Finishing is a general term which usually refers to treatment on textile fabrics
after dyeing or printing.
It increase life and durability of the fabric.
By finishing we can maintain fabric shape and size.
Finishing accentuate or inhibiti some characteristic of fabric.
Impart new characteristic or properties.
Finishes may be done by chemically or mechanically.
To get good finished quality we should maintain machine parameter or proper
We can improve finished product quality by developing machine parameter or
create new and appropriate chemical recipe.
•To improve the appearance of the fabric.
•To improve the feel of the fabric by softening, stiffening, etc.
•To cover faults in the original fabric.
•To increase weight of the cloth.
•Special properties required for particular uses .
Types of finishing
The most common classifications:
Finishes also classifies:
After dyeing process from the dyeing machine then the fabrics are ready for de-watering. This is the
process to remove the water from the fabrics partially by squeezing.
Process flow chart:
Fig: Crossectional view of Bianco Tube Squeezer.
Basic function of the squeezing m/c:
To remove the water from the fabric.
To control the width of the fabric.
To control the length of the fabric.
To control the spirality of the fabric.
To control the over feeding system.
To increase the softness of the fabric.
To remove the crease mark of the fabric.
• The slitting machine is used in processing fabrics in the open line in the finishing section.
*Turn table; *Beater; *Rope; *De- twister; *Centering unit; *Slitting unit
*Pulley drive *Squeezing
Process flow chart:
Figure: Passage Diagram of Slitting Machine of Brueckner
•To slit the tube fabric by the knife for opening of the fabric and ready for stentering.
•Delivered fabric is crease free state.
•Before squeezing balloon is formed with the help of compressed air passing by a nozzle or air
•It can control the diameter of fabric and GSM and shrinkage by over feeding mechanism.
•Soften the fabric by applying the softeners.
•The machine is used for removing the residual water contained in the fabric after squeezing by applying
heat on the fabric in the machine.
•the fabric is feed on the drying net at low over feed speed and the humidity is continuously measured.
•Drying is done by applying heat through burner nozzles.
•Synthetic blanket as a conveyor
•To dry the fabric with help of steam
•To control the shrinkage
•To prepare for next subsequent process
•To dry tubular and open width fabric without tension.
•To remove residual water containing in the fabric.
Machine:•Stenter is used for open form fabric. It is the heart of open knit finishing sector.
Main Parts & Zones:
#Guider ; #Two Baths & Padder or Squeezer; #Auto centering
#Over feed regions; #Bianco or Mahlo arrangement; #Chain & clip system;
#Chambers (Contains blower, heater, recovery)
#Over feed zone ; #Plaiting; #Static electricity remover
Figure : Passage Diagram of Stenter
•To control the shrinkage
•To control the required GSM by overfeed
•To control the required dia.
•For straighten the fabric
•To control bowing & bias (spirality)
•For uniform moisture content
•Finishing chemical application
•Selvedge gumming & cutting
•The treatment of knit fabrics in tubular form on the TUBULAR COMPACTOR meets the exacting
standards set by customers
Main Machine Parts:
•Feed section: Tension control & Metal detector.
•Shape: Set according to the dia. of fabric
•Take out & Plaiter zone
•Compacting Zone: It’s a roller & shoe arrangement & the most important zone which consists of two
rollers, the Feed roller (Recarter roller) & the Retard roller. They are heated by Shoe, into which hot
thermo-oil runs through.
Fig: Cross sectional View of Tube Compactor Machine
Basic functions of the Tube compactor machine:
•To control the GSM. (Increase & decrease).
•To control the dia.
•To control the shrinkage. (Increase & decrease).
•Width control through a stepless adjustable special tubular fabric spreader driven by variable speed
motor for distortion-free fabric guidance.
•Steamping with a condensate-free steam box which is easily operated and completely made from
•Compacting through two Nomex felt belts.
•Calendaring while passing between the felt belt and the heated shrinking rollers.
•Open Width Compactor is suitable for open width knit fabrics to achieve exact dimensional stability and a
Main Parts of the Machine:
•Blower (2, one at the entry chain zone for uncurling and another at the entry of compacting zone)
•ynthetic blanket as a conveyor,
•Unpinning cylinder (-40% (+-)40%)
•Belt cylinder (-40% ( +-)40%)
•Uncurling device at entry of compacting zone.
Figure: Passage diagram of Corino Open Compactor
•To compact the fabric
•To control the shrinkage
•To maintain proper width and G.S.M
•To make the fabric surface smooth
•During raising, the fabric surface is treated with sharp teeth to lift the surface fibres, thereby imparting
hairiness, softness and warmth, as in flannelette.
•Return drag roller
•Front drag roller
Figure : Cross-sectional view of Raising Brush machine
•To obtain a lofty handle effect on fabric.
•To obtain fleece appearance.
•To create pile on fabric surface.
•To produce a heavier surface made of fibers.
•Softening treatment is one of the most important chemical after treatments in the textile industry.
•By softening treatment textile can achieve not only soft handle but also:
Drape and Pliability.
•Resins have a profound effect on and cause changes in the hand (feel), drapability and physical
characteristics of textiles.
•They add stiffness to fabrics and are thus used as stiffening agents or to create a firm hand.
•Yarns in fabric will be stabilized and will resist shrinkage in laundering.
•This finish imparts luster to the cotton.
•Increases cotton strength by nearly 25% and improves dye affinity.
•It is a method of thickening woollen material to make it more water-resistant
•Nanotechnology is an umbrella term covering a wide range of technologies concerned with
structures and processes on the nanometric scale.
•. Nanotechnology deals with the science and technology at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100
nanometers (1 Billion Nanotechnology = 1metre), although 100 nanometers presently is the
practically attainable dimension for textile products and applications.
•The Nanotechnology can be used in engineering desired textiles attributes, such as fabric
softness, namely, water repellency, fire retardancy, antimicrobial resistance etc in fibers,
yarns and fabrics.
•Enhancement of textile materials by nanotechnology is expected to become a trillion dollar
industry in the next decade, with tremendous economic and ecology benefits.
•With the advent of nanotechnology, a new area has developed in the realm of textile
• It is a well-known fact that the growth of bacteria and microorganisms in food or water is
prevented hen stored in silver vessels due to its antibacterial properties.
• The antibacterial properties of silver are now scientifically recognized.
• Silver ions have been spectrum of antimicrobial activities.
• The method of producing durable silver containing antimicrobial finish is to encapsulate silver
compound or nano particle with a fiber reactive polymer like poly (styrene-maleric anhydride).
• Products which are commonly applied are brominated phenols, quaternary ammonium
compounds, organo-silver and tin compounds, which can be applied as solutions or
• They can also be incorporated in a polymeric film deposited on the surface to achieve
• The rays in the wavelength region of 150 to 400nm are known as ultraviolet radiations.
•ultraviolet absorber finish of a fabric is present that absorbs ultraviolet radiation and blocks
its transmission through a fabric to the skin.
•Metal oxides like ZnO as UV-blocker are more stable when compared to organic UV-
•Hence, nano ZnO will really enhance the UV-blocking property due to their increase
surface area and intense absorption in the UV region.
• Nano-processed garments have protective coating, which is water and
• Their protective layer is difficult to detect with the naked eye.
• Saving time and laundering cost.
• This technology embraces environment friendly properties.
• The crease resistant feature keeps clothing neat.
• Nano- processed products are toxic free.
• Garments stay bright, fresh looking and are more durable than ordinary
• Manufacturing cost is low, adding value to the products.
•Padder (1): 4-5 bar ; Padder (2): 3.5- 4 bar
Fabric type Fabric speed (m/min) Over feed %
Single jersey (Viscose) 50-70 30
Single jersey(Cotton/Lycra) 60-80 22
Single jersey(Cotton) 60-80 10-11
1x1 Rib 20-30 11
Interlock 20-30 14-15
terry 40-50 5-9
Single jersey- 180GSM (exp.) 70 25%
Diameter; Fabric speed; Overfeeds; Padder pressure
Wet Squeezer Marks
Fabric type Speed
Single jersey 60-80 2.5-3 1.5 bar (chemical)- 2bar
3 bar (chemical)- 4bar
1×1 rib 30-40 2.5-3 1.25 bar (chemical) -3bar
2.5 bar (chemical)-
3 bar (normal)
2×2 rib 20-30 2.5-3 1.25 bar (chemical) -3bar
3 bar (normal)
Loop back 20-30 2.5-3 1.5 bar (chemical)- 2bar
3 bar (chemical)- 4bar
75 2.8 1.5 bar 3 bar
Needle line; machine speed.
Color Speed Over feed Temperature
s/j White 10 15-20 120 35
Dyed 8-10 15-20 120-130 35
PK White 12-15 30 120 50
Dyed 15 30 120-140 50
1×1 rib White 7-8 10 120-140 20
Dyed 7-8 10 130-140 20
2×2 rib White 7-8 20 120 25
Dyed 7-8 20 120-130 25
s/j (160 GSM) EXP. White 10 20 130 35
Overheating and Shade Variation.
Single jersey l-Rib PK Fleece/ terry Single jersey
Required Dia (cm) 88 80 54 80 190
Actual Dia (cm) 90.5 88 67 84 208
Required GSM 160 240 210 240 260
Actual GSM 148 218 185 232 240
Temperature (°C) 170 170 170 170 160
Overfeed 60 45 60 40 40
Machine Speed 20 18 18 16 20
Temperature ; Width setting; Overfeed; Speed.
GSM variation & width variation for lycra fabric.
Wrong and narrow width
Startch stains and white lines on finished cloth
Over-feed ratio: Edge drive zone – 1.0-1.5
Retard roller – 0.80-0.85
Take-out zone – 0.85-0.90
Conveyor belt – 1.0-1.05
Plaiter – 0.80-0.85
Shoe pressure: S/J – large dia. – avg. 30 psi
S/J – smaller dia. – 10-15 psi
Rib – 10-20 psi
Lycra - <10 psi
Buyer Color Over
Single jersey Name IT Black 60% 180 178 115 100 98 1100
J &J Navy 60% 190 207 195 64″ 71″ 1100
1×1 Rib Pimkie 0350 60% 210 205 210 74″ 75″ 1000
Russel Black 60% 180 180 180 64″ 68″ 1100
Interlock Kappa Khaki 60% 260 300 200 75″ 72″ 1100
Khaki 60% 190 185 190 64″ 67″ 1100
Fleece Kappa Blue 60% 260 228 210 74″ 77.5″ 1100
Interlock EXP. Blue 60% 330 288 224 222 1150
•We all have tried our level best in accomplishing the project.
•Lack of presentation time we skip some topic which we include ours
•We are greatly thankful to the management and staffs of the companies namely
“GMS Composite Knitting IND. Ltd.”, “ Raiyan Knit Composite Ltd ” .Without
their constant support it could not have been possible
•. In our project we came up mainly with different kinds of knit finishing parameter
& development in different machines.
•In the project of us we included the each machines in the finishing lines, their
working mechanism, their technical data, machine specification, ways of
controlling different important parameters, faults and remedies.
•We express our heartiest thanks to our project supervisor and honorable
teacher, Najmul Ehsan, Lecturer of the Department of Textile Engineering for his
logical guidelines, constant inspirations, necessary instructions and proper
Corbman, Bernard, P. Textiles Fiber to Fabric, sixth
edition, MeGraw-Hill International, New York, America.
We have tried to present all types of finishing processes. Most of the finishing
processes are not conduct in Bangladesh. In our country function finishing
process is done mostly. Aesthetic finishing are more expensive than functional.
We tried hard to give accurate parameter and solve the fault of finishing
process. That’s how we can develop finishing process and give more
production. Due to limitation our knowledge we did not all finishing processes.
We think that our internship and project paper based on finishing will increase
our knowledge in many sides.