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Childhood immunization
 

Childhood immunization

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Childhood immunization presentation done by fifth year medicine and surgery students at the university of Science and Technology (UST), Sana'a, Yemen

Childhood immunization presentation done by fifth year medicine and surgery students at the university of Science and Technology (UST), Sana'a, Yemen

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    Childhood immunization Childhood immunization Presentation Transcript

    • * By: 5th year Medicine and surgery students, UST Sana’a, Republic of Yemen
    • ** Prevention of infectious disease spread worldwide* A key to public health maintenance* Protection for one self and the surrounding in contact* To eradicate diseases (e.g. Smallpox)* Enhancement of the immune system response by “letting it learn something new”
    • ** Maternal Antibodies against certain disease do not offer a life long immunity to the baby* Many fatal childhood diseases can be prevented through vaccination (e.g. Whooping cough)* Protection of those with weak immune system from disease (e.g. Leukemia)* To maintain healthy, active and productive community members
    • ** Vaccines are weakened or killed forms of disease causing micro organisms* When the antigen is injected into the body → this allows the immune system to deal with and neutralize the invader.* Next time the same micro organism enters the body, the body has already preformed antibodies to destroy the invader
    • *
    • ** Causative MO: Mycobacterium tuberculosis* Disease transmitter: Droplet* Type: Live attenuated bacilli* Age of vaccine administration: As soon as possible after birth* Route of administration: ID* Doses: 1* Interval between each dose: -* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: Those of low immunity should be excluded from vaccination (HIV etc)* Adverse reactions: If administered SC instead of ID, this may cause lymphadenitis.* C/I: In those with compromised immune system
    • ** Causative MO: Hepatitis B virus (dsDNA)* Disease transmitter: Blood transfusion, sexually, through the birth canal* Type: Subunit* Age of vaccine administration: After birth* Route of administration: IM* Doses: 3* Interval between each dose: →1st to 2nd: 4 weeks →2nd to 3rd: 4 weeks* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: -Premature infants’ 1st dose after 1 month of age -Infants to infected mother receive hepatitis B immunoglobulins with the initial dose.* Adverse effects: Those of importance which require prompt treatment included: anaphylaxis; Tachycardia; Numbness.* C/I: Infants weighing less than 2 kgs
    • ** Causative MO: Poliovirus (Enteroviruses of the family Picorna viridae)* Disease transmission: Droplet* Type: Salk: Killed vaccine Sabine: Live attenuated vaccine,* Route of administration: OPV: Orally IPV: IM in arm or leg* Age of vaccine administration: 6th week for OPV 8th week for IPV* Doses: 3 (4)* Interval between each dose: At least 4 weeks between each vaccine* Booster dose: IPV booster dose 6 months after the 3rd dose* Special considerations: -* Adverse effects: Anaphylaxis, tachycardia, pyrexia* C/I: Immunosuppressed individuals should not receive the vaccine
    • ** Causative MO: Diphteria, Tetanus, Pertussis* Disease transmission: Droplet, contaminated wound, droplet* Type: Diphteria and tetanus toxoids, acellular pertussis* Age of vaccine administration: Minimum age is 2 months* Route of administration: IM* Doses: 3* Interval between each dose: 1-2 months between each dose* Booster dose: 1-6 years of age* Special considerations: Patients older than 7 years whom did not get vaccinated, receives toxoids of 3 doses (1, 4w, 6-12m)* Adverse effects: Excessive crying, encephalopathy (usually occurring with pertussis)* C/I: Hypersensitivity to any vaccine component
    • ** Causative MO: Haemophilus influenza type B* Disease transmitter: Droplet/aerosol* Type: Conjugate vaccine* Age of vaccine administration: 6 weeks of age* Route of administration: IM (Part of pentavalent)* Doses: 3* Interval between each dose: 4 weeks* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: Those older than 12 months who did not receive the vaccine should receive a single dose* Adverse reactions: rare, but if occurring, are in the form of redness, pain and hotness at site of injection.* C/I: Severe allergic reaction to any component
    • ** Causative MO: Paramyxovirus* Disease transmitter: Droplet/aerosol* Type: Chicken embryo cell culture (attenuated)* Age of vaccine administration: 9 or 12 months of age* Route of administration: SC* Doses: 2* Interval between each dose: Minimum 1 month between the 1st and 2nd* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: Early to HIV (sufficient CD4+ count).* Adverse effects: Idiopathic epilepsy, febrile seizures* C/I: Allergy to any vaccine component.
    • ** Causative MO: Pneumococcus pneumonia* Disease transmitter: Droplet* Type: Conjugate* Age of vaccine administration: 1,5 months of age (minimum)* Route of administration: IM* Doses: 2 or 3* Interval between each dose: 4 weeks between each of the 2nd and 3rd doses (for the 3 dosed variety) and at 8th week interval for the 2 dosed variety)* Booster dose: For the 2 dosed type given a booster at 9-15th month later* Special considerations: Use the same type of product vaccine when giving the other doses* Adverse effects: Redness, swelling, tenderness (at site of injection)* C/I: Any kind of hypersensitivity (anaphylaxis)
    • ** Causative MO: Rotavirus* Disease transmitter: Contaminated water* Type: Attenuated virus* Age of vaccine administration: Rotarix (at 6 weeks of age)RotaTeq (at 6 weeks of age)* Route of administration: RotaTeq (oral), Rotarix (Oral)* Doses: Rotarix (2), RotaTeq (3)* Interval between each dose: Rotarix (4 weeks), RotaTeq (4 weeks between the 2nd and 3rd doses)* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: -* Adverse effects: Intussusception* C/I: Anaphylaxis due to vaccine component; Intussusception (especially in patients with previous history of intussusception)
    • ** Causative MO: Rubella virus* Disease transmitter: Droplet/aerosol* Type: Live attenuated* Age of vaccine administration: 9 or 12 months with measles* Route of administration: SC* Doses: 1* Interval between each dose: -* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: Has a coverage of more than 80% of the population when vaccinated* Adverse effects: Thrombocytopenia, arthritis, febrile seizures, anaphylaxis* C/I: Allergy, thrombocytopenia, immunosuppression
    • ** Causative MO: Human Papilloma virus (dsDNA)* Route of transmission: Sexual transmission* Type: Protein subunit* Route of administration: IM (deltoid)* Age of vaccine administration:-Quadrivalent (HPV types 6,11,16 and 18):Females 9-13 years of age-Bivalent vaccine: Females 10-13 years of age
    • ** Doses: 3* Interval between each dose:→1st to 2nd :-Quadrivalent - 2 months (min 4 weeks)-Bivalent - 1 months (max 2.5 months)→2nd to 3rd:-Quadrivalent - 4 months (min 12 weeks)-Bivalent - 5 months* Booster dose: No need for a booster dose* Considerations: The vaccination has not been recommended for males yet.* Adverse effects: Allergy (due to wheat component)* C/I: Pregnant women, Immunosuppressed individuals
    • ** Causative MO: Japanese encephalopathy virus (Flavivirus- a ssRNA)* Disease transmitter: Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquito* Type of vaccine: Brain mouse derived or Live attenuated* Route of administration: IM (deltoid muscle)* Age of vaccine administration:- Brain mouse derived: 1 year of age- Live attenuated: 9-12 months of age* Doses:-Mouse brain derived: 2 doses-Live attenuated: 1 dose
    • ** Interval between each dose:-Mouse brain derived: 1st to 2nd dose: 4 weeks-Live attenuated: no second dose* Booster dose:* -Mouse brain derived: After 1 year and every 3 years up to 10-15 years of age-Live attenuated: After 1 year* Special considerations: WHO recommends these two types of vaccines* Adverse effects: Headache, myalgia, local pain and tenderness, multiple sclerosis* C/I: Anaphylaxis due to any component
    • ** Causative MO: A flaviviridae (ssRNA virus)* Disease transmitter: The Yellow fever mosquito, Aedes Aegypti* Type of vaccine: Attenuated virus* Route of administration: SC* Age of vaccine administration: 9-12 months with measles* Doses: 1* Interval between each dose: -* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: Children of endemic areas* Adverse effects: Fever, headache, anaphylaxis, swelling at the injection site* C/I: Immunosuppressed individuals, patients younger than 6 months of age
    • ** Causative MO: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (a flavivididae ssRNA)* Disease transmitter: Ixodes mite* Type: Inactivated* Route of administration: IM (deltoid)* Age of vaccine administration: ≥ 1 yr FSME-Immun and Encepur* ≥ 3 yrs TBE_Moscow and EnceVir* Doses: 3
    • ** Interval between each dose:* -FSME-Immun and Encepur:1st to 2nd: 1-3 months2nd to 3rd: 5-12 months* TBE_Moscow and EnceVir: 1st to 2nd: 1-7 months2nd to 3rd: 23 months* Booster dose: Atleast 1 every 3 years* Special considerations: Vaccination is recommended for high risk areas* Adverse effects: Loss of appetite, headache, allergic reaction, visual disturbances* C/I: Patients with severe egg allergy, Any autoimmune disease, RA, MS, Pregnancy, immunosuppressed
    • ** Causative MO: Salmonella enterica typhi* Disease transmitter: Contaminated food items with the bacteria* Type: Ty21a: a live attenuated vaccine* Age of vaccine administration: Minimum 5 years of age* Route of administration: Oral* Doses: 3 or 4* Interval between each dose: 2 day between each dose* Booster dose: every 3-7 years* Special considerations: Preschool and school children of high risk areas of the disease* Adverse effects: Anaphylaxis, fever, headache, nausea* C/I: Recent illness with fever, immunosuppressed individuals
    • ** Causative MO: Vibrio cholera* Disease transmitter: Contaminated drinking water* Type: Killed/inactivated* Route of administration: Oral, IM, ID* Age of vaccine administration: Dukoral: 2 years at minimumShanchol And mORCVAX: 1 year minimum* Doses: Dukoral: 3Shanchol And mORCVAX: 2* Interval between each dose: Dukoral: between 1 and 6 weeks between each other doseShanchol And mORCVAX: 14 days* Booster dose: Dukoral: every 6 monthsShanchol And mORCVAX: After 2 years* Special considerations:The vaccine (dukoral) is not licensed for children below the age of 2 years* Advese effects: Erythema, pain, malaise, headache* C/I: IV infusion of the vaccine; Pregnants (category C)
    • ** Causative MO: Neisseria meningitidis* Disease transmitter: Saliva, close contact* Type: -MenA conjugate-MenC conjugate-Quadrivalent conjugate* Route of administration: IM* Age of vaccine administration:-MenA conjugate: 1-29 years-MenC conjugate: 2-11 months-Quadrivalent conjugate: at about the age of 2 years
    • ** Doses: -MenA conjugate: 1-MenC conjugate: 2-Quadrivalent conjugate: 1* Interval between each dose:-MenC conjugate: 1st to 2nd: 8 weeks* Booster dose: After 1 year* Special considerations:-* Adverse effects: Pain at the site of injection, redness* C/I: Currently ill patient, immunocompromised
    • ** Causative MO: Rhabdoviridae* Disease transmitter: Through animal byte* Type: Purified chicken embryo cell vaccine* Age of vaccine administration: Any age requiring protection* Route of administration: IM* Doses: 3* Interval between each dose: 1st to 2nd: 7 days2nd to 3rd: 14-21 days* Booster dose: Only if rabies-virus neutralizing antibody titers fall to <0.5 IU/ml.* Special considerations: Antibody testing should be done every 6 months for people at risk* Adverse effects: Stomach pain, dizziness, headache* C/I: Any allergy to: Chicken protein, neomycin, amphotericin, bovine gelatin, as these can cause anaphylaxis
    • ** Causative MO: Paramyxovirus (ssRNA)* Disease transmitter: Droplet* Type: Live attenuated* Age of vaccine administration: 12-18 months with measles* Route of administration: IM* Doses: 2* Interval between each dose: 1st to 2nd: at least 1 month between* Booster dose: -* Special considerations: The vaccine has a coverage of more than 80%* Adverse effects: Parotitis, fever, rash* C/I: Pregnancy, Low immunity (e.g. Leukemia)
    • ** Causative MO: Orthomyxoviridiae (RNA)* Disease transmitter: Droplet* Type: Avian (H5N1) or Swine (H1N1)- Live attenuated* Age of vaccine administration: Minimum age is 6 months* Route of administration: IM* Doses: 1(>9 years) or 2 (<9 years)* Interval between each dose: -* Booster dose: Annual dose (as strains mutate)* Special considerations: Prioritization of those at risk (children and elderly)* Adverse effects: Pain and redness at site of injection, narcolepsy has been noted in some patients receiving the vaccine* C/I: Allergy to any drug component or egg allergy.
    • *