!"#"$%&'()$*+,+"-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$"$2$*                                                        33345*+"4"*




             ...
%	
                       !




                                           ()
72$8+%'82$)*
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                              33345*+4*



       !     72*#86*'#2!*#!B3J/2*'...
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                                                     33345*+4*




                       ...
Semantic Web benefits
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                              www.deri.ie



  ...
Key (confusing) terms
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                www.deri.ie




               ...
Machine Understandable
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                              www.deri.ie




     linclark.jp...
RDF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute           www.deri.ie




                                  R esource
          ...
RDF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                               www.deri.ie




                  ...
RDF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                     www.deri.ie




                            ...
RDF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                        www.deri.ie




                         ...
RDF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                      www.deri.ie




                           ...
RDF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                        www.deri.ie




         ...
RDF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                         www.deri.ie




                        ...
Federated Dataset
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                        www.deri.ie




           ...
Federated Dataset
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                         www.deri.ie




            the resources ...
Giant Global Graph
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                          www.deri.ie




              And when a...
SPARQL
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                          www.deri.ie




                Find and retrieve in...
The Semantic Web
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                 www.deri.ie




                   ...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                          www.deri.ie




                           ...
The Web - Initial Proposal (1989)
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                       www.deri.ie
...
The Web - Circa 2010
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                   www.deri.ie




                             ...
The Web – 1994 Vision
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                      www.deri.ie



       To ...
The Web – 1994 Vision
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                  www.deri.ie




           ht...
The Semantic Web
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                     www.deri.ie




       !    Bri...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
A Bit of History
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                    www.deri.ie




       !    Meme...
More recently
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                   www.deri.ie




       !    SHOE
   ...
The Semantic Web, right now
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                   www.deri.ie




      ...
The Semantic Web stack
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                     www.deri.ie




         ...
The Semantic Web stack
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                     www.deri.ie




         ...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                          www.deri.ie




                           ...
URIs
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                      www.deri.ie




       !    A Uniform Reso...
Resource Description Framework
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                       www.deri.ie



...
RDF by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                      ...
RDFa
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                        www.deri.ie




       !    A way of embedding RDF in (X...
RDFa by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
RDFa by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
RDFa and prefixes
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                www.deri.ie




       !    http://...
Extracting other serialisations
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                     www.deri.ie




...
Ontologies
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                         www.deri.ie




       !    RDF p...
Ontologies
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                   www.deri.ie




       !    Classes and properties
    ...
Metadata and ontologies
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
RDFS
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                      www.deri.ie




       !    RDFS defines c...
RDFS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute               www.deri.ie




                                      ...
OWL
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                            www.deri.ie




       !    OWL goes further than RDF...
OWL by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute               www.deri.ie




                                       ...
OWL2 Property chain example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                  www.deri.ie



       ex:uncle rdf:type...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                 www.deri.ie




                    ...
Linked Data
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                  www.deri.ie



       !    Building a “...
The Linked Data principles
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                        www.deri.ie




       !    http:/...
The LOD cloud
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie

             2007




                                 ...
The LOD cloud
Digital Enterprise Research Institute       www.deri.ie


                                   2008




      ...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                      www.deri.ie




               ...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                          www.deri.ie




                     Some O...
Which ontologies to use ?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                 www.deri.ie




       !  ...
Which ontologies to use ?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                           www.deri.ie




       !    How ...
Extending ontologies ?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                     www.deri.ie




       ! ...
Drupal7
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                 www.deri.ie




       !    The following mo...
RSS Content
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
DublinCore
Digital Enterprise Research Institute          www.deri.ie




       !    DublinCore
                  DCMI Me...
DublinCore by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
FOAF – Friend Of A Friend
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
FOAF – Friend Of A Friend
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                      www.deri.ie



      ...
FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend)
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend)
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
FOAF at a glance
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
FOAF from Flickr
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
FOAF from Twitter
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
Distributed identity with FOAF
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
Interlinking identities and networks
Digital Enterprise Research Institute         www.deri.ie
FOAF+SSL: Secured authentication
Digital Enterprise Research Institute     www.deri.ie
SIOC
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                       www.deri.ie



       !    Semantically-I...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
The SIOC core ontology
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SIOC by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SIOC Types
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                       www.deri.ie




       !    Additio...
SIOC Types
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SIOC Types
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SIOC Types by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SKOS
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                        www.deri.ie




       !    SKOS - Simpl...
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                            www.deri.ie




         ...
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                     ...
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                     ...
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                     ...
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
SKOS by example
Digital Enterprise Research Institute   www.deri.ie
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                          www.deri.ie




                        Que...
SPARQL
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                             www.deri.ie




       !    RDF(S)/OWL useful to ...
How it works ?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                        www.deri.ie




       !    Gr...
Example of SELECT queries
Digital Enterprise Research Institute            www.deri.ie




       “select persons older th...
Querying DBpedia
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                               www.deri.ie




       !    People Bo...
Querying DBpedia
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                    www.deri.ie




       !    Japanese name of Gal...
Querying DBpedia
Digital Enterprise Research Institute             www.deri.ie




       !    Irish cities at the east of...
Querying DBpedia
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                               www.deri.ie




       !    FILTER by...
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                                                        33345*+4*




                    ...
What is Drupal?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute       www.deri.ie




                                        2
What IS Drupal?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute           www.deri.ie




                    Content Management Sys...
What IS Drupal?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                           www.deri.ie




      CMS
...
What IS Drupal?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                              www.deri.ie




      C...
What does RDF in Drupal mean?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                           www.deri.ie




      CMS
  ...
Why Drupal?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                     www.deri.ie




       Similarities
       • Both ha...
Why Drupal?
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                    www.deri.ie




       Differences
       • Drupal’s ...
Default RDF mappings in core
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                  www.deri.ie




       • Node titles
 ...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                                     ...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                                   www.deri.ie




  ...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                    www.deri.ie




      RDF Mapping User Interface
      User inter...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                www.deri.ie




      RDF SPARQL Endpoint
      A RDF store that make...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                   www.deri.ie




      RDF Proxy
      A way of connecting nodes to...
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                                                www.deri.ie




                     ...
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                                                     33345*+4*




                       ...
.2)))#'*6%7,*8'9+#%):%$;)
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*   33345*+4*
.2)))#'*6%7,*8'9+#%):%$;)
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*   33345*+4*
.2)))#'*6%7,*8'9+#%):%$;)
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                                          33345*+4*



       ! ...
.2)))#'*6%7,*
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*   33345*+4*
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                                                     33345*+4*




                       ...
Site Configuration
Digital Enterprise Research Institute                        www.deri.ie




       • Edit your site in...
Site Configuration
Digital Enterprise Research Institute              www.deri.ie




       • Create Content Types  Add F...
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                                                             33345*+4*




               ...
673%+5-'.!8')'!+2,%'/7+*
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                                                        33345*+4*...
673%+5-'.!8')'!+2,%'/7+*
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                         33345*+4*




         #3!4$'2*
        ...
673%+5-'.!8')'!+2,%'/7+*
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                                      33345*+4*




             ...
90%+%/$*+-$/-'7:'.!8')'!+2,%';
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                               33345*+4*




        !     ...
+/0$*/$2+*
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                                             33345*+4*




        !     *86*83...
97)$*)$'$=,*-'%)5'8*5-
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*   33345*+4*
97)$*)$'$=,*-'%)5'8*5-
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*   33345*+4*
75*
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*   33345*+4*
.!8'%)5'.!8%
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*         33345*+4*




         !     !#$%'$()*+,*-,(

         !     ..#/$0%...
.!8'%)5'.!8%
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                 33345*+4*




        !     922,7;*)52+(

        !     @$A$...
!+2,%';'5*:%2$'.!8'?/0*@%
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*   33345*+4*
!+2,%';'%)5'.!8
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*   33345*+4*
A*)*:$-'7:'.!8')'!+2,%';
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                 33345*+4*




        !     =_:=Q!7_Q!`_Q!.!a#8*...
B73'@%/0)*-'-**'!+2,%',%#*-
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                                                             3...
H2%$6*?5+($($I-8B*;$B*:(
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*             33345*+4*




         !     dW'V8'*%!5.=/

        ...
H2%$6*?5+($($I-8B*;$B*:(
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*             33345*+4*




        .;2:$B2()$*($*$:-*B
         !...
!+2,%'%)5'60*'C*D'%$'%+#*
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                  33345*+4*




         !     .8$/0!J!$'#233!N
...
/E)73*5#*@*)$-
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                                33345*+4*




       97*%#2*-'%$'!(.1'%)5'F...
!#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$*                                 33345*+4*




                                           ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

How to Build Linked Data Sites with Drupal 7 and RDFa

21,232

Published on

Slides of the tutorial Stéphane Corlosquet, Lin Clark and Alexandre Passant presented at SemTech 2010 in San Francisco http://semtech2010.semanticuniverse.com/sessionPop.cfm?confid=42& proposalid=2889

Published in: Technology, Education
1 Comment
47 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
21,232
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
12
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
923
Comments
1
Likes
47
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

How to Build Linked Data Sites with Drupal 7 and RDFa

  1. 1. !"#"$%&'()$*+,+"-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$"$2$* 33345*+"4"* =#>!*#!?8'0<!@'2A3<!./*/!B'*34! >'*)!.&8$/0!C!/2<!5.D/ B*E$)/23!"#&0#4F83*G!@'2!"0/&AG!:03H/2<&3!I/44/2*G!:H30!I#003&34 B3JK36)!+,L, B/2!D&/26'46# M823!+N*)G!+,L, ! !"#$%&'()*!+,,-!.'('*/0!12*3&$&'43!5343/&6)!724*'*8*39!:00!&'()*4!&343&;3<9
  2. 2. % ! ()
  3. 3. 72$8+%'82$)* !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! 72*#86*'#2!*#!B3J/2*'6!/2!843O80!;#6/P80/'34!QLGN!)R ! S3**'2(!4*/*3!'*)!.8$/0!CT!'24*/00/*'#2!/2! 6#2O'(8/*'#2!QLGN!)R U43!6/43 =/24V#2!.3J# ! 5.D!'2!.8$/0!C!QW)R :6)'*36*83 .3O/80*!5.D!J/$$'2(4
  4. 4. !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* 72*#86*'#2!*#!*)3!=3/2*'6!?3@ ! !#$%'()*!+,,-!.'('*/0!12*3$'43!5343/6)!724*'*8*39!:00!'()*4!343;39 )/$*3
  5. 5. Semantic Web benefits Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ! Programs and sites can my-site.net company.com your-site.org exchange information ! Search engines can display more relevant information in results ! Data mashers can + combine data from different datasets to find new and astounding things 1
  6. 6. Key (confusing) terms Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Machine Understandable Linked Data SPARQL RDF Giant Federated Dataset Global Graph 2
  7. 7. Machine Understandable Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie linclark.jpg is a picture The Semantic Web helps of a person named machines understand what Lin Clark the information on a Web page is... 3
  8. 8. RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie R esource Description F ramework 4
  9. 9. RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Everything is a resource A resource is a named thing A resource is a uniquely named thing Namespace xmlns:lin=”http://lin-clark.com/page.html# CURIE URI this http://lin-clark.com/page.html#this lin:this 5
  10. 10. RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie A resource can be a document foaf:Document dblp:this 6
  11. 11. RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie A resource can be a company foaf:Organization deri:this 7
  12. 12. RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie A resource can even be a person foaf:Person lin:me 8
  13. 13. RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie You can describe properties of that person... foaf:name Lin Clark foaf:mbox lin.clark@deri.org foaf:birthday 07-01 lin:me 9
  14. 14. RDF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie and describe how that person is related to other resources foaf:made swrc:employs lin:me dblp:this deri:this 10
  15. 15. Federated Dataset Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Because we are using http URIs, these resources don’t need to be in the same database foaf:made swrc:employs lin:me dblp:this deri:this 11
  16. 16. Federated Dataset Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie the resources can be distributed across the Web in a federated datagraph 12
  17. 17. Giant Global Graph Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie And when all resources are described this way, the Web becomes one giant database... 13
  18. 18. SPARQL Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Find and retrieve information from the graph using SPARQL 14
  19. 19. The Semantic Web Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Machine Understandable Linked Data SPARQL RDF Giant Federated Dataset Global Graph 15
  20. 20. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie The Semantic Web ! Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. The Web - Initial Proposal (1989) Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie http://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposal.html 2 of XYZ
  22. 22. The Web - Circa 2010 Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ?? ?? ?? 3 of XYZ
  23. 23. The Web – 1994 Vision Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie To a computer, the Web is a flat, boring world, devoid of meaning. This is a pity, as in fact documents on the Web describe real objects and imaginary concepts, and give particular relationships between them. For example, a document might describe a person. The title document to a house describes a house and also the ownership relation with a person. Adding semantics to the Web involves two things: allowing documents which have information in machine- readable forms, and allowing links to be created with relationship values. Only when we have this extra level of semantics will we be able to use computer power to help us exploit the information to a greater extent than our own reading. Tim Berners-Lee, 1st World Wide Web Conference, Geneva, May 1994 4 of XYZ
  24. 24. The Web – 1994 Vision Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie http://www.slideshare.net/danbri/when-presentation-849447 5 of XYZ
  25. 25. The Semantic Web Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Bridging the gap from a Web of Documents to a Web of Data   With typed objects and typed relationships: The Web as a giant decentralized database !  Adding machine-readable meta-data to existing content   So that information can be parsed, queried, reused !  Defining shared semantics for this meta-data   For interoperability between applications and for advanced purposes, such as reasoning !  Enabling machine-readable knowledge at Web scale, making information more easy to find and process 6 of XYZ
  26. 26. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  27. 27. A Bit of History Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Memex   1945 ! - Vannevar Bush   A memex is “a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications.” !  Augmenting Human Intellect   1960 - Douglas Engelbart   “By ‘augmenting human intellect’ we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems.” 8 of XYZ
  28. 28. More recently Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  SHOE   http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/plus/SHOE/   “SHOE is a small extension to HTML which allows web page authors to annotate their web documents with machine- readable knowledge. SHOE makes real intelligent agent software on the web possible.“ 9 of XYZ
  29. 29. The Semantic Web, right now Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Standardisation work in W3C   http://w3.org !  Semantic Web activity   http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/ !  Incubator Groups, Working Groups, Interest Groups   SPARQL - http://www.w3.org/2009/sparql/wiki/Main_Page   RDB2RDF – http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/rdb2rdf   RIF - http://www.w3.org/2005/rules/   HCLS - http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/hcls/   … 10 of XYZ
  30. 30. The Semantic Web stack Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie http://www.w3.org/2007/03/layerCake.png 11 of XYZ
  31. 31. The Semantic Web stack Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie http://www.w3.org/2007/03/layerCake.png 12 of XYZ
  32. 32. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie URIs, RDF(S) and OWL ! Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
  33. 33. URIs Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a compact sequence of characters that identifies an abstract or physical resource as of RFC3986 !  URIs are used to identify everything in a unique and non-ambiguous way   Not only pages (as on the current Web), but any resource (people, documents, books, interests …)   A URI for a person is different from a URI for a document about the person, because a person is not a document ! !  Example   http://apassant.net/alex - myself   http://apassant.net - my homepage 14
  34. 34. Resource Description Framework Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  URI represent resources   But how define things about these resources ?   E.g. “Drupal is a CMS”, “DERI is in Galway” !  RDF – Resource Description Framework   RDF abstract syntax, a data model: a directed, labeled graph based on URIs   RDF is not XML ! RDF/XML is only one of the multiple way to serialize RDF data (N3, RDFa …) !  RDF is based on triples   subject predicate object .   Subjects and predicates are URIs   Objects can be either URIs or litterals 15
  35. 35. RDF by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie @prefix dct: http://purl.org/dc/terms/ . ! http://semtech2010.semanticuniverse.com/talk/2889#id! dct:title “How to build Linked Data sites with Drupal7 and RDFa” ; ! dct:author http://apassant.net/alex ;! dct:subject http://dbpedia.org/resource/Drupal .! How to build Linked Data sites with dct:title http://semtech2010.semanticuniverse.com/talk/2889#id Drupal7 and RDFa dct:author dct:subject http://apassant.net/alex http://dbpedia.org/resource/Drupal 16
  36. 36. RDFa Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  A way of embedding RDF in (X)HTML documents:   One page for both humans and machines   Don’t need to repeat yourself   Introducing new XHTML attributes   http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-rdfa-primer/ !  Current work is ongoing on RDFa 1.1:   For profiles, etc.
  37. 37. RDFa by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  38. 38. RDFa by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  39. 39. RDFa and prefixes Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  http://sdow2009.semanticweb.org   Header contains prefixes and links to the GRDDL transformation
  40. 40. Extracting other serialisations Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  http://sdow2009.semanticweb.org   Webpage can be translated to native RDF/XML using an RDFa distiller - http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/
  41. 41. Ontologies Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  RDF provides a way to write assertions   But what about their semantics   E.g. how can one know that http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows identifies an acquaintance relationship ? !  Ontologies provide common semantics for resources on the Semantic Web   “An ontology is a specification of a conceptualization.” !  Developing ontologies for the Semantic Web   Main languages are RDFS (RDF Schema) and OWL (Web Ontology Language)   Growing expressivity levels 22 of XYZ
  42. 42. Ontologies Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Classes and properties   :Person a rdfs:Class .   :father a rdfs:Property .   :father rdfs:domain :Person .   :father rdfs:range :Person . 23 of XYZ
  43. 43. Metadata and ontologies Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  44. 44. RDFS Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  RDFS defines classes, properties and subsumption relations between classes and properties   ex:Person rdfs:subClassOf ex:humanLiving .   ex:worksWith rdfs:subPropertyOf ex:knows . !  Such relationships are used to infer new statements   :alex rdf:type ex:Person .   :Alex ex:worksWith :Axel .   Is enough to say that Alex is a humanLiving and knows Axel 25 of XYZ
  45. 45. RDFS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 26 of XYZ
  46. 46. OWL Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  OWL goes further than RDFS by introducing new axioms   Disjunction (e.g. person / document)   Transitivity (e.g. ancestor)   Symmetry (e.g. sibling)   Cardinality constraints (e.g. ancestor 1) !  OWL2 introduces a lot of useful features, especially for reasoning   Property Chains (parent + brother - uncle) 27 of XYZ
  47. 47. OWL by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 28 of XYZ
  48. 48. OWL2 Property chain example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ex:uncle rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty . ex:parent rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty . ex:brother rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty . [] rdfs:subPropertyOf ex:uncle;!! owl:propertyChain (! ex:parent!! ex:brother!! ). :alice ex:parent :bob . :bob ex:brother :joe . = :alice ex:uncle :joe . 29 of XYZ
  49. 49. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Linked Data ! Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
  50. 50. Linked Data Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Building a “Web of Data” to enhance the current Web !  Exposing, sharing and connecting data about things via dereferenceable URIs !  The Linking Open Data (LOD) project:   http://linkeddata.org/   Translating existing datasets into RDF and linking them together, for example DBpedia (Wikipedia) and GeoNames, Freebase, BBC programmes, etc.   Governement data also available as Linked Data
  51. 51. The Linked Data principles Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html !  Use URIs as names for things !  Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names !  When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF, SPARQL) !  Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things !  E.g. http://dbpedia.org/resource/SPARQL 32
  52. 52. The LOD cloud Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 2007 2008
  53. 53. The LOD cloud Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 2008 2009
  54. 54. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie image from richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2009-07-14.png
  55. 55. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Some Ontologies used in Drupal7 ! Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
  56. 56. Which ontologies to use ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  SearchMonkey Vocabularies   http://developer.yahoo.com/searchmonkey/smguide/ profile_vocab.html 37
  57. 57. Which ontologies to use ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  How to Publish Linked Data on the Web   http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/bizer/pub/ LinkedDataTutorial/ 38
  58. 58. Extending ontologies ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  What if existing ontologies are not enough for your needs ?   Create a new ontology   … or extend an existing one ! !  Ontologies can be extended in a decentralized way   E.g. Anyone can create a subproperty of foaf:knows, “metInSemtech”, in his own ontology and publish it online !  Open.vocab.org   A collaborative platform to manage ontologies   http://open.vocab.org 39
  59. 59. Drupal7 Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  The following models are used in Drupal7 !  RSS Content module   http://web.resource.org/rss/1.0/modules/content/ !  DublinCore   http://dublincore.org/ !  FOAF   http://foaf-project.org !  SIOC and its Types module   http://sioc-project.org !  SKOS   http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/
  60. 60. RSS Content Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  61. 61. DublinCore Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  DublinCore   DCMI Metadata Terms   http://purl.org/dc/terms/ !  Some properties   dc:title   dc:subject   dc:created   dc:date   dc:modified
  62. 62. DublinCore by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  63. 63. FOAF – Friend Of A Friend Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  64. 64. FOAF – Friend Of A Friend Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  An ontology for describing people and the relationships that exist between them:   http://foaf-project.org/   Identity, personal profiles and social networks   Can be integrated with other SW vocabularies !  FOAF on the Web:   LiveJournal, MyOpera, identi.ca, MyBlogLog, hi5, Fotothing, Videntity, FriendFeed, Ecademy, Typepad
  65. 65. FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend) Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  66. 66. FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend) Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  67. 67. FOAF at a glance Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  68. 68. FOAF from Flickr Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  69. 69. FOAF from Twitter Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  70. 70. Distributed identity with FOAF Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  71. 71. Interlinking identities and networks Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  72. 72. FOAF+SSL: Secured authentication Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  73. 73. SIOC Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities   http://sioc-project.org/ !  Addressing interoperability issues on the (Social) Web   To fully describe content / structure of social websites and to create new connections between online discussion posts and items, forums and containers   Various domains: Web 2.0, enterprise information integration, HCLS, e-government   Widely deployed (SearchMonkey, Talis, etc.)
  74. 74. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  75. 75. The SIOC core ontology Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  76. 76. SIOC by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  77. 77. SIOC Types Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Additional information is required for finer-grained representation of Web 2.0 content   Differentiating a blog post from a wiki page or from a microblogging status update !  SIOC Types   http://rdfs.org/sioc/types !  Use-case in HCLS   http://www.w3.org/TR/hcls-sioc/
  78. 78. SIOC Types Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  79. 79. SIOC Types Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  80. 80. SIOC Types by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  81. 81. SKOS Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  SKOS - Simple Knowledge Organization System   http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-skos- reference-20090818/ !  Thesaurus, subject headings and classifications   skos:Concept   skos:semanticRelation –  skos:related, skos:narrower, skos:broader –  A different semantics than in RDFS/OWL hierarchies !  Used by:   NY Times, Library of Congress, DBpedia, etc.
  82. 82. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie ex:SPARQL ex:Semantic_Web ex:Web rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type skos:Concept
  83. 83. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie skos:broader skos:broader ex:SPARQL ex:Semantic_Web ex:Web rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type skos:Concept
  84. 84. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie skos:broader skos:broader ex:SPARQL ex:Semantic_Web ex:Web skos:narrower skos:narrower rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type skos:Concept
  85. 85. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie skos:semanticRelation skos:broader skos:broader ex:SPARQL ex:Semantic_Web ex:Web skos:narrower skos:narrower rdf:type rdf:type rdf:type skos:Concept
  86. 86. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  87. 87. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  88. 88. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  89. 89. SKOS by example Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie
  90. 90. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Querying RDF data with SPARQL ! Copyright 2009 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved.
  91. 91. SPARQL Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  RDF(S)/OWL useful to produce data   A need to query it !  SPARQL   SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language   The “SQL” of the Semantic Web !  FAQ   http://www.thefigtrees.net/lee/sw/sparql-faq !  SPARQL Query Recommendation / tutorial   http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/ !  Currently under standardization for SPARQL1.1   http://www.w3.org/2009/sparql/wiki/Main_Page
  92. 92. How it works ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Graph Pattern Matching   Identifying if a requested graph matches the underlying RDF data !  Four different operators   SELECT, DESCRIBE, CONSTRUCT, ASK   Combined with query patterns and optional features (union, filters …) !  A Protocol   To query RDF data using SPARQL endpoints via HTTP !  Most of endpoints are associated with an RDF store   A place that stores RDF data and provides open access to it – e.g. http://dbpedia.org/sparql
  93. 93. Example of SELECT queries Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie “select persons older than 30” SELECT ?X WHERE { ?X a foaf:Person. ?X ex:age ?Y. FILTER (?Y 30) } 74
  94. 94. Querying DBpedia Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  People Born in Galway   Simple triple pattern   http://dbpedia.org/ontology/birthplace !  Answer SELECT ?who! WHERE {! ?who ! http://dbpedia.org/ontology/birthplace :Galway .! }!
  95. 95. Querying DBpedia Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Japanese name of Galway !  Using the FILTER by LANG clause   FILTER(lang(?x) = ja) !  Answer SELECT ?name! WHERE {! :Galway rdfs:label ?name .! FILTER (lang(?name) = ja) .! }!
  96. 96. Querying DBpedia Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  Irish cities at the east of Galway!
  97. 97. Querying DBpedia Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie !  FILTER by type and comparison of coordinates !  Answer PREFIX yago: http://dbpedia.org/class/yago/! SELECT DISTINCT ?place ?long WHERE {! :Galway dbpedia2:westCoord ?glong .! ?place rdf:type! yago:CitiesInTheRepublicOfIreland ;! dbpedia2:westCoord ?long .! FILTER (?long ?glong) ! }!
  98. 98. !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* =)%!.8$/0 ! !#$%'()*!+,,-!.'('*/0!12*3$'43!5343/6)!724*'*8*39!:00!'()*4!343;39 )/$*3
  99. 99. What is Drupal? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie 2
  100. 100. What IS Drupal? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Content Management System CMS Content Management Framework CMF 3
  101. 101. What IS Drupal? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie CMS A package that a non-developer (or non-Web developer) can download and install quickly and easily to create a complex website Runs on many servers, particularly Apache and MySQL which are used by many hosting providers With Drupal 7, setup should take less than 10 minutes A collection of modules that can be plugged into the main package to bring advanced functionality to the site At last count in Spring of 2009, there were 4400 modules on Drupal.org Common quote: “There’s a module for that” 4
  102. 102. What IS Drupal? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie CMF Gets Web developers up and running with functionality quickly, but allows for a very high level of customization A number of APIs for things such as form creation and processing Hook system allows external modules to act when something happens in the main body of code All templates can be overridden at a granular level Allows Web developers to package up any custom functionality or configuration and distribute it widely to developers and non-developers alike Modules Themes Installation Profiles and Features 5
  103. 103. What does RDF in Drupal mean? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie CMS Out of the box, content structures are mapped to RDF Contributed modules offer advanced functionality without having to code anything CMF RDF Mapping API in Drupal core package A collection of RDF functions in a contributed API 15
  104. 104. Why Drupal? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Similarities • Both have structured data • Data is structured in a similar way— instances of types with properties and relationships 1
  105. 105. Why Drupal? Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Differences • Drupal’s structure stays hidden in the database, RDF structure is exposed on the page • Drupal’s field names are unique to the site and not explicitly defined, RDF terms are universally dereferencable and explicitly defined 2
  106. 106. Default RDF mappings in core Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie • Node titles • Submission information • Comment count and comment relationships • Users, names and homepages • Taxonomy terms • Featured images ... And you can define your own mappings for your content types or alter mappings for existing ones 5
  107. 107. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie sioc:User foaf:name sioc: has_creator foaf:homepage sioc:Item, foaf:Document sioc:topic skos:Concept Produce and Consume Linked Data with Drupal skos:prefLabel, dc:title rdfs:label posted on October 22 by Stéphane dc:created, dc:date sioc:reply_of skos:description content:encoded Produce and Consume Linked Data with Drupal! is the title of the paper I will be presenting next week at dc:modified the 8th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2009) in Washington, DC. sioc:num_replies sioc:Post, sioct:Comment Drupal ISWC RDFa dc:title Wow, that’s rad! dc:created, dc:date posted on October 23 by Lin content:encoded Nice work! dc:modified 7
  108. 108. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie posted on span property=dc:date dc:created content=2009-10-22T08:03:26-05:00 Produce and Consume datatype=xsd:dateTime Linked Data with Drupal October 22 posted on October 22 by Stéphane /span by Produce and Consume Linked Data with Drupal! is the span rel=sioc:has_creator title of the paper I will be presenting next week at span about=/user/6 the 8th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2009) in Washington, DC. typeof=sioc:User property=foaf:name Drupal ISWC RDFa stephane /span Wow, that’s rad! /span posted on October 23 by Lin Nice work! 8
  109. 109. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie RDF Mapping User Interface User interface for site administrators to define new mappings or alter existing mappings. 10
  110. 110. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie RDF SPARQL Endpoint A RDF store that makes your site information available for SPARQL queries. 11
  111. 111. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie RDF Proxy A way of connecting nodes to RDF sources across the Web and automatically syncing your site’s information with the external source. 12
  112. 112. Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie E-Commerce Module Item for sale gr:Offering gr:hasPriceSpecification gr:hasWarrantyScope gr:hasWarrantyPromise 14
  113. 113. !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* =3**'2(!4*/*3!'*)!.8$/0!? @! A43!6/43 ! !#$%'()*!+,,-!.'('*/0!12*3$'43!5343/6)!724*'*8*39!:00!'()*4!343;39 )/$*3
  114. 114. .2)))#'*6%7,*8'9+#%):%$;) !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4*
  115. 115. .2)))#'*6%7,*8'9+#%):%$;) !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4*
  116. 116. .2)))#'*6%7,*8'9+#%):%$;) !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! !#$%'$()%*+(,*-./(*0(1*2.3$/4 5 67(,%$/*8$($*9):*3.-/;$()%*+,;,+*=/,*2?@AB 5 @,*-.(()%*9)*C$;,-))
  117. 117. .2)))#'*6%7,* !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4*
  118. 118. !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* =3**'2(!4*/*3!'*)!.8$/0!? @! A/24@#2!3B# ! !#$%'()*!+,,-!.'('*/0!12*3$'43!5343/6)!724*'*8*39!:00!'()*4!343;39 )/$*3
  119. 119. Site Configuration Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie • Edit your site information admin/config/system/site-information • Create a front page node/add admin/config/system/site-information • Change your site design and logo admin/appearance • Install modules admin/modules • Configure Wysiwyg editor admin/config/content/wysiwyg 1
  120. 120. Site Configuration Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie • Create Content Types Add Fields admin/structure/types • Manage menus admin/structure/menu/manage/main-menu Review and find out more at: youtube.com/linwclark 2
  121. 121. !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* 5.=!'2!.8$/0! )/$*3 ! !#$%'()*!+,,-!.'('*/0!12*3$'43!5343/6)!724*'*8*39!:00!'()*4!343;39
  122. 122. 673%+5-'.!8')'!+2,%'/7+* !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ?@'3#!A#B!*)3!A8*83? .8$/0#2!C#4*#2!+,,D .'34E!F3%2#*3 )**$GHH;'3#9(##(0396#BH;'3#$0/%I#6'JDKD+LL+-MDKK,DM,
  123. 123. 673%+5-'.!8')'!+2,%'/7+* !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* #3!4$'2* N/%!+,,- .157!O/0P/%Q!730/2 )**$GHH8$/09#(H2#3HKKRD+K
  124. 124. 673%+5-'.!8')'!+2,%'/7+* !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* )**$GHH*P'**396#BH'34H4*/*84HK--RSSKRK
  125. 125. 90%+%/$*+-$/-'7:'.!8')'!+2,%'; !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! .8$/0!!6#3 1T$#43!.8$/0E4!/*/!'2!5.=/ :8*#B/*'6/00% U#!5.=!3T$3*'43!3V8'3 ! .8$/0!!6#2*'W8*3!B#8034 N#3!5.=!A#B/*4!X5.=HYNZQ!2*'$034Q!*8*03[ =03T'W03!V83%'2(!X]:5^Z[ 1T$#*!/2!7B$#*
  126. 126. +/0$*/$2+* !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! *86*83!/*/G!'24*/2634!#A! *%$34!P'*)!$#$3*'34!/2! 30/*'#24)'$4 ! #2*32*!*%$3!J!5.=!60/44 ! ='30!J!5.=!$#$3*% ! U#3!J!5.=!34#863 )**$GHHPPP9A0'6F96#BH$)#*#4H#6B/2H++SMLMD+S,
  127. 127. 97)$*)$'$=,*-'%)5'8*5- !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4*
  128. 128. 97)$*)$'$=,*-'%)5'8*5- !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4*
  129. 129. 75* !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4*
  130. 130. .!8'%)5'.!8% !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! !#$%'$()*+,*-,( ! ..#/$0%$12-3$456(/$78)-( ! 922:;/$1*22=/$*?'223
  131. 131. .!8'%)5'.!8% !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! 922,7;*)52+( ! @$A$B-?+)$5+?-*($5+$)-*C? ! 1*22$2'(-D($*$EFA$5+?-*($5+$)$ #;5?3G)-28:G7*)
  132. 132. !+2,%';'5*:%2$'.!8'?/0*@% !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4*
  133. 133. !+2,%';'%)5'.!8 !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4*
  134. 134. A*)*:$-'7:'.!8')'!+2,%'; !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! =_:=Q!7_Q!`_Q!.!a#8*!#A!*)3!W#Tb ! :00!8434!)/;3!/2!#20'23!'32*'*%G! c3W7.G!d57!A#!/2!'2';'8/0 e843HRfB3!!!!!Jg!!A#/AG]34#2 e=_:=hZ!/8*)32*'6/*'#2
  135. 135. B73'@%/0)*-'-**'!+2,%',%#*- !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! dW'V8'*%!5.=/ ! '2'63!i!j)3!3B/2*'6!c3W!'23T )**$GHH8W'V8'*%iA/9(##(036#396#BH4;2H*82FH8W'V8'*%i0#/39k4 )**$GHH4'2'6396#BH
  136. 136. H2%$6*?5+($($I-8B*;$B*:( !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! dW'V8'*%!5.=/ ! '2'63!i!j)3!3B/2*'6!c3W!'23T
  137. 137. H2%$6*?5+($($I-8B*;$B*:( !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* .;2:$B2()$*($*$:-*B ! dW'V8'*%!5.=/ ! '2'63!i!j)3!3B/2*'6!c3W!'23T
  138. 138. !+2,%'%)5'60*'C*D'%$'%+#* !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* ! .8$/0!J!$'#233!N ! ]0/*A#B!#A!6)#'63!A#!B/2%!843!6/434 ! 72A083263!*)3!*324 ! L,,9,,,!.8$/0!4'*34!XSl[ ! N#3!5.=!/*/!#2!*)3!c3W
  139. 139. /E)73*5#*@*)$- !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* 97*%#2*-'%$'!(.1'%)5'F1!'1):7+@%$/- 60-'37+E'0%-'D**)':2)5*5'D='$0*':773)#'#+%)$- !6'3263!=#82/*'#2!730/2!823!O/2*!U#9!=7H,DH1H7SRD, !=]H7ji+,,9K9K!j51]
  140. 140. !#$%'()$*+,+-*'.*-*%+/0'1)-$$2$* 33345*+4* 60%)E-G H2*-$7)-I 0$$,JKK-*@%)$/L5+2,%4/7@K
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×