim
  18. 18. Conventional Core spinning attachment in Ring frame In ring spinning machines, Core-spun yarns can be produced by incorporating a spandex/ lycra filament at the back of the front drafting roll of the machine (Fig. 18). The spandex core ring spun yarn is produced when the drafted cotton fibers twist around the spandex filament yarn. Fig. 18a: Conventional Core spinning attachment in Ring frameElastic core yarns can be produced in ring spinning which consist of an elastic core around which staplefibers are wound (Fig. 18a). Fig.18b: Elastic core yarnThe elastic filament is pre-drafted approx. 2.5- to 4-fold before being inserted to the spinning zoneahead of the front top rollers. This process has the advantage that the sensitive filament is completelywrapped by staple fibers (Fig.18b).Twofold elastic SiroSpun / Elastic spin-twisted yarnElastic spin-twisted yarns can be produced by combining the CoreSpun and SiroSpun process, whichproduce directly weavable, twofold elastic SiroSpun yarn on the ring spinning machine. In the productionelastic spin-twisted yarns, two staple fiber roving are drafted in parallel and the elastic filament is thenintroduced in the front pair of drafting rollers (Fig. 19).
  19. 19. Fig. 19: Elastic spin-twisted yarnsZinser short and long staple ring spinning machines can be equipped with CoreSpun and SiroSpun units.Elastic OE rotor yarnsSchlafhorst BD 340 filea rotor machine can produce elastic core spun yarn. The elastane core filament isfed through the hollow rotor axis which is covered by the rotor yarn produced in the rotor from staple fibermaterial (Fig. 20). Twist is not given in the core filament yarn, thus elasticity of the filament is maintained. Fig.20: Elastic OE Rotor yarnRotor core yarn can also be produced on the Rieter BT 924 rotor spinning machine. A core filament(elastic or non-elastic) is supplied through a special device via, a guide tube. The core filament yarn iscovered by the staple fiber yarn. Fig. 21: Core spun yarn production by rotor spinning
  20. 20. www.fibre2fashion.comElastic covered twist yarnsThe ElastoTwister by Saurer Hamel / Volkmann can produce elastic covered twist yarns in which theelastic core filament yarn is covered by the twisted feed material. The cover yarn, produced without aballoon, has no twisted core yarn (Fig. 22). Fig. 22:Elastic covered twist yarns Stretch DenimElastic ply yarnsElastic ply yarns can be produced in two-for-one twisting machine. The elastic filament yarn and theindividual yarns and are placed on a doubling bobbin and are twisted into one another in the twisting pot(Fig. 23). This twisting process offers high productivity. Fig. 23:Elastic ply yarns
  21. 21. www.fibre2fashion.comThe elastic ply yarn is characterized by a high uniformity, good tear resistance and elongation.Fancy yarns are setting new trends in denim and the demand and popularity of fancy denim areincreasing demand throughout the world. Fancy yarns, whether used for outerwear, household orindustrial textiles, now contributed a major role of all yarns produced worldwide. Fancy yarns from ringand rotor spinning are used more frequently in denim and household textiles, as well as in single jerseyand fine outerwear fabrics.References: 1) 2) National Seminar on Denim, The Textile Assotiation (India), Papers on National Seminar on th Denim 30 & 31th August 1996, 3) 4) 5), 6) -, 7), 8) %20TD%2003%20%E2%80%93%20Manual.pdf 9), 10), 11), 12) - 13) -The author is Dy. Manager (TQM) at Shri Lakshmi Cotsyn Limited, UPSIDC Industrial Area, Malwan, Dist.Fatehpur, UP